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Antibodies to treatment x time interaction order rocaltrol 0.25mcg fast delivery typhoid Disorders of Immunoglobulins Light Chain Disease (Bence-Jones Proteins) this is found typically in multiple myeloma medications for bipolar order generic rocaltrol canada. Heavy Chain Disease this lymphoid neoplasia is characterised by the over production of the Fc portion of immunoglobulin heavy chains treatment of pneumonia generic rocaltrol 0.25 mcg amex. Cryoglobulinaemia this is a condition in which there is formation of a gel or a precipitate on cooling the serum, which redissolves on warming. Immunodeficiency States Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders Humoral Immunodeficiencies a. X-linked hypogammaglobulinaemia Transient hypogammaglobulinaemia of infancy Common variable, unclassifiable immunodeficiency Selective IgA deficiency. Reexposure of antigen in sensitised individuals results in release of primary and secondary mediators from mast cells due to degranulation. Systemic Anaphylaxis this occurs when an antigen is administered orally or parenterally. Pruritus, urticaria, laryngeal oedema progressing to laryngeal obstruction shock and death within minutes can also result. Local Anaphylaxis It affects 10% of population and includes urticaria, angioedema, rhinitis, and atopic asthma. Antibody Dependent Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity this reaction may be important for parasitic infections or tumours and may play a major role in graft rejection. Systemic Immune Complex Disease Acute serum sickness: this is caused by administration of large amounts of foreign serum (horse serum). About a week after inoculation, anti-horse serum antibodies are formed and react with foreign antigen to form circulating immune complexes. Hypersensitivity Reactions Type I Hypersensitivity (Anaphylactic, Reagin Dependent) this is mediated by IgE antibodies bound to mast cells and basophils formed in response to particular antigen Introduction to Internal Medicine Small immune complexes (antigen excess) deposit within capillary or arteriolar walls causing vasculitis. The affected tissues are renal glomeruli (causing glomerulonephritis), joints (arthritis), skin, heart and serosal surfaces. Large immune complexes (antibody excess) are cleared by phagocytes, ending the disease process. Local Immune Complex Disease (Arthus Reaction) this is a localised tissue vasculitis and necrosis due to focal formation or deposition of immune complex or planting of antigen in a tissue with immune complex formation in situ. Transplant Rejection Hyperacute Rejection When the recipient has been previously sensitised to antigens (following blood transfusion, previous pregnancy) in graft by developing antidonor IgM, IgG antibodies and complement, hyperacute rejection sets in immediately within one to two days, i. Tuberculin type (Developed in many infections with bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites) b. Contact dermatitis type (Resulting from skin contact with a variety of chemicals like nickel, chromium, drugs like penicillin and toileteries). Acute Rejection It occurs within a few days after transplantation, after stopping immunosuppressive drugs. Chronic Rejection It occurs over months to years and is caused by several types of immune reaction. Autoimmune Diseases If an individual mounts a significant immune response against his/her own body constituents as a result of a defect in immunological tolerance, secondary to some exogenous factors. Immunology and Malignancy Tumour Antigens these are present in malignant cells and induce immune response when the tumour is transplanted into syngenic animals. These are found in embryonic cells and malignant cells and not in normal adult cells. Alfafetoprotein in hepatoma, carcinoembryonic antigen in colonic cancers especially with metastasis. Inefficiency of immunological surveillance mechanism, as a result of ageing, congenital or iatrogenic immunodeficiency may lead to increased incidence of cancer. Chapter 2 Nutrition 54 Manual of Practical Medicine Balanced nutrition is essential to maintain health and to prevent diseases. The excess amino acids, fatty acids and glucose are stored as proteins, triglycerides and glycogen. Nutrition plays a major role in causing certain systemic disorders: Coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension (excess lipids, obesity, sodium intake) renal stones, gallstones, dental caries, and carcinomas of stomach, liver and large bowel. Either excess or poor nutrition can cause disease and diseases can cause malnutrition. Energy Yielding Macro-nutrients Carbohydrates An average adult consumes 55 to 65% of calories as carbohydrates and they form the major source of energy. Available as sugars-Mono and disaccharides Intrinsic sugars-fruits and milk (good for health) Extrinsic sugars-cane sugar and beet-root sugar (dental caries) 2. Available as polysaccharides-Starch, glycogen Starch is available in cereals (wheat, rice, maize, etc. Glycaemic Index Two hour plasma curve after 50 gm of carbohydrate in a given food divided by a curve of 50 gm glucose in water. Glycaemic index is high for glucose, bread, and potatoes and low for legumes and whole grain cereals. Non-energy Yielding Carbohydrates Dietary Fibre It is the natural packing of plant foods and not digested by human enzymes. Water Insoluble Fibres Wheat bran-hemicellulose of wheat because of increased water holding capacity increases the bulk of stool and prevents constipation, diverticulosis and cancer colon. Water Water accounts for 60 to 65% of the body weight (75% at birth and 50% in old age). Water is distributed between intracellular (40%) and extracellular (Plasma and interstitial fluid 20%) compartments. Daily water intake for an average adult will vary between 1 and 3 litres depending on the climate. Polyunsaturated fatty acids-Linoleic acid in plant seed oils and its derivatives-gamma linolenic acid, arachidonic acids are the essential fatty acids. They are precursors of prostaglandins, eicosanoids and they form part of the lipid membrane in all cells. It consists of 10% of each type of fats with daily cholesterol less than 300 mg/day. It consists of 7% of each type of fat with daily intake of cholesterol less than 200 mg. Daily Energy Requirements 55 * Energy requirements depend on-Age, sex, body weight, lactation, climate, (lower calories for tropical climate and higher calories for colder climate). Type of work Rest Light Moderate Heavy Males/kcals/d 2000 2500 3000 3500 Females/kcals/d 1500 2000 2250 2500 Growing children, pregnant and lactating mother need more calories.
