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She has difficulty going to allergy symptoms difficulty swallowing allegra 180 mg sale sleep at night allergy symptoms but no allergies order 180mg allegra mastercard, but once asleep allergy symptoms nz purchase discount allegra line, she is able to maintain it. Her other medical conditions include poorly controlled hypertension, migraine headaches, and a history of alcohol abuse (abstinent for 2 years). Although still associated with some risk of abuse, pregabalin could be considered. Imipramine could improve her anxiety symptoms, and if she has migraines, it might reduce their frequency. However, imipramine is difficult for many patients to tolerate because of its adverse effects. Her statement that her anxiety is still interfering with her life indicates that her therapy should be changed. Duloxetine is an option, but if her alcohol abuse has caused any liver problems, this drug could be problematic. If sertraline is changed to another medication, it will have to be tapered before discontinuation. Several programs can be found on an Internet search, and many are free to the patient. Mindfulness is being focused on the here and now and the present state in a nonjudgmental way. Mindfulness is effective and can be recommended as an adjunctive intervention (Hoge 2013; Marchand 2013). Step 4: Initiate Psychotherapy or Pharmacotherapy At this point, the patient and clinician need to decide on psychological interventions or pharmacotherapy. None of the evidence-based guidelines referenced suggest using a combination approach to start. Patient perceptions about the two approaches to treatment are important and can inform choices. However, patients who were using medications had a more favorable view of them than those who were not. The authors speculate that concerns about adverse drug effects are lessened by experience with them (Deacon 2005). A more thorough discussion is available on the National Association of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapists website. Cognitive behavioral therapy requires fewer sessions than other traditional forms of psychotherapy. Availability of therapists in the community and coverage of services for patients with and without insurance must be addressed. In some instances, especially for patients in rural areas, these barriers can limit psychotherapy as a treatment option. Pharmacotherapy For the steps for pharmacotherapy, see Table 1-2; the medications used are listed in Table 1-3. Buspirone may not be as robust for anxiety, and antidepressants are often preferred (Bystritsky 2016). Buspirone is usually used when the patient has a history of substance abuse because it lacks abuse potential. Buspirone may also be used as an adjunctive medication when the patient has had a partial response to an antidepressant. The dose can be titrated every 2 weeks until a therapeutic dose is achieved or until the highest dose the patient can tolerate is achieved. The dose can be reassessed and adjusted every 12 weeks until a therapeutic dose is achieved. An important consideration when using these medications is that patients often have activating adverse effects like agitation, restlessness, and insomnia. Patients should be educated about the possibility that their anxiety becomes worse during initial therapy. A short-term, small dose of benzodiazepine (if the patient has no history of substance abuse) or hydroxyzine can help patients through this period (Craske 2016b) if their symptoms are severe enough to warrant it. If a benzodiazepine is added, it is usually prescribed for 24 weeks and then discontinued. Symptoms of discontinuation syndrome include dizziness, anxiety, irritability, paresthesia, nausea, and vomiting. Venlafaxine can cause increased blood pressure, especially at the higher end of the dose range, where noradrenergic actions are more prominent. Patients taking 150 mg/day or more should consider monitoring their blood pressure, and this medication should be avoided in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Finally, all antidepressants carry a boxed warning for increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors, particularly early in therapy or when the dose is changed in children, adolescents, and young adults up to age 24. Patients should be made aware of these concerns associated with long-term treatment. However, they do play a role in initial therapy if the symptoms are severe or the patient is significantly impaired, provided the patient has no history of substance abuse. This effect may lead some patients to prefer them to the antidepressants; however, they are not appropriate for long-term therapy in most instances. Max 4 mg/day Elderly: Consider 50% reduction in dose and titrate carefully Start 7. Max 40 mg/day Elderly: Start 1-2 mg once or twice daily and titrate as tolerated Start 0. Max 120 mg/day Elderly: Start 10 mg three times daily and titrate as tolerated to 15 mg 3-4 times daily. Recommendations vary for how to taper benzodiazepines that have been prescribed chronically; however, a 25% reduction in the daily dose every 2 weeks until the lowest dose is reached followed by discontinuation is reasonable (Melton 2016). If the patient has had prior problems with discontinuation, the rate can be slowed and tapered over 6 months. Monitoring Patients should be seen every 12 weeks when treatment is started or if treatment is changed. The medication dose can be adjusted as needed and tolerated until the therapeutic range is reached. Patients should also be assessed for treatment adherence and potential adverse effects of therapy. Step 5: Modify Psychotherapy or Pharmacotherapy Therapy should be modified for patients with poor or partial responses to therapy or for those who did not tolerate the initial approach. If patients are not taking the medication, the reasons for this should be explored and the barriers addressed. If they are taking the medication, and it has been given in a therapeutic dose for an adequate time, a change in therapy should be made. Except for fluoxetine, the first antidepressant should be tapered to avoid discontinuation syndrome. Some clinicians will use a cross-taper in which the dose of the first agent is reduced while an initial dose of the second drug is added. Another alternative is to discontinue the original drug if the new agent is initiated at an equivalent dose.
