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Low-dose irradiation increased shelf-life of cut romaine lettuce by 2 to symptoms quitting tobacco discount aricept master card 5 days (Prakash et al 4 medications walgreens order cheap aricept line. Onions (Diced symptoms 5 weeks pregnant cramps buy generic aricept 10 mg on line, Slivered, Rings, Chunks) Fresh-cut onions should have no discoloration, skin and core. The seed stems and new internal growth should be less than 10%; double centers and translucent scale should be less than 5%. Bulbs for onion rings are washed with cold water at 0 °C (32 °F) before processing. However, diced and slivered onions are washed using chlorinated water after processing. Browning, yellowing, and development of translucence are major factors affecting the visual quality of diced onion (Blanchard et al. Cutting causes important biochemical changes in tissues, including development of sulfur aromatic volatiles. These compounds are produced enzymatically by hydrolysis of alliins (odorless derivatives of amino acids) by alliinase (Schwimmer and Weston 1961, MacLoed 1970). Among the volatiles present in the aromatic profile of onion are oxides of disulfide, thiosulfinates, and propene disulfide, known bacteriostats (Davidson et al. Their action on microorganisms may be due to the inhibition of respiratory enzymes containing thiol groups (Augusti 1990). Thiopropanal-S-oxide, a lacrimogenous factor, has antifungal properties (Sharmon et la. Lowering Mushrooms (Sliced) Fresh-cut mushroom slices are white with no darkening and wrinkling. Wrinkling and brown surface patches are caused by excessive moisture loss (Roy et al. To calculate heat production, 632 the O2 level can be beneficial for visual quality but has no effect on aroma. Atmospheres containing 1 to 2% O2 prevent the loss of pyruvic acid, an indicator of onion flavor intensity, and reduce the rate of respiration of the fresh-cut tissue (Mencarelli et al. The inclusion of potassium permanganate (as an ethylene scrubber) and sulfur volatiles in packages of diced onions improves sensory quality. A storage life of 10 days is possible for fresh-cut onions packaged in polymeric bags without a gas flush and stored at 2 °C (36 °F). Addition of absorbents, potassium permanganate and clay, in packages increased shelf-life up to 18 days at 1 °C (34 °F) (Howard et al. Psychrotrophic and mesophilic flora increased throughout storage under all treatments. Respiration rates vary significantly depending on how long whole onions were in cold storage prior to processing. Pepper, Bell (Diced, Sliced) Fresh-cut bell pepper should have no discoloration (darkening) or water soaking. Raw material should be received at <7 °C (45 °F) and stored at 7 to 10 °C (45 to 50 °F), but stored at 1 and 4 °C (34 to 40 °F) after processing to ensure quality and reduce potential for freezing of product during handling, distribution, and storage. Defects that reduce overall visual quality include darkening of the green or red pulp, brown discoloration of the cut surfaces, and decay. Whole peppers should be spray-washed before processing and washed after being cored and cut to reduce microbial population. Alternatively, cut pepper can be washed using a combination of open-flume and close-flume systems. Although intact peppers are chilling sensitive, it is necessary to store fresh-cut red and green pepper at 0 to 5 °C (32 to 41 °F) to maintain visual quality (El-Bassuoni and Cantwell 1994). Visual quality was maintained and few compositional changes occurred during 15 days of storage at 1 °C (34 °F) (Abe et al. Full ripe or red peppers are less chilling sensitive than mature-green fruits of the same cultivar. Furthermore, case-hardened potatoes form large lumps during mashing (Martin et al. Active modification of package atmospheres is necessary to prevent browning and achieve extended shelf-life. Vacuum packaging of fresh-cut potatoes may create anaerobic conditions that allow growth of Clostridium botulinum. Temperature Potato (Sticks, Diced, Sliced, Peeled) Fresh-cut potatoes should be firm and without brown discoloration. Enzymatic browning is a major problem in the discoloration of peeled or fresh-cut potatoes. Hand-peeling and lye-peeling result in good quality, while abrasion-peeling is undesirable for fresh potatoes. Pretreatment with heated ascorbate and citrate solutions, prior to a browning inhibitor dip containing 4% ascorbate, 1% citrate, and 1% sodium pyrophosphate, has greatly extended storage life over that after the dip alone (Sapers and Miller 1995, Sapers et al. However, under some conditions, such pretreatment-induced changes 634 Respiration Rates Temperature Whole