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Since launch symptoms 3 dpo best order rocaltrol, 10 spontaneous cases of Thrombocytosis were received symptoms 9 days past iui rocaltrol 0.25 mcg on-line, corresponding to treatment vaginal yeast infection order rocaltrol 0.25mcg on line a reporting frequency of 0. Cardiac disorders Bradycardia Eleven (11) cases including the event Bradycardia were reported over the period (see Section 6. Since launch, 44 spontaneous cases of Bradycardia were received, corresponding to a reporting frequency of 0. Case D0069341A described a 3-month-old female who experienced an unspecified collapse less than 1 hour after Infanrix hexa vaccination. Since launch, 11 spontaneous cases of Cardiac arrest were received, corresponding to a reporting frequency of 0. Diagnosis of pre-existing focal atrial tachycardia and heart insufficiency recovered with antiarritmica. Cyanosis Fifty eight (58) cases including the preferred term Cyanosis were identified during the period (see Section 6. Since launch, 284 spontaneous cases of Cyanosis were received, corresponding to a reporting frequency of 0. Eye disorders Gaze palsy Eighteen (18) cases including the event Gaze palsy were identified during the period. Since launch, 70 spontaneous cases of Gaze palsy were received, corresponding to a reporting frequency of 0. Gastrointestinal disorders Diarrhoea haemorrhagic, Haematochezia, Intussusception, Rectal haemorrhage Six (6) cases of Diarrhoea haemorrhagic/Haematochezia/Intussusception/Rectal haemorrhage were identified during the period (see Section 6. Since launch, 41 spontaneous cases of Diarrhoea haemorrhagic/ Haematochezia/Intussusception/Rectal haemorrhage were received, corresponding to a reporting frequency of 0. General disorders and administration site conditions Abscess sterile, Injection site abscess sterile Seven (7) cases of Abscess sterile/Injection site abscess sterile were received during the period (see Section 6. Since launch, 38 spontaneous cases of Abscess sterile/Injection site abscess sterile were received, corresponding to a reporting frequency of 0. Extensive swelling of vaccinated limb Twenty-eight (28) cases of Extensive swelling of vaccinated limb (see Section 6. Since launch, 65 spontaneous cases of Extensive swelling of vaccinated limb were received, corresponding to a reporting frequency of 0. Extensive swelling reactions and swelling of the entire vaccinated limb is included in the current Reference Safety Information of Infanrix hexa. Gait disturbance During the period, 19 cases of Gait disturbance were received (see Section 6. Out of these, 18 cases were associated with at least one other class event (pyrexia and/or nervous system). Since launch, 71 spontaneous cases of Gait disturbance were received, corresponding to a reporting frequency of 0. Nodule, Injection site nodule and Subcutaneous nodule Twenty seven (27) cases of Nodule/Injection site nodule/Subcutaneous nodule were received during the period (see Sections 6. Since launch, 178 spontaneous cases of Nodule/Injection site nodule/Subcutaneous nodule were received, corresponding to a reporting frequency of 0. Immune system disorders Anaphylactic shock, Anaphylactic reaction, Anaphylactoid reaction and Drug hypersensitivity Seven (7) cases of Anaphylactic shock/Anaphylactic reaction/Anaphylactoid reaction/Drug hypersensitivity were received during the period (see Section 6. The individual reports were reviewed following the case definition and diagnostic levels of certainty developed by the Brighton Collaboration Anaphylaxis Working Group. B0680987A and B0741646A were classified as Level 2 and 3 of diagnostic certainty, respectively. Four (4) additional cases of anaphylactic reaction and hypersensitivity were reported over the period. B0698663A was classified as Level 2 and D0072050A as Level 5 of diagnostic certainty. In case D0072500A, the subject did not experience anaphylaxis (Level 5 of diagnostic certainty). The case was also received as pharmaceutical product complaint and it was concluded that there was no evidence for a specific safety signal for the used lot of Infanrix hexa. Case B0712429A was a generalised allergic reaction (exanthema) where a Salmonella sepsis could have played a trigger role in drug hypersensitivity (Level 5 of diagnostic certainty). Since launch, 29 spontaneous cases of Anaphylactic shock/ Anaphylactic reaction/Anaphylactoid reaction/Drug hypersensitivity were received (regardless of Brighton certainty level), corresponding to a reporting frequency of 0. The Company closely monitors allergic reactions (including Anaphylactic reaction and Anaphylactoid reaction). There was no clustering of these cases by batch, supportive of a manufacturing issue. Since launch, 144 spontaneous cases of Abscess/Abscess limb/Incision site abscess/Injection site abscess/Injection site infection/Streptococcal abscess were received, corresponding to a reporting frequency of 0. Cellulitis and Injection site cellulitis Four (4) cases of Cellulitis/Injection site cellulitis were received during the period (see Sections 6. Since launch, 39 spontaneous cases of Cellulitis/Injection site cellulitis were received, corresponding to a reporting frequency of 0. Meningitis aseptic, Meningitis pneumococcal, Meningitis viral Four (4) cases of Meningitis aseptic/Meningitis pneumococcal/Meningitis viral were received during the period (see Sections 6. Since launch, 12 spontaneous cases of Meningitis aseptic/Meningitis pneumococcal/Meningitis viral were received, corresponding to a reporting frequency of 0. Osteomyelitis One (1) case (D0069814A) diagnosed with Osteomyelitis at tibia metaphysic left medial with periosteal abscess (bone abscess) and treated surgically was received during the period (see Section 6. Since launch, 4 spontaneous cases of Osteomyelytis were received, corresponding to a reporting frequency of 0. Pneumococcal sepsis, Salmonella sepsis, Sepsis, Septic shock Six (6) cases of Pneumococcal sepsis/Salmonella sepsis/Sepsis/Septic shock were received during the period (see Sections 6. Since launch, 35 spontaneous cases of Pneumococcal sepsis/ Salmonella sepsis/Sepsis/Septic shock were received, corresponding to a reporting frequency of 0. Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders Muscle spasms Seventeen (17) cases of Muscle spasms were reported during the period (see Section 6. Since launch, 53 spontaneous cases of Muscle spasms were received, corresponding to a reporting frequency of 0. Soft tissue necrosis One (1) case of Soft tissue necrosis was reported during the period (see Section 6. Nervous system disorders Cerebral atrophy and Cerebral ischemia Three (3) cases of Cerebral atrophy/Cerebral ischemia were reported during the period (see Section 6. Since launch, 11 spontaneous cases of Cerebral atrophy/Cerebral ischemia were received, corresponding to a reporting frequency of 0. Seizures and Epilepsy During the period, 118 cases of Clonic convulsion/Clonus/Convulsion/Febrile convulsion/Grand mal convulsion/Myoclonus/Partial seizures/Seizure like phenomena/Tonic clonic movements/Tonic convulsion were received, as well as, 19 cases of Complex partial seizures/Epilepsy/Infantile spasms/Petit Mal Epilepsy/Status epilepticus (see Section 6. Since launch, 761 spontaneous cases of Convulsions (any kind of convulsion) were received, corresponding to a reporting frequency of 1.