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Neely (Standard Celeration Society) #279 Reunion 9:00 pm11:00 pm Texas Ballroom Salon C (Grand Hyatt) Western Michigan University: Reunion for Alumni allergy treatment in jeddah trusted 120mg allegra, Students allergy testing somerset ky purchase allegra in india, Faculty allergy shots for horses discount allegra online master card, and Friends Chair: Stephanie M. Peterson (Western Michigan University) this is a social reunion for Western Michigan University alumni, current students, current and past faculty, and friends of the program. This event is a great time to meet a diverse group of behavior analysts and friends of behavior analysis-from students to seasoned faculty to well-known researchers in the field. This is an opportunity for speech-language pathologists, behavior analysts, and students to meet and talk about areas of common professional interest and to further interprofessional collaboration. This social reception will provide our members and other interested professionals with ample opportunity to connect and converse. Morris (The University of Kansas) At the University of Kansas, 2014 marked the 50th anniversary of the founding of its behavior analysis programs in the Department of Human Development and Family Life (19642004). They are sustained and evolve today in the Department of Applied Behavioral Science (20042014), which celebrated its 10th anniversary in 2014. Alber-Morgan (The Ohio State University) the Ohio State University Special Education Program will be hosting its annual reunion. Please join us for food, music, drinks, door prizes, and stimulating conversation. We will have representatives on hand to inform potential students about training in Chicago, online, and in Carbondale. Hayes as Kantor Moderator: Michael Perone #291 Special Event 6:00 am6:50 am Texas Ballroom Salon A (Grand Hyatt) Morning: Health, Sport, and Fitness Special Interest Group-Tai Chi Session Chair: Jill L. Sheehan (Mailman Segal Institute), Danielle Tarver (Nova Southeastern University), Iser Guillermo DeLeon (Kennedy Krieger Institute), and F. Although her early research was mainly in applied areas, she is widely recognized for her later conceptual work on selection at behavioral and cultural levels. Glenn has served as editor of the Behavior Analyst and on the editorial boards of several other journals. Ingunn Sandaker is a professor and program director of the Master and Research Program Learning in Complex Systems at Oslo and Akershus University College. Her thesis was a study on the systemic approach to major changes in two large companies; one pharmaceutical company and one gas and petroleum company. She also was project manager for Railo International who in cooperation with the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration ran a project preparing the electricity supply system in Norway for marked deregulations. Serving as a consultant on top level management programs in Norwegian energy companies, her interest has been focused on performance management within a systems framework. Trying to combine the approaches from micro-level behavior analysis with the perspective of learning in complex systems, and cultural phenomena, she is interested in integrating complementary scientific positions with the behavior analytic conceptual framework. McSweeney has made significant empirical and theoretical contributions in the experimental analysis of short term changes in reinforcer effectiveness and has demonstrated the generality of her findings across species and conditions. Her work exemplifies the power of programmatic behavior analytic research on basic behavioral processes, and the value to the larger scientific community of such research, as evidenced by support she has received from the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation. McSweeney has published more than 100 articles in a broad range of very high quality journals. Abstract: the aim of this panel is provide an opportunity for commentary on and discussion of the works of Dr. Sarah Blaffer Hrdy as a follow-up to her address as the 2015 Presidential Scholar. Of particular interest to our members are her views on the nature of motherhood and its role in the evolution of the human species, including the evolutionary origins of empathy and mutual understanding. The Impact of the Science of Applied Behavior Analysis on Adult Education Outcomes Chair: Peter F. Special and Ethical Considerations in Behavioral Feeding Programs Chair: Melissa L. Changing Neurobiology With Behavior: How Expectations of Reward and Punishment Influence Learning and Remembering via Distinct Brain Systems Chair: Edward K. Alison Adcock is an assistant professor of psychiatry, neurobiology, psychology, and neuroscience at Duke University, and core faculty in the Center for Cognitive Neuroscience. Work in her laboratory aims to understand how the neural circuit implementation of motivation-in particular, motivation to learn-influences the explanatory models of the world we construct, and in turn, behavior. The work extends from learning in the laboratory to realworld exploration of space, to collaborations funded in Singapore to examine these functional systems in youth at risk for severe mental illness. Abstract: Although researchers often discuss how the brain produces behavior, it is also true that behavior and experience influence the brain. These different motivational states correspond to differential activity and connectivity in brain circuits implicated not only in motivation but also in learning and memory. This selectivity in memory mechanisms, in turn, determines whether the information in memory is detailed versus general or flexible versus rigid. From Analysis to Application: Using Multiply Controlled Verbal Behavior to Teach Generalized Question Discrimination to Children With Autism Chair: Judah B. Her clinical and research interests focus on advanced applications of contemporary analyses of verbal behavior (Horne & Lowe, 1996; Lowenkron, 1998, 2008; Michael, Palmer, & Sundberg, 2011) not only as a basis for teaching generalized verbal repertoires, but, thereby, as a means of minimizing the need to teach specific individual verbal responses. Nevertheless, from 2 to 3 years of age, typically developing children naturally demonstrate generalized and multiply controlled verbal behavior, including autoclitics; they are, for example, able to provide full-sentence answers to novel questions about ongoing and past events, to describe their own experiences, and to respond to a diversity of novel instructions. One of the greatest challenges currently facing applied behavior analysts remains, therefore, how to teach such complex verbal behavior to children with autism. This presentation will propose that contemporary analyses of multiple control (Lowenkron, 1998; Michael, Palmer, & Sundberg, 2011) offer a conceptually coherent practical basis for the development and curricular organization of procedures to meet this challenge. A program of instruction will be presented in which language objectives are organized along a continuum of increasingly complex stimulus control, and discussion thereby provided of how best to move from establishment of basic vocabulary in primary operants to mastery of complex verbal conditional discriminations across both primary and secondary operants. Special emphasis will be placed on the role of autoclitic frames and intraverbal control in teaching generalized question answering at the tact and intraverbal level and as means of avoiding the discrimination errors that commonly result from teaching specific individual responses to specific individual questions. Best Practices in Intensive Behavioral Intervention: Increasing the Efficiency of Teaching Procedures Chair: Ivy M. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento) Evaluation of Stimulus Equivalence Training to Produce Class Mergers Ivy M. Recent Innovations in Procedures for Teaching Children With Autism Chair: Chata A. Behavioral Economics of Chronic Disease: the Role of Discounting Process in Health Decisions Chair: Derek D. Examinations of Outcome Data From Clinical Programs That Address Behavior Disorders Chair: Henry S. Cloud State University) Training Intonation Using Shaping and Response Cards Conny M. Practice, Principles, and Progressive Contingencies Chair: Kennon Andy Lattal (West Virginia University) Discussant: Peter R. Putting Our Minds to Mindfulness: An Interactive Experiment for Experimentation Chair: Scott A. Herbst (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Thomas G. Herbst (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), and Timothy M.