peeled Halves Slices 2 mm Sticks 0. Rutabaga (Cubed, Shredded, Peeled) Fresh-cut rutabaga should have uniform yellow flesh without decay, bruises, or discoloration. Raw material should arrive at <7 °C (45 °F), while raw and fresh-cut product should be stored at 1 to 3 °C (34 to 38 °F) before and after processing to ensure quality and reduce potential for freezing during handling, distribution, and storage. Spinach (Whole Leaves, Cut Leaves) Fresh-cut spinach should be green without any decay or bruise. Fresh and processed products should be stored at 1 to 3 °C (34 to 38 °F) before and after processing to ensure quality and reduce potential for freezing of product during handling, distribution, and storage. These atmospheres had no effect on texture changes during storage at 5 °C (41 °F) for 9 days or at 10 °C (50 °F) for 7 days (Babic and Watada 1996). Microbiological and sensory changes occur in all packaged spinach samples, being more pronounced at 10 °C (50 °F) than at 4 °C (40 °F). Spinach leaves harbor high numbers of mesophilic, psychrotrophic, and Pseudomonadaceae bacteria (Babic and Watada 1996). The pectinolytic species Pseudomonas fluorescens is probably the major spoilage agent of fresh-cut spinach. Populations of Enterobacteriaceae and Micrococcaceae are not greatly affected by storage atmosphere. Tomato (Sliced, Diced) Fresh-cut tomatoes should have consistent red color and firm texture. For sliced tomato products, whole tomatoes are dipped in 200 µL L-1 chlorinated water for more than 1 min before slicing. Although tomatoes are chilling sensitive, they can be stored at 0 to 5 °C (32 to 41 °F) for a few days before processing to retard softening. Water soaking that produces translucent tissue, textural changes, and softening reduces the quality of diced tomatoes during storage. In addition to these deleterious changes, quality of tomato slices can be reduced by seed germination and loss of locular gel.
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It puts a construction on them symptoms 4 days post ovulation order aricept with visa, makes them symptoms 8 days after conception buy aricept in united states online, to medicine recall buy aricept with paypal those historically positioned to appreciate the construction, m e a n i n g f u l - v i s i b l e, tangible, graspable- " real," in an ideational sense. An image, fiction, a model, a metaphor, the cockfight is a means of expression; its function is neither to assuage social passions nor to heighten them (though, in its playing-with-fire way it does a bit of both), but, in a medium of feathers, blood, crowds, and money, to display them. The question of how it is that we perceive qualities in t h i n g s - p a i n t i n g s, books, melodies, 16 In a 1991 interview (Handler 1991), Geertz stated that a weakness of anthropology before the 1960s was that anthropologists read only other anthropologists. His point was that intellectual development in anthropology is based on knowledge in a wide range of fields. As you read, look at the diversity of literature that Geertz ties into his work: Balinese sources, poetry, sociology, psychology, mythology, art, and philosophy, to name just a few, all have a place in his thought. Conversely, Geertz is one of the few anthropological theorists widely read by scholars of literature and history. The cockfight is like a play the Balinese perform for themselves, and its importance is artistic. Geertz says it has "aesthetic power" because it forces layers of significance, what he calls "diverse realities," together. It expresses what the Balinese are in a way that is "normally well obscured from view. There is the matchmaking, there is the betting, there is the fight, there is the r e s u l t - u t t e r triumph and utter d e f e a t - a n d there is the hurried, embarrassed passing of money. People drift away from him, look around him, leave him to assimilate his momentary descent into nonbeing, reset his face, and re-turn, scarless and intact, to the fray. A shadow of the experience no doubt remains with the principals, perhaps even with some of the witnesses of a deep fight, as it remains with us when we leave the theater after seeing a powerful play well-performed; but it quite soon fades to become at most a schematic m e m o r y - a diffuse glow or an abstract s h u d d e r - a n d usually not even that. Any expressive form lives only in its own p r e s e n t - the one it itself creates. But, here, that present is severed into a string of flashes, some more bright than others, but all of them disconnected, aesthetic q u a n t a. It is not an imitation of the punctuateness of Balinese social life, nor a depiction of it, nor even an