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The healthcare professional considered the events were clinically significant (or requiring intervention) medications peripheral neuropathy order rocaltrol 0.25 mcg online. The regulatory authority considered the events were unlikely to osteoporosis treatment buy generic rocaltrol be related to medicine 5e purchase 0.25mcg rocaltrol vaccination with Infanrix hexa and Prevenar. On 10 August 2009, the subject received unspecified dose of Infanrix hexa (unknown route and injection site). On 10 August 2009, less than one day after vaccination with Infanrix hexa, the subject experienced convulsions. Follow up information received on 14 December 2009: Last convulsion episode was on 18 October 2009. The baby showed a regular growth but a light motor retardation in respect of the age. Diagnostic tests as Karyotype, Ultrasonography, Computerized axial tomography and Nuclear magnetic resonance were negative. Target Folllow Up Questionaire has been sent together with questions from medical review. Follow-up information received on 29 November 2010: the subject died on 5 March 2010. Follow-up information received on 14 December 2010: After autoptic exam, the physician reported that the convulsions and cardiac arrest were unrelated to vaccination with Infanrix hexa. Follow-up information received on 20 July 2011: the autoptic exam report confirmed that the event was a suddenly death with no specified cause. On 6 October 2009, the subject received 1st dose of Infanrix hexa (unknown route, unknown injection site), 1st dose of Prevenar (unknown route, unknown injection site). On 12 November 2009 the subject received 2nd dose of Infanrix hexa (unknown route, unknown injection site) and 2nd dose of Prevenar (unknown route, unknown injection site) the subject had no adverse events after vaccinations. He burped well after being fed and put into bed at 9:25 lying on abdomen (with permission mother). Reanimation was started immediately, 3 times adrenaline (Epinephrine) and sodium chloride (NaCl), and oxygen. The child arrived at hospital, reanimation was proceeded by intubation, no output. An autopsy was performed and showed the following: In lungs, fluid retention (consolidations). General conclusion: no cause of death found in autopsy or toxicological Investigations. In addition, time period of 4 days is too long to suspect an anaphylactic reaction. The organisation who administered the vaccines was not aware that the subject had a cold. C) on 21 October 2011, the subject was treated by her parents with an antipyretic drug (suppository) and was taken to the hospital. At the hospital, gastroenteritis was firstly diagnosed, and after this diagnosis was changed to a pulmonary infection. On 21 September 2011, 1 day after vaccination with Infanrix hexa and Prevenar, the subject experienced circulatory depression, differential diagnosis was symptoms of acute sepsis. Infanrix hexa was given intramuscular in the left thigh and Prevenar 13 was given intramuscular in the right thigh. No deviation that could impact the quality of the product has been highlighted during the GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals investigation. Case D0072949A was identified as a duplicate of case D0072852A and will be voided. The vaccinating physician was consulted and admitted the infant to hospital, where the subject died on 21 September 2011. After birth the subject had neonatal respiratory distress syndrome grade I with continuous positive airway pressure for 24 hours. The subject developed possible meconium ileus due to microcolon, transient intestinal transportation disorder, cholestatic hepatosis after parenteral nutrition, with increased transaminases (alanine aminotransferase 131 U/l, aspartate aminotransferase 100 U/l, creatine kinase 342 U/l, total bilirubin 3 mg/dl, direct bilirubin 2. The subject was transferred to a pediatric chirurgic unit for further intervention, but after conservative treatment the symptoms resolved. According to the report, events after vaccination also included nocturnal restlessness, increasing pallor, renal failure and hyperkaliemia. Pre-existing underlying medical condition included subacute florid lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, probably of viral origin, significant activation of the bronchio-alveolar lymphatic system, accumulation of alveolar macrophages, focal beginning alveolar reaction, capillary ectasia and occlusion of the big bronchia by mucus. The cause of death was identified as respiratory failure with protracted shock due to interstitial pneumonia, probably of viral origin. Evidences of shock included Paltauf dots at the pleura visceralis, fresh necrosis of the kidneys, disseminated hemorrhage of the small intestine, hemorrhage of the mucous membrane of the stomach, multiple stasis hemorrhage of the spleen. Additional findings showed macular exanthema situated at the right lower leg and cervical and para-oesophageal soft tissue hemorrhage. In hospital the subject was diagnosed with death after ventricular tachycardia with hyperkaliemia and acute circulatory shock of unclear genesis with anuria and hyperkaliemia. According to the hospital report, the subject had developed normally within the last months. At 03:00 the subject started crying, which increased despite treatment with simethicone (Sab). When hospitalized, the subject was in bad condition, with circulatory depression, tachycardia with heart rate over 210 per min, pallor, muscle hypotonia, high irritability, moaning breathing. The subject received further volume via intra-osseous access, as well as dobutamine, adrenaline (Adrenalin), claforan for suspected sepsis and hydrocortisone for circulatory support. Echocardiogram excluded dilated cardiomyopathy, but showed reduced pump function of heart. Ammonia was increased, which was considered a possible sign for metabolic disorder. In further course the subject developed increasing potassium values, T-wave elevation, ventricular tachycardia, anuria and no improvement of the situation. At 16:20 further cardiac problems developed, but because of the bad situation no defibrillation was started. However, postmortal cultures of blood and cerebrospinal fluid also showed no germs. Despite of the autopsy results, the cause of death still kept unclear for the hospital physician. A metabolic disorder was considered possible, but it was more likely that lactic acidosis and hyperammonia were a secondary effect of shock. Worldwide Marketing Authorisation status for Infanrix hexa is provided in Appendix 1A. The Company will continue to monitor all cases of thrombocytopenia, injection site nodule and nodule, anaphylaxis, abscess and injection site abscess, important neurological events including encephalitis and encephalopathy, erythema multiforme, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, petechiae and purpura. The tetanus and diphtheria toxoids are obtained by formaldehyde treatment of purified Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Clostridium tetani toxins. The Hib polysaccharide is prepared from Hib, strain 20,752 and after activation with cyanogen bromide and derivatisation with an adipic hydrazide spacer is coupled to tetanus toxoid via carbodiimide condensation.