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These projects are facilitated through close mentorship from faculty members allergy kid meme purchase allegra on line amex, who are accomplished physician-scientists allergy shots on nhs buy allegra from india. For anesthesiologists who have completed a fellowship in critical care medicine treatment allergy to cats generic allegra 180mg, the department offers an additional one-year fellowship in neurocritical care. This fellowship, which is accredited by the United Council for Neurologic Subspecialties, leads to board eligibility for the subspecialty of neurocritical care. Neurocritical Care was recently recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties, and a new subspecialty certification exam will be offered to eligible diplomates of the American Board of Anesthesiology, administered by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology. Research Division faculty members are involved with research that focuses on traumatic brain injury, intracranial hypertension, spinal cord injury, and lung/ brain interactions. This work examines how titration in positive end-expired pressure influences intracranial 22 B i e n n i a l R e p o r t 2 018 2 019 Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center 23 B i e n n i a l R e p o r t 2 018 2 019 bidmc. The Division of Obstetric Anesthesia includes 13 fulland part-time staff that provide clinical, academic, and administrative services to women who are pregnant beyond 20 weeks of gestation, with a principle focus on managing the anesthetic care of women in the peripartum period. Modern obstetric anesthesia provides a broad range of care, from pain relief services during labor and anesthesia for cesarean delivery to emergent care for very high-risk patients. In addition to providing services for labor and delivery, the division is involved in the care of the parturient during other times. We provide a consultative service for pregnant patients who have complex medical conditions and assist in the management of patients with postpartum complications, such as massive hemorrhage, congestive heart failure, or neurologic deficits. We strive to ensure that the care of the pregnant patient is seamless across every hospital service. A significant component of the service is devoted to providing anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Parturients can be scheduled for cesarean delivery, or proceed to cesarean after labor on an urgent or emergent basis. Cesarean delivery can be accomplished with spinal anesthesia, epidural anesthesia, or occasionally general anesthesia. Approximately 30% of women delivered by cesarean this year, and our general anesthesia rate remains below 1%. We met and exceeded all quality goals as set by MassHealth maternity and the Joint Commission perinatal care measures. We also provided the highest-quality post-cesarean section pain control via multimodality approaches, including neuraxial opioids, epidural analgesia, parenteral pain medication, and transversus abdominus plane block and quadratus lumborum block, if indicated. We provided formal consultation prior to delivery to over 1, 000 women for high-risk conditions, including severe scoliosis, hematologic conditions, and cardiac, pulmonary, and neurologic diseases, as well as supra-morbid obesity. A growing volume of our care consists of patients with pathological adherent placenta, often due to previous surgery. Shivering is a common and disconcerting side effect of delivery and spinal anesthesia. In addition to the surgical impact, we are measuring the pulmonary function of these patients before and after retraction. Education A core function of the Division of Obstetric Anesthesia is the education of students, trainees, and ourselves. These programs are designed to provide ongoing education and improve the capabilities of each member. Clinical teaching is performed through organized and impromptu lectures, supervised hands-on training, and the open provision of reading materials. Residents are first trained in the subspecialty of obstetric anesthesia during the first six months of their residency. The purpose of this introductory week is to allow the resident to gain confidence in their foundational skills so that they can learn advanced patient care during the subsequent required rotations. After orientation, all residents are assigned a basic obstetric anesthesia rotation. During this month-long rotation, the residents hone their techniques of neuraxial anesthesia and analgesia, learn how to man- this multidisciplinary team included specialists in maternal-fetal medicine (high-risk pregnancy), newborn medicine, nursing, urology, and, of course, obstetric anesthesia. Research the division is actively involved in research activities to enhance knowledge of the care of the pregnant patient. These research activities include investigations to improve the educational program and better understand the physiologic changes of pregnancy, and studies to improve the safety and clinical care of the parturient. The division has a strong presence at the Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology. Currently active studies include: Dexmedetomidine after cesarean for the treatment of nausea and shivering We are assessing the use of a 26 B i e n n i a l R e p o r t 2 018 2 019 Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine age a healthy parturient, and are exposed to high-risk cases. In addition to providing additional training and education in the management of high-risk parturients, this month includes a one-week rotation in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. On this rotation, the residents are expected to participate in the care of high-risk and complex parturients, conduct consultations, and learn the management of postpartum conditions or complications. Recent innovations in education include a new teaching calendar system for resident education. Prior to the start of each month-long rotation, residents are sent a comprehensive list of topics. They are expected to present three of these topics during the month as formal lectures. This has dramatically increased the amount of lecture-driven education on the unit. The didactic curriculum for the fellowship program embraces lessons from fundamental physiology and pharmacology through the advanced science of genetic polymorphisms and molecular mechanisms of diseases during pregnancy. While virtually every clinical anesthesia provider has been involved with the care of orthopedic surgical patients, there is a select group of 23 anesthesiologists who are the core orthopedic anesthesia group. These individuals have been key in the development and support of the elective total joint arthroplasty pathways and in the development and support of the perioperative analgesia pathways for orthopedic anesthesia. There are many individuals from the Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine and other perioperative services who provide exceptional support to the efforts of the orthopedic surgical patients and the efforts of the division. Special appreciation goes to the Regional Anesthesia Division members who have been invaluable in optimizing analgesia for the orthopedic patients. The preoperative nurses and the anesthesia nurse practitioners have been key in facilitating preoperative patient preparation, thus improving efficient block placement prior to surgery. Quality Improvement Quality improvement efforts in total joint arthroplasty patients have been successful and ongoing. These patients are doing the work of an athlete to overcome the physiological demands of these surgeries, and they need to be in a fed and hydrated state. Spinal anesthesia continues to be used for a significant percentage of patients having elective total knee or hip arthroplasty. The switch to primarily oral, multimodal anal- gesia following surgery was made several years ago and continues to be standard practice. The use of multimodal analgesia continues to be high in sports medicine, foot and ankle, oncology, and hand surgeries as well. Patient care There are many patients who present for elective total knee or hip 29 B i e n n i a l R e p o r t 2 018 2 019 bidmc. Typically, these patients have a difficult perioperative course and the risk of mortality is often estimated to exceed 5%.