expression of it; it is an example of it, carefully prepared. In the normal course of things, the Balinese are shy to the point of obsessiveness of open conflict. Oblique, cautious, subdued, controlled, masters of indirection and d i s s i m u l a t i o n - w h a t they call alas, "polished," " s m o o t h " - the y rarely face what they can turn away from, rarely resist what they can evade. But here they portray themselves as wild and murderous, with manic explosions of instinctual cruelty. Here he says the cockfight is not a depiction, expression, or example of Balinese life; rather, it is Balinese life. Northrop Frye (1912-1991) was an influential literary critic who was particularly concerned with the relationship of literature to myth and society. The fact that the blinding does not really happen is crucial to the psychological experience (Frye 1964:98-99). In the last few sections, however, he turns the structural-functionalist position upside down, saying that functionalist conclusions are meaningless for the Balinese. That is, the cockfight is not about social divisions, it is about understanding what it means to be human in Bali and the being and nothingness that are its temporary results. The slaughter in the cock ring is not a depiction of how things literally are among men, but, what is almost worse, of how, from a particular angle, they imaginatively are. What, as we have already seen, the cockfight talks most forcibly about is status relationships, and what it says about them is that they are matters of life and death. That prestige is a profoundly serious business is apparent everywhere one looks in B a l i - i n the village, the family, the economy, the state. A peculiar fusion of Polynesian title ranks and Hindu castes, the hierarchy of pride is the moral backbone of the society. But only in the cockfight are the sentiments upon which that hierarchy rests revealed in their natural colors. Enveloped elsewhere in a haze of etiquette, a thick cloud of euphemism and ceremony, gesture and allusion, they are here expressed in only the thinnest disguise of an animal mask, a mask which in fact demonstrates them far more effectively than it conceals them. Jealousy is as much a part of Bali as poise, envy as grace, brutality as charm; but wnnout me cocxngnt me nannese wouiu nave a much less certain understanding of them, which is, presumably, why they value it so highly. Any expressive form works (when it works) by disarranging semantic contexts in such a way that properties conventionally ascribed to certain things are unconventionally ascribed to others, which are then seen actually to possess them. To call the wind a cripple, as Stevens does, to fix tone and manipulate timbre, as Schoenberg does, or, closer to our case, to picture an art critic as a Wallace Stevens (1879-1955) was an American poet, Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951) an Austrian composer, and William Hogarth (1697-1764) an English painter and lithographer. A young generation of American anthropologists, including Geertz, David Schneider, and Eric Wolf, butted heads with a group of British anthropologists, including Max Gluckman and Meyer Fortes, at a conference in Cambridge, England, in 22 Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight, Clifford Geertz in general parallel to dissecting an organism, diagnosing a symptom, deciphering a code, or ordering a s y s t e m - the dominant analogies in contemporary a n t h r o p o l o g y - t o one in general parallel with penetrating a literary text. If one takes the cockfight, or any other collectively sustained symbolic structure, as a means of " saying something of something " (to invoke a famous Aristotelian tag), then one is faced with a problem not in social mechanics but social semantics. The interpretatio naturae tradition of the middle ages, which, culminating in Spinoza, at-tempted to read nature as Scripture, the Nietzschean effort to treat value systems as glosses on the will to power 2 4 (or the Marxian one to treat them as glosses on property relations), and the Freudian replacement of the enigmatic text of the manifest dream with the plain one of the la-tent, all offer precedents, if not equally recommendable ones. In the case at hand, to treat the cockfight as a text is to bring out a feature of it (in my opinion, the central feature of it) that treating it as a rite 529 or a pastime, the two most obvious alternatives, would tend to obscure: its use of emotion for cognitive ends. What the cockfight says it says in a vocabulary of s e n t i m e n t - the thrill of risk, the despair of loss, the pleasure of triumph. Yet what it says is not merely that risk is exciting, loss