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Ecoagriculture: Integrated Landscape Management for People medicine lux order rocaltrol 0.25mcg free shipping, Food symptoms 28 weeks pregnant discount rocaltrol 0.25mcg without prescription, and Nature A2 - Alfen medications 2 times a day cheap rocaltrol uk, Neal K. The national responsibility approach to setting conservation priorities - recommendations for its use. Contributions of paraecologists and parataxonomists to research, conservation, and social development. Validating a method for transferring social values of ecosystem services between public lands in the Rocky Mountain region. Applying resilience thinking: Seven principles for building resilience in social-ecological systems, 1-20. Tackling the motivation to monitor: success and sustainability of a participatory monitoring program. Tackling the motivation to monitor: Success and sustainability of a participatory monitoring program. The use of Bayesian networks to guide investments in flow and catchment restoration for impaired river ecosystems. Soil threats in Europe: status, methods, drivers and effects on ecosystem services. Reviewing the links between desertification and food insecurity: from parallel challenges to synergistic solutions. Channelling science into policy: Enabling best practices from research on land degradation and sustainable land management in dryland Africa. Land degradation assessment in southern Africa: integrating local and scientific knowledge bases. A New Dryland Development Paradigm Grounded in Empirical Analysis of Dryland Systems Science. Adaptations to climate change, drought and desertification: insights to enhance policy in southern Africa. An Overview of the Principle of Free, Prior and Informed Consent and Indigenous Peoples in International and Domestic Law and Practices. Influence of cattle grazing practices on forest understorey structure in north-eastern New South Wales. The food security of the Inuit in times of change: alleviating the tension between conserving biodiversity and 646 8. Effects of conservation agriculture techniques on infiltration and soil water content in Zambia and Zimbabwe. United Nations, European Commission, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Monetary Fund, Organisation for Economic Co-operation, & Development. System of Environmental Economic Accounting 2012: Experimental ecosystem accounting. Report of the Independent Expert on the issue of human rights obligations relating to the enjoyment of a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment, John H. Contribution of Traditional Knowledge to Ecological Restoration: Practices and Applications. The assessment of the status of human-induced soil degradation in south and southeast Asia. Cultural Diversity Issues in Biodiversity Monitoring-Cases of Lithuania, Poland and Denmark. Accounting for ecosystem assets using remote sensing in the Colombian Orinoco River Basin lowlands. Environmental policy integration among multilateral environmental agreements: the case of biodiversity. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, 16(4), 525-541. Scientific instruments for climate change adaptation: estimating and optimizing the efficiency of ecosystem services provision. Prioritization of Forest Restoration Projects: Tradeoffs between Wildfire Protection, Ecological Restoration and Economic Objectives. Marxan with Zones: Software for optimal conservation based land- and sea-use zoning. Effects of changing exposure to neighbourhood greenness on general and mental health: A longitudinal study. Ecological footprint of nations: Comparison of process analysis, and standard and hybrid multiregional input-output analysis. Investing in Natural Capital: Using Economic Incentives to Overcome Barriers to Forest Restoration. What do we know about decision support systems for landscape and environmental management? Often used in reference to oceans, freshwater or soils, as a result of uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Acid deposition (acid rain) Precipitation with a low pH (acid) caused by atmospheric pollutants. Adaptive capacity the general ability of institutions, systems and individuals to adjust to potential damage, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences. Adaptive management A systematic process for continually improving management policies and practices by learning from the outcomes of previously employed policies and practices. Afforestation is sometimes suggested as a tool to sequester carbon, but it can have negative impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem function, for example by reducing runoff and so decreasing water production. Agenda setting motivates and sets the direction for policy design and implementation. Agribusiness Collective business activities that are performed from farm to table. Agroindustry refers to the establishment of linkages between enterprises and supply chains for developing, transforming and distributing specific inputs and products in the agriculture sector. Agribusiness and agro-industry both involve commercialization and value addition of agricultural and post-production enterprises, and the building of linkages among agricultural enterprises. The terms agribusiness and agro-industries are often associated with large-scale farming enterprises or enterprises involved in large-scale food production, processing, distribution and quality control of agricultural products. Agricultural commodity A primary agricultural product that can be bought and sold. Agricultural extensification the process (or trend) of developing a more extensive production system, i. Agricultural Intensification An increase in agricultural production per unit of inputs (which may be labour, land, time, fertilizer, seed, feed or cash). Agrisilvicultural systems A land-use system in which growing of trees and agriculture crops occur together in same lands. Agrisilvipastoral systems A land-use system, implying the combination or deliberate association of a woody component (trees or shrubs) with cattle in the same site.