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Hepp allergy testing victoria australia generic 180mg allegra with mastercard, Conrad Hepp allergy symptoms wiki discount 180mg allegra with amex, John Herl allergy testing how often purchase generic allegra, Justin Herman, Bob Herman, Clarence Herman, Edmond Herman, Herbert Herman, Louis Herman, Mike Heronema, William Herrman, Gregory Herrman, J. Eugene Herrman, LeRoy 125 this publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service has been archived. Herrman, Melba Herrman, Raymond Herron, Robert Hertel, Phil Hertlein, Harvey Hertlein, John Hertling, Charles Hervey, H. Heyka, Michael Hickert, Kevin Hickman, Harold Hild, Joseph Hildebrand, William Hildwein, H. Hoffman, Jack Hoffman, John Hoffman, Melvin Hoffman, Mike Hoffman, Ralph Hoffman, Robert Hoffman, William Hogan, Lee Hogsett, Stanley Hohn, Marcus Holden, George Holland, F. Holm, Florian Holste, Keith Holyak, John Honer, Thomas Hood, Stephen Hood, Wayne Hooker, George Hoop, Ray Hoover, Cleta Hoover, John Hoover, Roy Hopkins, Terry Hopp, Terry Hopper, J. Horchem, Ronald Horner, Jackie Hosley, Roy House, Clarence Houser, Theodore Howard, Jason Howard, Lance Howe, John Hoy, Coronda Hubbard, C. Huser, Bryan Huslig, James Huslig, Marcus Huston, John Huston, Paul Hutchison, Herbert Jr. Hutchison, Patsy Hwit, Albert Iliff, Steve Imel, Charles ImMasche, Donald ImMasche, Dorothy ImMasche, Howard Immenschuch, A. Jackson, Norman Jackson, Wells Jacobini, Horace Jacobs, Joe Jacobs, Norman Jacobs, Ralph Jacobs, Rita Jacobs, Robert Jacobson, Luther Jaeger, Donagene Jaeger, H. Johnson, George Johnson, John Johnson, Norman Johnson, Oscar Johnson, Peter Johnson, Sandra Johnson, Wayne Johnston, Charles Johnston, Milford Johnston, Walter Jones, Cliff Jones, Elgie Jones, Herbert Jordan, John Joy, Rolla Juenemann, David Junk, Raymond Kane, Edna Karlin, Al Karlin, Leroy Karlin, Marvin Karlin, Norbert Karlin, Peter Karlin, Ronald Karnes, Ray Karper, R. Karr, David Kats, Sean Kays, Fred Kays, Paul Kear, Paul Keberlein, Alvin Keck, Jimmie Keefer, William Keenan, Bob Keenan, James Keller, Frank Keller, Sharon Keller, Willis Kellerman, Mark Kellogg, Doyle Kelsey, E. Kerr, Gregory Kesling, Jesse Kessler, Frank Khaleeq, Babrak Khlopeck, Phil Kiene, F. Kilman, Robert Kimble, Kirk Kincaid, Jeffrey Kinderknecht, Julie Kinderknecht, Nick Kinderknecht, Norman Jr. Kitchen, Robert Klaus, Anton Klaus, Benedict Klaus, Cletus Klaus, Edgar Klaus, Joe Klaus, Peter Klaus, Roy Klaus, Victor Klaus, Walter Klaus, Wilfred Klaus, William Klotz, Robert Knoll, Alex Knoll, Devon Knoll, Omer Knoll, Robert Knott, Guy Kobler, Dean Koerner, Aloysius Koerner, August Koerner, Herbert Koerner, Hilary Koerner, Leroy Koerner, Marcell Kofoid, Eric Kofoid, Kenneth Kohl, H. Kohl, Hugo Kohler, Peter Kolarik, Stephen Korbe, Allen Korbe, Andrew Korbe, Felix Jr. Korbe, Killian Korbe, Walter Kraft, Amanda Kraft, Bill Kraft, Tammy Kramer, James Kramer, John Kraus, Weston Krause, Paul 126 this publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service has been archived. Krause, Stanley Krauss, Edmond Krauss, Herman Krenzin, Myron Krizek, Tony Krof, Joseph Krupp, Joseph Kuhar, M. Kurt, Dittman Kurtz, Dale Lambert, Clarence Lambert, Dennis Lambrecht, Earl Lambrecht, Irvin Lamy, William Lande, H. Lang, Greg Lang, Thomas Lang, Verlin Lange, Deborah Lantow, Dustin Lappin, Richard Larson, Ronald Latas, Timothy Lauber, Peter Lauber, Wilfred Laubhan, Larry Laughlin, F. Leach, Lee Leach, William Leaf, Stanley Leas, Grant Leatherman, John Ledford, James Lee, Jerry Leeper, Harold Legleiter, Gilbert Legleiter, Julius Legleiter, Paul Lehman, Nancy Leikam, Lucille Leikam, William Leiker, Aegidius Leiker, Agnesine Leiker, Alfred J. Leiker, Anthony Leiker, Carl Leiker, Clarence Leiker, Clifford Leiker, Donald Leiker, Edward Leiker, Egidius Leiker, Emil Leiker, F. John Leiker, Francis Leiker, Frank Leiker, Gilbert Leiker, Glen Leiker, Henry Leiker, Herbert Leiker, Isidore Leiker, J. Leiker, James Leiker, John Leiker, Karen Leiker, Killian Leiker, Lawrence Leiker, Leo Leiker, Linus Leiker, Marvin Leiker, Melvin Leiker, Norbert Leiker, Peter Leiker, Sylvester Leiker, Victor Leiker, Virgil Leitner, Larry Lenius, Albert Leonard, Ralph Leonhard, J. Lindsey, Arlo Lindsey, Gerald Linenberger, Alex Linenberger, Bob Linenberger, Donald Linenberger, Rene Linnenberger, Andy Linnenberger, Nathan Lippert, Dale Littlefield, I. Litzenberger, Leeland Livers, Geraldine Livers, Ronald Livingston, Michael Lloyd, T. Lord, George Lorew, Estel Lovedilsch, Clarence Lowe, Alvin Lowe, Duskin Lowe, Frank Loyd, Elden Loyd, M. Ludington, Clyde Luea, Gloria Luebs, Ralph Luetters, Crystal Luevano, Ralph Lumpkins, Melanie Lund, Henry Lupton, Gail Luther, A. Mantz, Gregory Mapes, John Marcotte, Cary Marcotte, Terry Mares, Adolph Maresch, Marvin Marjer, Johan Markel, George Markwell, Calvin Marlier, David Marquardt, A. Maska, James Maska, Joel Mason, David Mason, Howard Massey, Kady Masters, Richard Mastin, Mary Lou Mathes, Marilyn Mathews, George Jr. Matthew, Harry Mauck, Kenton Maupin, Robert Mavins, Fred Maxwell, Caleb Maxwell, Robert Maxwell, Walter Jr. McFarlin, Bob McGowne, Stuart McGrary, Hugh McGrath, Arnold McGrath, Robert McGuire, William McInroy, Alfred McIntosh, Elmer McIntosh, J. McIntyre, Cheryl McKanna, Marcus McKee, Dennis McKee, Richard McKinney, Thea McLain, C. McReynolds, Harold McVey, George McVey, Henry McVey, James McVicker, John McVicker, Robert McWilliams, Sharell Mead, Dennis Mead, Steve Meade, Doyle Meade, Earl 127 this publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service has been archived. Meade, Keith Meckenstock, Dan Meder, Edward Medina, Juan Meeker, Charles Meenen, Frederich Meenen, Lail Meier, Alex Meier, Milton Meis, Thomas Mellick, Ronald Mercer, J. 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Nebel, Warren Needles, Foster Needles, Keith Neeley, Lawrence Neelly, Rock Negus, Willis Jr. Nelson, Joanne Nelson, John Nelson, Virgil Nemecheck, Alvin Newcomer, Arthur Newland, John Nicholas, Henry Nicholas, Samuel Nichols, J. Nimmons, John Nixon, William Noland, David Noonan, Mike Nordyke, Clinton Norman, E. Norris, Fred Norris, Roy North, Tricia Northam, Donna Northam, Francis Northrup, A. Olsen, Lee Olson, Dale Olson, Kenneth Orth, Arthur Orth, Clemens Orth, Donald Orth, Frank Jr. Owensby, James Page, John Page, Maynard Page, Monte Painter, LaVerne Palmer, Paul Parker, E. Pfannenstiel, Alfred Pfannenstiel, Aloys Pfannenstiel, Bob Pfannenstiel, Boniface Pfannenstiel, Casper Pfannenstiel, Clarence Pfannenstiel, Earl Pfannenstiel, Edmund Pfannenstiel, Edward Pfannenstiel, Edwin Pfannenstiel, Frank Pfannenstiel, Gerald Pfannenstiel, Gilbert Pfannenstiel, Harvey 128 this publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service has been archived. Pfannenstiel, Irwin Pfannenstiel, Jake Pfannenstiel, Joe Pfannenstiel, John Pfannenstiel, Joseph Pfannenstiel, Justin Pfannenstiel, L. Pfannenstiel, Marvin Pfannenstiel, Melvin Pfannenstiel, Mike Pfannenstiel, Nick F. Pfannenstiel, Richard Pfannenstiel, Roy Pfannenstiel, Severin Pfannenstiel, Theodore A.