depressing, or triumph gratifying, banal tautologies of affect, but that it is of these emotions, thus exampled, that society is built and individuals are put together. Attending cockfights and participating in them is, for the Balinese, a kind of sentimental education. The cockfight is the Balinese reflection on theirs: on its look, its uses, its force, its fascination. Drawing on almost every level of Balinese experience, it brings together the m e s a n i m a l savagery, male narcissism, opponent gambling, status rivalry, mass excitement, blood sacrifice-whose main connection is their involvement with rage and the fear of rage, and, binding them into a set of rules which at once contains them and allows them play, builds a symbolic structure in which, over and over again, the reality of their inner affiliation can be intelligibly felt. If, to quote Northrop Frye again, we go to see Macbeth to learn what a man feels like after he has gained a kingdom and lost his soul, Balinese go to cockfights to find out what a man, posed was a systematic procedure for the perfection of human nature. Friedrich Nietzsche was a German philosopher whose work was influential in the development of existentialism. His book, the Birth of Tragedy (1956 [18711), was important to the work of Ruth Benedict and is discussed in essay 16. In this final section, Geertz summarizes his argument and explains how the cockfight attains personal significance for Balinese participants. Up to now the analysis has been very particular, but his conclusions try to say something universal about the nature of culture: that cultures are a form of text. In one of his best known works, Ethics, he set out a geometrical program of definitions, axioms, postulates, and theorems that he pro24 530 Symbolic and Interpretive Anthropology fight, with the active watching of an owner and a bettor (for cockfighting has no more interest as a pure spectator sport than does croquet or dog racing), he grows familiar with it and what it has to say to him, much as the attentive listener to string quartets or the absorbed viewer of still life grows slowly more familiar with them in a way which opens his subjectivity to himself. Quartets, still lifes, and cockfights are not merely reflections of a pre-existing sensibility analogically represented; they are positive agents in the creation and maintenance of such a sensibility. If we see ourselves as a pack of Micawbers, it is from reading too much Dickens (if we see ourselves as unillusioned realists, it is from reading too little); and similarly for Balinese, cocks, and cockfights. It is in such a way, coloring experience with the light they cast it in, rather than through whatever material effects they may have, that the arts play their role, as arts, in social life. Not only are there a great many other cultural texts providing commentaries on status hierarchy and selfregard in Bali, but there are a great many other critical sectors of Balinese life besides the stratificatory and the agonistic that receive such commentary.
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For example symptoms xanax addiction discount aricept 10 mg with visa, many biological effects are approximately described by a log-normal distribution (Mantel & Bryan treatment plan for anxiety cheap 5 mg aricept with mastercard, 1961) symptoms xxy discount 10mg aricept with visa. That is, the logarithm of doses that produce a biological effect is approximately normally distributed. The log-normal distribution is described by the mean (median) and standard deviation. Typically, a default safety factor of 10 is used to account for interindividual differences in susceptibility. Alternatively, the distribution of doses that cause tumours (or, equivalently, the resulting log-probit dose-response curve) can provide a safety factor for interindividual variation to replace the default factor of 10. Two other commonly used models, the loglogistic and Weibull, were also fit to these data to indicate the effect of the choice of dose-response model (or equivalent underlying distribution of interindividual variation). At higher doses, these dose-response models curve upwards sharply as detoxication processes become saturated. Further, the log-logistic model is based on how a chemical affects the toxicokinetics of the formation and reduction of a chemically active agent, and the Weibull distribution is based on the assumption that multiple hits at a target site (cell) are required to affect the carcinogenic process. As it is unlikely that a low tumour incidence would be observed in a sample of 48 animals, the zero incidence at the two lowest doses was replaced by a conservative