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When considering modern-day extinctions the role of human agency is much less controversial symptoms 24 hour flu discount rocaltrol 0.25mcg on-line. In any period symptoms 9dp5dt generic rocaltrol 0.25 mcg with visa, including the present symptoms anxiety order 0.25mcg rocaltrol overnight delivery, there are naturally doomed species, which are bound to disappear, either through over-specialization or an incapacity to adapt themselves to climatic change and the competition of others, or because of natural cataclysms such as earthquakes, eruptions and floods. In spite of this, however, the rate of animal extinctions brought about by humans in the last 400 years is of a very high order when compared to the norm of geological time. In 1600 there were approximately 4226 living species of mammals: since then 36 (0. At the present time, of the 5487 mammal species on Earth, at least one fifth are at risk of extinction in the wild (Hoffmann et al. Some beasts appear to be more prone to extinction than others, and a distinction is now often drawn between r-selected species and k-selected species. The former have a high rate of increase, short gestation periods, quick maturation and the advantage that they have the ability either to react quickly to new environmental opportunities or to make use of transient habitats (such as seasonal ponds). The life duration of individuals tends to be short, populations tend to be unstable and the species may overexploit their environment to their eventual detriment. The other end of the spectrum, the k-selection species are those which tend to be endangered or to become extinct. Their prime characteristics are that they are better adapted to physical changes in their environment (such as seasonal fluctuations in temperature and moisture) and live in a relatively stable environment (Miller and Botkin, 1974). These species tend to have much greater longevity, longer generation times, fewer offspring, but a higher probability of survival of young and adults. They have traded a high rate of increase and the ability to exploit transient environments for the ability to maintain more stable populations with low rates of increase, but correspondingly low rates of mortality and a closer adjustment to the long-term capacity of the environment to support their population. Restricted distribution Lives largely in international waters Migrates across international boundaries Reproduction in one or two vast aggregates Long gestation period Small litters Behavioural idiosyncracies that are non-adaptive today Intolerance to the presence of humans Dangerous to humans, livestock, etc. This is only to be expected, since fewer individuals of a rare species than a common species are likely to occur in habitat fragments, and the mechanisms of extinction mean that small populations are inherently more likely to become extinct than large. Species that are good dispersers may therefore be less prone to extinction in fragmented habitats than poor dispersers. Degree of specialisation Ecological specialists often exploit resources which are patchily distributed in space and time, and therefore tend to be rare. Specialists may also be vulnerable to successional changes in fragments and to the collapse of coevolved mutualisms or food webs. Niche location Species adapted to, or able to tolerate, conditions at the interface between different types of habitats may be less affected by fragmentation than others. Population variability Species with relatively stable populations are less vulnerable than species with pronounced population fluctuations, since they are less likely to decline below some critical threshold from which recovery becomes unlikely. Trophic status Animals occupying high trophic levels usually have small populations. Adult survival rate Species with naturally low adult survival rates may be more likely to become extinct. Intrinsic rate of population increase Populations which can expand rapidly are more likely to recover after population declines than those which cannot. In addition, there seems to be a strong positive association between body size and extinction risk for mammals. The most threatened families are dominated by large species, such as primates and ungulates, whereas the least threatened include small mammals such as rodents and bats. The explanation for this is that larger species tend to have lower population densities, slower life histories, larger home ranges and a greater risk of being hunted (Schipper et al. Possibly one of the most fundamental ways in which humans are causing extinction is by reducing the area of natural habitat available to a species (Turner, 1996) and by fragmenting it (Fahrig, 2003). Habitat fragmentation divides once continuous, large populations into many smaller ones, which can be more or less isolated. Small population size and strong isolation of populations is associated with various negative consequences, which include susceptibility to natural disasters, genetic drift and inbreeding (Lienert, 2004). We know from many of the classic studies in true island biogeography that the number of species living at a particular location is related to area; islands support fewer species than do similar areas of mainland, and small islands have fewer species than do large ones. Since the population sizes of the species living in the forest will now be greatly reduced, the extinction rate will increase and the number of species will decline towards equilibrium. For this reason it may be a sound principle to make reserves as large as possible; a larger reserve will support more species at equilibrium by allowing the existence of larger populations with lower extinction rates. Several small reserves will plainly be better than no reserves at all, but they will tend to hold fewer species at equilibrium than will a single reserve of the same area. If it is necessary to have several small reserves, they should be placed as close to each other as possible so that each may act as a source area for the others. Connectivity of reserves is an important issue, and if it can be achieved their equilibrial number of species will be raised due to increased immigration rates. Reduction in area leads to reduction in numbers, and this in turn can lead to genetic impoverishment through inbreeding (Frankel, 1984). Inbreeding degeneration is, however, not the only effect of small population size for, in the longer term the depletion of genetic variance is more serious since it reduces the capacity for adaptive change. Space is therefore an important consideration, especially for those animals that require large expanses of territory. For example, the population density of the wolf (Canis lupus) is about one adult per 20 km2, and it has been calculated that for a viable population to exist, one might need 600 individuals ranging over an area of 12,000 km2. Equally, range loss, the shrinking of the geographical area in which a given species is found, often marks the start of a downward spiral towards extinction. Such a contraction in range may result from habitat loss or from such processes as hunting and capture. Particular concern has been expressed in this context about the pressures on primates, notably in Southeast Asia. In two cases, those of the Javan leaf monkey (Presbytis comata) and the Javan (Hylobates moloch) and grey (Hylobates muelleri) gibbons, the loss of range is no less than 96%. In the Indomalayan countries 68% of the original wildlife habitat has been lost, and the comparable figure for tropical Africa is 65%. In these regions, only Brunei and Zambia have lost less than 30% of their original habitat, while at the other end of the spectrum, Bangladesh, the most densely populated large country in the world, has suffered a loss of 94%. Although habitat change and destruction is clearly a major cause of extinction in the modern era, a remark- able important cause is the introduction of competitive species (Figure 3. When new species are deliberately or accidentally introduced to an area, they can cause the extermination of local fauna by preying on them or out-competing them for food and space. Here the dominant threat is accidental mortality, which affects 78% of species and is caused by fishing and shipping. Since 1500, 95% of extinctions of birds and terrestrial mammals have been on islands, and on a per unit basis the extinction rate was 177 times higher for mammals and 187 times higher for birds than on continents (Loehle and Eschenbach, 2012). There are certainly some particularly important environments in terms of their species diversity (Myers, 1990; Myers et al.