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E-cigarettes are widely available in convenience stores allergy testing tray buy cheap allegra 120 mg, a type of establishment that 4 allergy report austin cheapest allegra. According to allergy west purchase 180 mg allegra otc a 2013 statesponsored survey that included a sample of approximately 7, 300 licensed tobacco retailers in California, e-cigarettes were sold in more than half of convenience stores, pharmacies, and liquor stores and in nearly all tobacco shops Activities of the E-Cigarette Companies 167 A Report of the Surgeon General (California Department of Public Health and California Tobacco Control Program 2014). Only three studies have examined the retail availability of e-cigarettes near schools. In a 2012 nationally representative sample of tobacco retailers, the presence of a public school within 1, 000 feet was not related to the availability of e-cigarettes (Rose et al. In a study that examined a much larger buffer zone in Kentucky, 88% of schools in two counties were located within 1 mile of a retailer that sold e-cigarettes (Hahn et al. As for colleges, disposable and/or rechargeable e-cigarettes were available at 60% of tobacco retailers near campuses in North Carolina and Virginia in 2013, a more than twofold increase from the previous year (Wagoner et al. External ads included those located less than 3 feet above the ground at the eye level of children-a placement that was outlawed for conventional cigarettes by the Master Settlement Agreement-and featured flavored products (Ganz et al. Unlike conventional cigarettes, e-cigarettes appear to be relatively less prevalent at stores in economically disadvantaged communities. In an analysis that examined data from two studies that had used representative samples of U. These patterns are consistent with evidence that e-cigarette marketing in other channels targets higher income non-Hispanic White males (Emery et al. However, the retail availability of e-cigarettes has changed at different rates in different neighborhoods. Three years later, the figures were 36% in predominantly non-Hispanic White neighborhoods, 18% in Hispanic-majority neighborhoods, and 19% in African American-majority neighborhoods. Two studies examined retail data about e-cigarettes as a function of state and/or county smokefree air laws (Huang et al. In one of the studies, which used data collected in two studies that used independent samples of U. A similar inverse relationship was found between sales of disposable e-cigarettes (as measured by retail scanner data in 52 U. Taken together, these results suggest that e-cigarettes are, at least initially, more likely to be sold in communities with weaker smokefree policies. Few retail surveillance studies have characterized promotion, placement, or price for e-cigarettes (Hsu et al. In a study of licensed tobacco retailers in Florida, advertising for e-cigarettes was more prevalent on the exterior than the interior (50% vs. In the study by Wagoner and colleagues (2014), the presence of e-cigarette advertising near college campuses in North Carolina and Virginia tripled on store exteriors and quadrupled in store interiors in just 1 year. Although the price of rechargeable units decreased significantly, there was little evidence of price discounting for any e-cigarettes (Wagoner et al. The low visibility of price discounts at the point of sale suggests that marketing for e-cigarettes favors a "pull" strategy, relying on direct mail and e-mail coupons and special offers to entice customers to retail locations. Anecdotal evidence suggests that "vape shops" currently do not have readily visible branded signs and displays that characterize the retail marketing of other tobacco products. Even though the relationship between the "vape shop" industry and the tobacco industry can be adversarial (Sussman et al. According to this study, "vape shop" owners and managers in Oklahoma used free samples, loyalty programs, sponsored events, direct mail, advertising through social media, and price promotions targeted at particular consumers, such as college students (Cheney et al. Numerous gaps exist in research about "vape shops, " including information on consumer behavior, the use of tracking systems for sales data, marketing surveillance, purchases by youth, and the opinions of retailers and the general public about regulations. Spatial analyses are needed to determine whether "vape shops" are clustered near schools or college campuses, whether other neighborhood demographics are correlated with the location of these establishments, and how such associations, if present, have changed over time and in response to state and local policy interventions. The proportion of "vape shops" where workers mix solutions of liquid nicotine on site is not known, and the absence of uniform safety precautions regarding handling and spills poses additional concern for regulation (ChangeLab Solutions 2014). Under the deeming rule that was published in May 2016, "vape shops" that mix and sell e-liquids are both retailers and manufacturers and, therefore, are subject to the provisions in the deeming rule and the Tobacco Control Act that apply to both (Federal Register 2016). Elsewhere, in an online experiment, 56% of adolescents (1317 years of age) who had never used e-cigarettes reported seeing at least one televised advertisement previously, and there were modest, but statistically insignificant differences in exposure by smoking status and race/ethnicity (p<. The most common places for exposure among middle school students were retail stores (52. Similarly, high school students reported the highest exposure at retail stores (56. Among both middle school and high school students, exposure through retail stores was higher among non-Hispanic Whites than non-Hispanic Blacks. However, non-Hispanic Blacks had higher exposure to e-cigarette advertisements on television and in movies than non-Hispanic Whites. Females had higher exposure than males to advertisements on the Internet and in newspapers and magazines. In one study, college students from a southwestern state who watched three advertisements for different brands of e-cigarettes in an online survey used a 7-point scale to rate how enjoyable, likable, and appealing the ads were; results suggested moderate receptivity (mean of 51 on a scale ranging from 7 to 126) and significant differences between brands (Trumbo and Kim 2015). In the other study, Pokhrel and colleagues (2015), using a sample of college students from Hawaii, adapted a multi-item scale of liking advertisements from studies about alcohol (Unger et al. This study observed low levels of liking advertisements (all below the scale midpoint) (Pokhrel et al. The extent to which youth and young adults who are receptive to e-cigarette marketing are also receptive to tobacco marketing has not been studied. However, the extent to which advertising Exposure and Receptivity to Advertising for E-Cigarettes Exposure Given industry data about increasing expenditures for e-cigarette advertising and extending its reach, the high levels of advertising awareness reported in studies of youth and/or young adults are not surprising. In this study, and compared with the entire population, awareness among current smokers of e-cigarette advertising was higher across all channels and higher for online ads than for television ads (Legacy for Health 2014). In school-based surveys of middle and high school students in Connecticut, gas stations and television were the dominant channels in which students reported recently seeing e-cigarettes advertised or sold (Krishnan-Sarin et al. A different pattern was observed in a convenience sample of college students in Hawaii, where the figures for Activities of the E-Cigarette Companies 169 A Report of the Surgeon General strategies for e-cigarettes mimic strategies used by tobacco companies suggests that the two measures of receptivity could be highly correlated. However, while fewer studies have focused on e-cigarette advertising in particular, the available evidence suggests that e-cigarette advertising has similar effects, although additional research is recommended. A search for studies of youth or adults that either (a) manipulated exposure to e-cigarette advertising or measured self-reported recall of advertisements, (b) assessed the frequency of exposure to advertising in one or more channels, or (c) measured receptivity to e-cigarette advertising yielded 10 studies that addressed the impact of advertising on the use of or intentions to use e-cigarettes. One experiment tested whether seeing television advertising for e-cigarettes predisposed adolescents to try these products (Farrelly et al. Among adolescents (1317 years of age) who had never used e-cigarettes, a single exposure to a set of four televised advertisements for popular brands resulted in significantly greater intention to try e-cigarettes-more than 50% higher in the treatment group than the control group (Farrelly et al. Another study examined responses to e-cigarette advertisements among young adults (Trumbo and Kim 2015); among a convenience sample of college students who watched three television ads for e-cigarettes, greater receptivity to e-cigarette advertising was associated with significantly higher odds of intending to use e-cigarettes in the future, but the analysis did not adjust for prior use or individual demographics (Trumbo and Kim 2015). An analysis of the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey found that adolescents who reported frequent exposure to protobacco advertising at the point of sale and on the Internet. Surveillance research that differentiates exposure to advertising for e-cigarettes from exposure to ads for conventional tobacco products would be useful to establish whether exposure to e-cigarette advertising is correlated with product use and contributes to product initiation and product use among young people who were not tobacco users to start. In this context, research is needed to understand at what age young people understand that e-cigarette advertising depicts the use of e-cigarettes rather than the smoking of conventional cigarettes and to examine whether there are spillover effects of marketing for e-cigarettes on the use of conventional tobacco products. The study found that more frequent exposure to e-cigarette advertising-as measured by exposure in any of multiple channels. Both studies examined data from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a survey of more than 20, 000 U.