Bayesian estimated incidence of 1/2n, where n is the number of animals. Since no renal tumours were induced at that dose, it was assumed that the animals would not have had tumours at 0. The estimated incidence for the 48 animals without tumours at this dose was 1/(2 x 96) = 0. The estimated dose-response relationship for the log-probit model is: P = <P (In median = 2. The estimated dose-response curves for the other models are: Log-logistic Weibull p = 1/[1+ e-(-3. The slope of the dose-response curve accounts for intraspecies variation in the sensitivity of rats to fumonisin. Since the Bayesian procedure increased the tumour incidence at the two lower doses, the cancer risks at low doses are likely to be overestimated. The liver and kidney retain most of the absorbed material, and fumonisin B1 persists longer in rat liver and kidney than in plasma. In pregnant rats and rabbits, very low concentrations of fumonisin B 1 were recovered in the uterus and placenta. No fumonisin B1 was found in fetuses, indicating the absence of placental transfer. There was little evidence of significant transfer during lactation, and tumonisins do not appear to be metabolized in vitro or in vivo. Although fumonisins are not metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes, fumonisin 8 1 can alter the activity of these enzymes through mechanisms that alter sphingolipid biosynthesis. Removal of the tricarballylic acid side-chains, presumably by the microbial flora of the gut, converts fumonisin 8 1 into a substrate for ceramide synthase. The product of the enzyme reaction, like fumonisin 81, is an inhibitor of the enzyme in vitro. Toxicological studies In all animal species studied, the liver was a target for fumonisin B 1 the kidney; was also a target in many species. In kidney, the early effects are often increases in free sphingoid bases, renal tubule-cell apoptosis, and cell regeneration. In the liver, apoptotic and oncotic necrosis, oval-cell proliferation, bile-duct hyperplasia, and regeneration are early signs of toxicity. In studies in rats and trout fed known cancer initiators and with various initiation and promotion protocols, purified fumonisin 81 enhanced liver cancer development. Brief administration of high doses or longer administration of lower doses that cause significant hepatotoxicity resulted in the appearance of foci positive for glutathione-S-transferase (placental form), hepatocellular nodules, and other precursors of liver tumour development. In mice, the liver is more sensitive than the kidney to the toxicity of fumonisin B 1 Female mice were. In long-term feeding studies, purified fumonisin B1 caused both liver and kidney tumours in rodents. The kidney carcinomas induced in male Fischer 344N rats by fumonisin B1 were a highly malignant variant of renal tubule tumour, but the significance of their aggressive nature was unclear. Dose-response relationship for renal toxicity and tumours in male Fischer 344N rats fed diets containing purified fumonisin 8 1 for 2 years Dose of fumonisin 8 1 (mg/kg bw per day) No. Dose-response relationship for renal toxicity in male Fischer 344N rats fed diets containing purified fumonisin 8 1 for 90days Dose of fumonisin 8 1 (mg/kg bw per day) Untreated controls No. Several biochemical modes of action have been postulated to explain the induction by fumonisins of disease in animals. The first proposed mechanism involves disruption of sphingolipid metabolism through inhibition of ceramide synthase. Clear evidence of fumonisin-induced disruption of sphingolipid metabolism has been obtained in all target tissues except brain and in all species tested. The second proposed mechanism involves disruption of fatty acid and glycerophospholipid metabolism. Fumonisin-induced changes in fatty acid profiles and prostaglandins have been demonstrated in vivo in rat liver. These two proposed lipid-based mechanisms of action are similar in many respects with regard to their ultimate effects on cell physiology and are consistent with data obtained in vitro, in short-term studies of toxicity, and in long-term studies of carcinogenicity in rodents. Fumonisins also affect sites of cellular regulation that are apparently independent of the disruption ot lipid metabolism, but cancer and the other toxic effects observed in animals appear to depend on disruption of various aspects of lipid metabolism, membrane structure, and signal transduction pathways mediated by lipid second messengers. The demonstrated cellular effects include altered cell proliferation, altered rates of apoptosis, altered intracellular communication and cell adhesion, induction of oxidative stress, and modulation of gene expression. Since the