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Linkages between biodiversity attributes and ecosystem services: A systematic review medications given during dialysis 0.25mcg rocaltrol amex. A Comparative Study of Integrated Dimensions of Sustainability between Agroforestry and Monoculture Rubber plantation (Research report) treatment quotes and sayings purchase genuine rocaltrol online. Species Diversity of Small Mammals in Trat Agroforestry Research and Training Station symptoms questionnaire order generic rocaltrol online, Trat Province and Jedkodpongkonsao Natural Study and Ecotourism Center, Saraburi. Joshi (Chair), International Symposium Land Use after Tsunami: Supporting Education, Research and Development in the Aceh Region. Economic Analysis of Improved Smallholder Rubber Agroforestry Systems in West Kalimantan, Indonesia Implications For Rubber Development. Soil organic carbon in pure rubber and tea-rubber plantations in South-western China. This paper considers the period from 2011-2015 which included an Ombudsmen Review in 2011 which was preceded by a Compliance and Enforcement Review. Keywords: Environment, pollution, regulation, law enforcement, teaching, learning, training, recruitment, induction iafor the International Academic Forum A modern regulator needs to be transparent, accountable, responsive and decisive in order to effectively deliver on community expectations. Environmental regulation is multi-level, multi-jurisdictional, multinational and multi-faceted and is known to be a complex and difficult process (McMahon 2006; Emison and Morris 2012; Pink and White 2016). Environmental regulation contains nearly all, if not all, of the challenges associated with traditional and emerging fields of law and crime types. Foundational research this paper extends upon a foundational piece of research conducted by Pink (2016a) which considered the roles of regulatory and enforcement professionals engaged in responding to transnational environmental crime, specifically focusing on three core agencies: police agencies, customs and border agencies, and environmental regulatory agencies. Pink and Marshall (2015) suggest there are three types of environmental agency with regulatory roles as reflected in Table 1. What became apparent was that, of the three agencies, the environmental regulatory agencies had, by far, the most ground to make up in their approach to recruitment, training and continuing professional development of staff engaged in environmental regulatory and enforcement roles. The research aim was to identify information, options, and strategies that may assist environmental regulation agencies, and regulators more broadly, to improve their capability and capacity. In some circumstances these powers meet or exceed the power/authority of a Police Officer which the general public are often unaware and surprised to learn. These statutory powers must be exercised wisely and in accordance with the principles of natural justice. It requires the ability to apply a diverse range of legislative, regulatory and environmental knowledge in unique ways to address the range of environmental problems encountered. While it can be comparatively easy to determine whether a person has the necessary knowledge, skills and experience; it can be much harder to determine if they also have the necessary aptitude (behavioural attributes) to succeed As a statutory authority, it is possible for departmental staff to be the Informant (Complainant) in a matter, however this is unusual for most regulatory agencies who need to go through an independent prosecuting authority like the Office of the Director of Public Prosecution (or similar). This question was pertinent not just for the recruitment stage, but also for training and continuing professional development. Examples of some of the better known behavioural assessment tools, and their primary uses and intended benefits, are provided in Table 3. Can provide a behavioural benchmark for a job role against which individual incumbents can be evaluated. In fact, it could be argued that this was a key contributing factor and catalyst for the Krpan Review (2011). At times this occurred with limited (or in worst cases without) specialist knowledge, skill or training, and often in the absence of organisational mandate, support or oversight. Traditional approaches to training staff can include formal and certified training, onthe-job training, various forms of work place experience and mentoring. It incorporates face-toface training, coaching, self-directed learning, online learning, on-the-job learning and field placements. These tasks include field visits with their mentor, a rotation into another team, first aid training, field safety e-learning and a day in Court observing a criminal matter. This external environment defines how knowledge is to be known, what knowledge is worth knowing and what is not. It is also designed to facilitate the movement of learning from short term memory to long term memory using repetition and variation to develop the desired habits of thinking. This immersed them in the environmental, social and cultural constructs (the organisation, the team and their professional peers) that shape their identity and agency. Brookfield (2000) reminds us that learning can only be considered transformative if it involves a fundamental questioning or reordering of how one thinks or acts. Knowledge management and learning are closely related disciplines and, despite their differing histories, share a common purpose to improve organisational performance through increasing capability (Moore 2009). Providing opportunities for coaching, mentoring and problem solving can be effective ways of releasing tacit knowledge. The significance of this point is reinforced by the Victorian Public Sector Commission who state that: `poor recruitment costs time, money and effort. The costs can be direct (for example, advertising, remuneration) or indirect (for example, performance problems, lower team morale, reduced productivity). Where psychometric tools provide insight into personality traits and cognitive styles, behavioural assessment tools offer the ability to focus on observable behaviours as well as establish organisationallybased role benchmarks. In the opinion of the authors, the Expertise Framework Program could be extended to include two categories for Regulatory Professionals. One for those staff engaged in operational work and another for those who provide support and capacity building for the former. The aim of this research was to examine these approaches in order to identify information, options and strategies that might assist other environmental protection agencies, other environmental regulatory agencies, and regulators more broadly, to increase their effectiveness. Acknowledgements the authors wish to thank Dr Matthew Marshall, Adjunct Research Fellow, School of Law, University of New England and Belinda Lowing, Director, Effective 428 the Asian Conference on the Social Sciences 2016 Official Conference Proceedings Conversations for their comments and advice on earlier versions of this article. Marton, F (2006), Sameness and Difference in Transfer, the Journal of the Learning Sciences, 15(4), 499-535 Mezirow, J. Building regulatory capacity in environmental agencies: through tailored training. Regulatory Responses to Transnational Environmental Crime: An Overview of Choices, Challenges and Culture. Huisman (eds), Environmental Crime and the World: Global Issues in Green Enforcement and Criminology. Implementation and enforcement of environmental law: the role of professional practitioners. Greening Criminology in the 21st Century Contemporary debates and future directions in the study of environmental harm. The Regulatory Craft: Controlling risks, Solving Problems, and Managing Compliance. An update of transformative learning theory: a critical review of the empirical research (1999-2005). This research was aimed to study further the mentioned factors attributing the success management for mango orchards in Chachoengsao Province, Thailand. The instruments were 175 questionnaires, 30 mango farmer interviews and literature reviews during June 2015 to April 2016.