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At present allergy treatment when pregnant 180 mg allegra with visa, it remains unclear by what process the public should properly seek access to allergy symptoms in infants order 120mg allegra amex a non-Savino civil video hearing in D allergy testing boise idaho buy 120mg allegra overnight delivery. Although this letter focuses on the district courts, there are concerns at the Courts of Appeals as well. I am not sure they are within scope, but the First Circuit Court of Appeals announced last week that it would "provide live audio access" to its June session, which is scheduled to be conducted via videoconference. The Circuit Executive has confirmed the Court will not provide video access, triggering many of the same concerns raised in this letter. Of course, appellate argument is of a different kind than district court argument, and not all of the same concerns apply in the same way. The possibility of error in oral communication of email addresses seems significant. Hawkinson to Rules Committees June 1, 2020 Page 5 of 12 Sufficient uniformity to ensure public access to civil video hearings is needed. Although such a rule need not specify the mechanics of access, it should be made clear that the public is entitled to some form of video access where feasible. It is tempting to suggest that the Administrative Office of the United States Courts could promulgate guidance for public access to civil hearings, just as it has done for criminal hearings. Not only can the public not see that guidance, it could change at any time, and there is no opportunity to offer feedback on or input to those changes. With the above in mind, I would propose the following language as the basis for such a rule: "Any hearing conducted by remote video shall have video access open to the public, unless the court orders otherwise for good cause. With the increased prevalence of "impact" immigration litigation over the past 4 years, that underlying premise becomes more questionable. When a civil immigration 14 It is easy to imagine high-profile situations where the volume of public access might overwhelm a Court or its technology, especially on short notice. Hawkinson to Rules Committees June 1, 2020 Page 6 of 12 action affects many people, such as in a class action, or where it defines a critical area of law that impacts other subsequent cases, that balance increasingly seems problematically tilted against the public interest. With pandemic-related closures in effect, the public terminal is not available at all (D. Prior to the coronavirus, undersigned has had varying results seeking to lift such access restrictions. Within the District of Massachusetts, motions to intervene and remove access restrictions have been favorably entertained, and in 2019 the Court entered a General Order intended to allow general public access to such cases after a 30-day period to allow time for the parties to object16. Contrariwise, a motion seeking this relief in the District of New Hampshire was denied. Undersigned has also obtained this relief by letter in the Eastern District of New York. I would suggest it may be time for the Rules Committee to take a hard look a Rule 5. In particular, there seems to be no reason why such restrictions should be the default in class action litigation. At the circuit level, Appellate Rule 25(a)(5) provides that "an appeal in a case whose privacy protection was governed by Federal Rule of Bankruptcy Procedure 9037, Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 5. A Better Balance for Federal Rules Governing Public Access to Appeal Records in Immigration Cases. General Order 19-02: Standing Procedural Order Re: Public Access to Immigration Cases Restricted by Federal Rules Of Civil Procedure 5. The order also includes a so-called "gag" provision on Internet publication of case documents within the first 30 days of case filing. With the emergency closures of courthouses or public portions of clerks offices, these access restrictions are more painful. And, indeed, the pandemic has lead to an increase in notable immigration litigation at exactly the time when access to that information has become more difficult. Mass court personnel have manually removed docket restrictions after each case document is filed. Mass case with some unique privacy considerations, in response to inquiry, the Court entered an order allowing immediate public access with a gag on Internet publication19. All of these situations require a fair degree of attention from the press, and only serve to provide access where it is already understood that it is necessary. Furthermore, the pace of resolution may be discordant with the pace of public interest and of other docket activity. Actions involving pro se detained petitioners present unique challenges when leave of the parties might be sought to remove access restrictions. Hawkinson to Rules Committees June 1, 2020 Page 8 of 12 cal to request this sort of case-specific treatment for all immigration cases, meaning that significant items can fall through the cracks and escape timely notice. Closing I thank the Committees very much for their time and respectfully request you entertain the above suggestions as part of a rules package for future national emergencies. Hawkinson encl: Exhibit A, April 1 letter to Judge Young: media access in Savino; Exhibit B, April 1 letter to Chief Judge Saylor: media access to videoconferencing. Farrell, Clerk of Court, District of Massachusetts 20 Prior to the pandemic, undersigned had a practice of reviewing all immigration habeas corpus cases on a weekly-or-better basis, at the District of Massachusetts public terminal. Hawkinson to Rules Committees June 1, 2020 Page 9 of 12 Exhibit A April 1 letter to Judge Young: media access in Savino From John A. After consultation with the Clerk, I respectfully request you exercise your powers under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 5. It is a fast-moving class action of high prominence, and the personal privacy issues the Rule is designed to protect are absent here. Attorney is that we are not going to assent, we are not going to object, but we are going to leave it up to the Court to decide on a case-by-case basis. Virtual public attendance at such hearings would not constitute the prohibited "broadcasting" under the rules, and relegating the public to an audio-only version leaves us with impaired access to the proceeding. Hawkinson to Rules Committees June 1, 2020 Page 11 of 12 Exhibit B April 1 letter to Chief Judge Saylor: media access to videoconferencing From John A. To the extent a civil matter is being conducted via videoconference, the public should be granted video access as a substitute for its ability to attend hearings in the courtroom. Videoconference technology, to the extent it is used by the Court in civil cases, can provide a platform from which the public may observe the demeanor of witnesses, see any visual aids or chalks, and watch the physical manifestations of courtroom advocacy and judicial conduct on the bench. Public access to such videoconference hearings can ensure that public understanding of civil proceedings is less hampered than it otherwise might be. There does not appear to be any legal or policy impediment to permitting public access to civil videoconference proceedings. The general policy of the Judicial Conference of the United States against "broadcasting, televising, recording, or taking photographs in the courtroom" does not apply, by its terms, to a closed Internet videoconference made available to members of the public who request access in advance as a substitute for attending court in person. Would you please confirm receipt and let me know how it and other suggestions are docketed, if it is other than at the standard Rules Suggestions web page. Used to their full potential, these technologies can help ensure that depositions, oral arguments, conferences, and other court appearances carry on apace during emergency conditions. The mistake is fixed in the attached document please use this submission instead. If the reader of this message is not the intended recipient, or the employee or agent responsible to deliver it to the intended recipient, you are hereby notified that any dissemination, distribution or copying of this communication is strictly prohibited. If you have received this communication in error, please immediately notify us by return e-mail, destroying the original message and any copies.