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American Journal of Physical Therapy 7:51 treatment quality assurance unit order rocaltrol with a visa, 1930 "A New Application of High-Frequency" H 7 medications emts can give buy 0.25 mcg rocaltrol. Bordier Medical News 85:438 treatment group buy 0.25mcg rocaltrol overnight delivery, 1904 "High-Frequency Currents, Their Physiological Action and Methods of Application" A. Mabie New England Medical Gazette 47:362, 1912 "High-Frequency Currents in General Practice" L. Fishlock United States Patent #775,870 "Portable High-Frequency Apparatus" Frederick F. High-Frequency Currents New York: Rebman Company, 1908 Williams, Chisholm High-Frequency Currents in the Treatment of Some Diseases New York: Rebman Company, 1903 206 207 36. This always is a wise thing to do under the circumstances, but very often the circumstances could be prevented were the cells treated properly. To aid in the proper treatment of the cells, science has invaded the home with a new and domesticated apparatus for the application of the violet ray. The duty of the violet ray, hitherto confined to the elaborate and expensive apparatus of the laboratory or the special practitioner, is to massage gently the tired-out cells and make them feel good. The violet ray is a first cousin of the X-ray, but unlike its relative, it is utterly amiable and docile, producing no irritating effect. For this reason, and because cellular massage is much more penetrating and gentle than the common or muscular variety, the violet ray apparatus bids fair to become as important as an adjunct to the home as is the Victrola, which massages dull care away from the mind. This aroused interest in using the violet ray to cure ulcerations and injuries that healed slowly. A 41-year-old person was injured on the face and arms, with healing was so slow that it was expected to take five weeks. Paul Oudin used three treatments a week, and the healing was complete in ten treatments. He was given two violet ray treatments a week, and the healing was complete in three months. A 45-year-old patient had an ulcer the size of a shilling, which refused to heal for two years. The ulcer was given eight treatments in three weeks, and all of the pain and tenderness disappeared. The skin broke down again, and with another series of violet ray treatments, it was completely cured. A 50-year-old lawyer had a severe bruise on his left foot, after a large swinging door struck it with considerable force. The injury was treated with fiveminute violet ray treatments that were extended to ten minutes. It was massaged for two weeks, and the swelling was reduced, but the pain remained. The first violet ray treatment eliminated most of the pain, and seven more treatments healed the injury. A woman used her violet ray to treat a painful sprain, which quickly gave her relief. Professor Emmanuel Doumer used the violet ray to treat several cases of fistulas, which are hollow abscesses. A 25-year-old woman had a dozen fistulas of the foot oozing pus, which lasted for 13 years. The electrical pulse directed to the spine and solar plexus aborted many varieties of acute infectious disease, if it was used to treat them early. Often colds, flu and sore throat were made to disappear or become so mild that they were hardly noticeable after persistent treatment. This reduced the discomfort to such a low level that he was hardly bothered by the cold. A manager of the Dominion Rubber Company of Ontario, Canada, bought a number of violet rays and put them in the first aid kits. When the electrical dealer asked him how they were doing, he wrote: "The violet ray machines which we purchased from you last year, have been very satisfactory. The reports we have from our different branch factories are to the effect that these machines are very useful in our hospitals. We feel quite sure they have saved us many dollars in keeping our employees at work. In cases of headache, they are treated in a few minutes, whereas they were formerly off duty for the entire day. The electrotherapy journals are quite rare, and only a few doctors have seen them or had an interest in their contents. In normal conditions, the outer layer of the skin is negative, and the inner layer is positive. The anode often has a stronger healing influence, but faster healing may take place by switching polarities every few days. Calcium is important to the healing of cells, and electrical stimulation causes an increase in cellular use of this. Strands of fat migrated towards the edges, and large numbers of white blood cells were seen in the wounds. Most of the indexes of wound healing took about half the time under the influence of high-frequency radio waves. Another experiment that confirms the acceleration of wound healing with electricity was done in 1988. American Journal of Orthopedics 3:336, 1961 "Experimental Acceleration of Wound Healing" B. Cameron American Journal of Surgery 115:683, 1968 "Low Intensity Negative Electric Current in the Treatment of Ulcers of the Leg Due to Chronic Venous Insufficiency" D. Heinke Journal de Physiotherapie 3:371, 1903 "Local Action of High-Frequency Currents" P. Physical Therapy 68:503, 1988 "Acceleration of Wound Healing with High Voltage Monophasic, Pulsed Current" L. In passing through the body of the person whose vitality has been almost exhausted through the encroachments of disease, these currents appear to promote circulation, increase metabolism, and more or less completely restore the general harmony between the different functions of the body, seemingly without the slightest expenditure of the scanty residue of vital energy stored up in the cells and tissues. In other words, we have in these currents a means of increasing vitality without the necessity of digesting, assimilating and storing the nutritive material which ordinarily carries the potential energy which forms the single source of supply for organisms belonging to the animal kingdom. He believed that the electrical currents stirred up the body, increasing metabolism and nutrition. Large plaques covered practically all of his legs, so Oudin gave him three treatments per week. After three more treatments, the remaining plaques on his back and arms disappeared. The face turned red again after a week, so he returned for two further treatments. The device, now known as the violet ray, proved to be useful in nearly all skin conditions, and many doctors began to experiment with it.
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Association of Thai Mango Farmer Newsletter my medicine buy rocaltrol 0.25mcg with amex, (6)17 medicine and health purchase rocaltrol overnight, Association of Thai Mango Farmer medicine 6mp medication 0.25mcg rocaltrol with amex. Knowledge of the amount of antioxidant in fruit for health promotion which studied from 83 fruits. Member of Cooperative of Mango Farmers of Chachoengsao, the owner of Patchara mango farm, Bangkha sub district, Ratchasarn district, Chachoengsao. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives collaborates with farmers and private sector to promote and develop production, marketing and networking, operating strategies of integrated fruit management system. Mango farm owner, Khlong Khuean sub district, Khlong Khuean district, Chachoengsao. Member of Cooperative of Mango Farmers of Chachoengsao, the farm owner in Khlong Khuean sub district, Khlong Khuean district, Chachoengsao. Member of Cooperative of Mango Farmers of Chachoengsao, farm owner, Khao Hin Sorn sub district, Panom Sarakham district, Chachoengsao. The specific aims of this study are to 1) study the belief and religion variables that effect people participation, 2) examine the accordance of the belief and religion variables that effect people participation, and 3) study the general and indirect factors that affect the belief and religion variables that effect people participation. The technique of a probability sampling, a stratified random sampling is used to collect data. The samples were selected from individuals and leaders at all levels in Thepparat Sub-district. The results of the study shows that a conceptual perspective for the influence of religious beliefs to the people participation in the local government. These results suggest that the principles and guidelines for the participation of the public in a meaningful administration of the local government. Keywords: Influence, religious beliefs, conceptual perspective, local government iafor the International Academic Forum An important characteristic of Buddhism is blending with societies and cultures of the land that Buddhism can be easily disseminated. In the other words, Buddhism is simple to be harmonized with societies and cultures. However, the land of Thailand still consists of other beliefs such as belief in Islam. Moreover, he also created all of the things that were between the sky and the land. He is a person who takes care of the world and the universe according to his system. Islam does not teach human to escape from material world and prohibit being passionate in those objects. Islam believes in principles that elevating the mind can be achieved by practicing in moral framework of life. The aim of Islam depends on disciplining, enhancing the mind, creating balance of life with advising the right way for conducting and leading to peace in terms of purifying the mind, keeping the peace of human and becoming a perfect human. The faith in religious principles is the best and the center of mind because the life will not fail or slump. To respect Allah, the life will not suffer with insecurity that causes you feel fail and have disgusting life. The people, who believe in Allah who created the world and the entire world, will always aware that their life is relevant with the highest power of Allah. In everywhere, they always recall Allah and let themselves be under the protection of Allah all the time. Islamic people often absorb the moral principles in themselves including protecting and keeping the world that Allah created, seeking the peace for returning to live with Allah. It causes peace in Islam communities, other lands of the world including with Thailand that is diverse in beliefs and religions. Thailand has not only Buddhism and Islam, but it also has an important belief that is Chinese belief. It leads to discover herb 446 the Asian Conference on the Social Sciences 2016 Official Conference Proceedings therapy that is origin of evolution in medical knowledge of Chinese etc. Moreover, Thai people focus less on the morality and cultures (The National Social and Economic Development Plan No. The people take part in developing society and politics, economics, visions and missions. The objectives, goals, strategies and development approaches of the National Social and Economic Development Plan No. All sectors are promoted to participate in developmental process (The National Social and Economic Development Plan No. Furthermore, the present constitution (2007) focuses on participation of people and fundamental of good governance that result to people become more awake in politics. This reflects that people feel awake in country administration more than in the past. The people express their opinions in politics or examine government administration together. Developing culture, democracy and governance is a part of Thai society lifestyle and promote to be more honest and clearer in the politics (The National Social and Economic Development Plan No. The right in politics of people is developed steadily due to people participation in determining directions for administration through an election. The representatives are important to reduce the problems of inequality in society with creating opportunity fairly and develop the democracy that is in election form especially more awareness of people in election, steadily increasing use the right in election for selecting representatives, perception of political information and participation in examining about political administration (The National Social and Economic Development Plan No. There is supporting to set the stage for exchanging, learning and expressing different opinions creatively for developing the country. The people are supported to attend in the country development processes as follows: sharing ideas, making decision, determining approaches, pushing practice, examining operation in government sector and other development sectors including giving opportunity to participate in various activities of kids, youth, disabled, elderly, socially disadvantaged, poor people, and people who live in various local administration organization, the district council and subdistrict administration organization etc. It identifies that a subdistrict should have a subdistrict council as a corporation. The subdistrict council that can earn money according to income criteria or its income is not less than 150,000 per year without supported money from budget year three years ago may be organized as a subdistrict administration organization by publishing announcement of the ministry of interior and announcing in the government gazette. Moreover, the subdistrict council is terminated immediately after declaration to be a subdistrict administration organization. It is a local administration unit that is familiar with villages and communities the most. When people in communities participate in social and political development processes such as making plan through exchanging knowledge, sharing ideas, finding problem solutions and leading to create goals of community development together, it causes of declaration and enforcement of the Act of community organization council in B. Thepparat is a subdistrict in Banpho district, Chachoengsao province which gets influence of prosperous from Bangkok the most. Thepparat subdistrict borders Ladkabang district in Bangkok; therefore, those areas are blended between urban civilization and rural lifestyle as well. It is said that most of people in the area are Buddhist, but many people are also Islamic people.