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This plan was presented to allergy testing no insurance buy allegra 120mg with visa the community with little or no consultation with the Experiment Station administration allergy forecast baltimore allegra 120 mg amex. Nor was the Board of Regents informed of the intention to allergy medicine 6 hours relief purchase allegra master card take over land that it controlled. Vandalism, the cost of maintaining the area, concerns for safety of individuals using the area, and lack of suitable fencing to separate the Custer Island area from the adjoining Station pastures contributed to his decision. To enforce his resolve, Station workers constructed approximately one-half mile of five-wire barbed wire fence to isolate the area. By the following morning, each of the five strands of wire had been cut between each post along the entire length of the fence. The wires were simply replaced and, although some additional vandalism did occur, Custer Island remained closed. The closure probably would not have been so successful had it not been for support of many residents and the local press who realized the area no longer served its original function. Other activities and events also had little impact on the overall mission of the Station. It later was recovered undamaged, but the tools were not recovered, nor were suspects apprehended. Other "mysterious disappearances" and some vandalism occurred, but, except for Custer Island, little damage to property. One of the most unusual events occurred on one Roundup morning, when Phillips looked toward the office and discovered that the American flag was flying upside down on the flagpole near the office. This distress signal was the result of an honest mistake by the custodian responsible for raising the flag. These can be illustrated by citing the day that Ralph Dreiling, the classified employee in charge of the cattle feeding operations, was recognized as one of the finalists as Classified Employee of the Year of the entire Kansas State University system. Ralph was only one of many dedicated Classified Employees who have worked on the Station. Phillips announced his retirement in May of 1984 and left the Station on January 15, 1985. This was one month short of 37 years after he arrived in February of 1948 to begin his work in weed control research. A nationwide search for his replacement was initiated, and a number of candidates were interviewed. The following was added to the manuscript by John Brethour: "It seems a little unfair for the author to assess his own administration of the station and he has been too modest in his accomplishments; so, as one of the faculty who served under him, perhaps my detached insight is appropriate. Bill was the only head who was elevated to the position from inside the organization. That provided him considerable insight about the needs of the faculty and a familiarity with the staff and their various talents. He was well known in the Hays, western Kansas agricultural, and Kansas State University communities. He once told me that he considered his role, as head, was simply to provide that which was necessary for the scientists to do their work and then get out of their way. He invoked principles of total quality management empowerment, managing while walking about, team spirit a decade before that management style become popular. He absorbed virtually all the regulatory paper-work chores as well as all budgetary responsibility. In a period when every state agency began to expect reporting of one sort or another, I think Bill had the ability to distinguish between the substantive and the merely procedural and respond accordingly. He was an excellent financial officer; was able to respond to all reasonable requests, kept the equipment current, and left the station in excellent condition. His educational background and agricultural research experiences brought assurance that he would appreciate the ongoing research programs. As with each previous change in administration, Pat brought his own style and approach to management. He quickly expanded the computer capabilities in his office and pro- vided incentives to ensure that each staff member had access to computer hardware. Desktop computers in each office soon replaced the central unit previously shared by the staff. By the close of the 20th century, exciting new research programs, such as precision agriculture, were underway. Precision agriculture involves an approach to production in which inputs such as seed, fertilizer, irrigation water, and pesticides are prescribed and applied on a site-specific basis. This precision depends on availability of such things as accurate global positioning systems and high capacity computers. But regardless of such technological advances, the role played by individual scientists is not diminished but rather enhanced by new and sophisticated tools. When Coyne took over the administration of the Station it had nine research staff members. At least three of these had been on the faculty for 30 or more years, and the average length of service of the nine was a little over 21 years. As has been pointed out, longevity does not necessarily equal competence and high productivity, but it does give a degree of continuity, which is impossible when frequent changes occur. Agricultural research under field conditions is necessarily long term, if climatic and other variables are considered fully. Coyne replaced both of these individuals with highly competent scientists and, although some turnover has occurred since his arrival, six of the nine positions still continue to be filled by individuals who were on the staff at the time of his arrival in 1985. The research effort of the permanent staff has been enhanced by increased use of research assistants and research associates. Many of these positions have been made possible by financial grants from various agribusiness corporations and from the Kansas Wheat and Sorghum commissions. Although the total budget for the Station has increased over the years, the proportion appropriated by the State Legislature has remained quite constant at about 50 percent. Sale of products provides about 40 percent, and the remaining 10 percent comes from grants, gifts, and various other sources. In 1986, the Station headquarters area had approximately 30 buildings and the land resources consisted of approximately 3, 700 acres. Of this total, approximately 1800 acres were cropland and about 1600 acres range and grassland. Buildings, roads, waterways, and a small amount of wasteland occupy about 275 acres. Recently 2, 400 acres of rangeland were purchased and added to the area available for conducting beef cattle research. Although this land is located approximately 26 miles from Station headquarters, it provides unprecedented opportunities to expand research with the beef cattle cow herd.
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I thank Richard Petty for making the raw data from these studies availableto me for reanalysis allergic pink eye allegra 120mg. When an acquaintance says that all Democrats are atheists or that squash is the sport of kings allergy symptoms webmd discount allegra online visa, one may determine not only whether these contentions are true allergy medicine kirkland signature buy allegra american express, but also whether the acquaintance believes them to be true. It may be, for example, that the acquaintance is merely trying to get a rise out of a nearby liberal or a raise out of a squash-playing superior, and that he or she does not really believe either of these claims. In effect, when a speaker asserts that "This is so, " he or she also asserts (quite independently) that "I believe that this is so. What makes this phenomenon so intriguing is that people accept these assertions even when they know full well that the assertions stand an excellent chance of being wrong. So, for example, when subjects listen to a person read aloud a position statement. This robust tendency-variously known as the fundamental attribution error (Ross, 1977), the correspondence bias (Gilbert & Jones, 1986), or the truthfulness bias (Zuckerman et al. Gilbert, Pelham, and KruU (1988) have shown that this tendency is, in fact, exacerbated by the experimentally induced depletion of resources (see also Gilbert, 1989; Gilbert, Krull, & Pelham, 1988; Gilbert & Osborne, 1989). The Language of Doubt Despite their considerable differences, both the Cartesian and Spinozan positions contend that belief begins with the comprehension of propositions. How people comprehend propositions is, of course, a primary province of psycholinguistic research, and several of the phenomena in this area speak to the present concerns. A fundamental assumption of psycholinguistic research is that "complexity in thought tends to be reflected in complexity of expression" (Clark & Clark, 1977, p. The 112 markedness of a word is usually considered the clearest index of such linguistic complexity, and it can be determined by two simple criteria (Greenberg, 1966). First, unmarked words (such as happy) tend to have fewer morphemes than do their marked counterparts (such as unhappy). Second, whereas unmarked words may be used neutrally, marked words generally cannot. This is because happy (unmarked) and unhappy (marked) are thought of as degrees of happiness rather than degrees of unhappiness, just as long (unmarked) and short (marked) are considered degrees of length rather than of shortness. Both marked and unmarked words describe a particular point on a dimension, but in addition, unmarked words may be used neutrally to describe the dimension itself. Unmarked terms are thought to describe operations that are more conceptually basic than their marked counterparts. The Spinozan hypothesis states that unacceptance is a more complex operation than is acceptance and, interestingly enough, the English words that indicate the acceptance of ideas are generally unmarked with respect to their antonyms. Thus, people speak of propositions as acceptable and unacceptable, but (unless one is a neologizing psychologist) not as rejectable and unrejectable. People hope their ideas are correct, accurate, and credible rather than incorrect, inaccurate, and incredible, but they cannot grammatically wish to be unwrong. Indeed, people even speak of belief and disbelief more naturally than they speak of doubt and undoubt. These observations about the structure of words are complemented by studies of how words are understood. Yet, what enables this model to work so well is the asymmetrical fashion in which the comparison stage is assumed to be executed: First, people start with the truth index set to t r u. Spinoza would simply have added that this model is not paramorphic; it is perfectly descriptive. Horn (1989) neatly characterized this view: "Every negative statement presupposes a corresponding a f f i r m a t i v. Negation is consequently a secondorder affirmation: Negative statements are about positive statements, while affirmatives are directly about the world" (p. Indeed, a linguistic denial is "like an affirmative supposition and its cancellation all rolled into one" (Clark & Clark, 1977, p. All of this means that to comprehend a denial (armadillos are not herbivorous), a listener must first comprehend the core assertion (armadillos are herbivorous) and then reject it. Tesniere (1959) made the same point: "Before denying the contents of a sentence, the mind must first affirm it" (p. If denials are self-assessing propositions in that they offer both a core assertion and an instruction to reject that assertion once it is comprehended, then the Spinozan hypothesis makes a unique prediction about them. Because denials require the initial comprehension of that 31 thank Benne Willerman for translating this passage from the French. This means that Spinozan listeners should occasionally end up believing the very assertions they hear denied! In a series of investigations, Wegner, Wenzlaff, Kerker, and Beattie (1981) showed that subjects who read denials such as Bob Talbert not linked to Mafia were in fact left with more negative impressions of the fictitious Talbert than were subjects who read a neutral assertion such as Bob Talbert celebrates birthday. If this tendency for people to believe denied information is, in fact, a result of their use of the Spinozan procedure, then it should be exacerbated by resource depletion. Gilbert, Krull, and Malone (1990) asked subjects to learn a fictitious vocabulary by reading assertions. Whereas a Cartesian learner should have been able to comprehend each assertion and then wait for the assessment word to determine whether to accept or reject that assertion, a Spinozan learner should not have had that prerogative. A Spinozan learner should have accepted the assertion as it was comprehended and then, if that assertion was denied, unaccepted it. Indeed, a unique pattern of errors emerged: Resource depletion did not cause subjects to believe that affirmed propositions were false, but it did cause them to believe that denied propositions were true. This is precisely what one would expect to happen if unacceptance was disrupted by the musical tone task. The Cartesian model predicts no such asymmetry in response to resource depletion during assessment. The C o n t r o l o f B e l i e f Up to this point, evidence for the Spinozan procedure has consisted largely of evidence for the precedence of acceptance over rejection. However, the Spinozan hypothesis is really composed of two separable claims-the first concerning the temporal precedence of acceptance over rejection (the asymmetry hypothesis), and the second concerning the unity of comprehension and acceptance (the unity hypothesis). Specifically, the principle of premature output would cause such a system to show a bias toward accepting whatever propositions it assessed; however, the Cartozan system would not necessarily assess those propositions it comprehended! In short, the fact that assessment is asymmetric does not mean that acceptance is an automatic consequence of comprehension. As such, the research discussed thus far may impugn the Cartesian model, but by and large it supports the Cartozan and Spinozan models equally well. Comprehension is the process by which the meaning of a proposition is mentally represented, and many theorists have found it difficult to define this process without reference to the veracity of the proposition. Thus, Johnson-Laird (I 988) noted that to comprehend a proposition one must "imagine how the world should be granted its truth" (p. Rips and Marcus (1977) were even more explicit in claiming that the comprehension of a sentence involves "creating a temporary context in which the sentence is true" (p. Indeed, many of us feel that the meaning of an aphorism such as oppression is the mother of liberty is not clear until we have represented the aphorism in a way that renders it true ("Ah yes-the yearning for freedom becomes acute when freedom is denied"). Nonetheless, other theorists have offered definitions that preserve the possibility of mere comprehension. For 114 example, Bransford and Johnson (1973) argued that comprehension "may involve options such as whether or not to judge the truth value of a statement or presuppose its truth value" (p.