proposed biochemical mechanisms of action involve alterations in de novo biosynthetic pathways, nutritional factors could play an important role in determining the potency of fumonisin 8 1 and the observed toxicological effects in rodents. The available in-vivo observations are consistent with a proposed mode of action for fumonisin 8 1-induced toxicity that is dependent on perturbed lipid metabolism. The resulting increase in cell death coupled with regenerative cell proliferation, possibly by generation of oxidative damage, could in turn lead to increased incidences of tumours in target tissues. The primary evidence for sustained cell loss and regeneration is the observations of such effects in rat kidneys. In a small number of studies in vitro and a single study in vivo, neither fumonisin 8 1 nor any other fumonisin was shown unequivocally to be genotoxic. While there was evidence that fumonisins are embryotoxic in vitro, no published data exist to support the conclusion that fumonisins cause developmental or reproductive toxicity in farm animals. Except in one study in hamsters, embryotoxicity occurred in laboratory animals (rats, mice, and rabbits) secondarily to maternal toxicity. Consumption of mouldy sorghum or maize containing fumonisin 8 1 at up to 64 mg/kg was associated with an outbreak of human disease in India involving gastrointestinal symptoms.
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This suggests a correspondingly compact form of storage Further evidence for the bounded way in which these beliefs were held comes from two men who stated the same ideas earlier in the course of the interviews medications and grapefruit purchase online aricept. The largely unchanged way Collins and Lovett repeated their views is further evidence for a bounded form of storage symptoms questionnaire buy aricept on line amex. He pro-posed the following: Let us postulate the existence of self-contained cognitive units called opinion molecules medications similar to vyvanse order genuine aricept. This follows the insight by Casson (1983:430-431) and others that schemas occur at differ- ent levels of abstraction and schemas at one level may not be sensitive to schemas at other levels. Schemas at low levels of abstraction, for example, might be those for perceiving geometric figures and colors, while some at higher levels are for understanding complex activities. A s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e, the ir ta lk a b o u t g e t t i n g a h e a d indicated a me ta a wa re n e ss that these values are d o m i n a n t social values. This co nt ras ts with m u c h of the i r d i s c o u r s e a b o u t the ir d u t i e s as the b r e a d w i n n e r in the family. T h e latter talk suggests that breadwinner values typically come to c o n s c i o u s n e s s not as values, b ut as an in e sc a pa b le reality. I t is as if th e opinion-holder were saying, "What else could the r e p o s s i b l y be t o a d d? It e n t e r s o u r verbal c o n sc i o u s n e s s as a c o m p a c t and indivisible ma ss; o n e m u s t e i th e r totally affirm it, or totally reject it" (1 9 8 1: 3 4 3). U n i t s c a n b e j o i n e d i n ma n y d iffe ren t co n f ig u ra tio n s, from b o u n d e d packages to u n b o u n d e d ne tworks. I argue below t h a t beliefs r e p r e s e n t e d i n t he l a t t e r " Mikhail Bakhtin (1895-1975) was a Russian literary theorist and philosopher best known for his theory of "dialogics. He proposed that language was a part of the material world, constituted by the subjects who used it. He argued that the fundamental linguistic activity was the utterance, which acquires meaning only within the sociocultural context of a dialogue. Bahktin wrote that a dialogue consisted of three elements: a speaker/writer, a listener/respondent/reader, and the relationship between the two. Language and what language says were the products of the interactions between these elements. Supporters of connectionist theory argue that if schemas were just recognition devices, then the brain would have to process the world in a serial, stepwise fashion, much like a com puter. However, it is clear that this processing method w ou ld be time co nsumin g an d wou ld no t allo w for the split-second decisions and actions that are involved in activities such as playing a piano or driving a car. Thus, connectionist theory has forced cognitive anthropologists and psychologists to expand their notions of schemas and how they operate. Schemas are flexible configurations, mirroring the regularities of experience, providing automatic completion of missing components, automatically generalizing from the past, but also continually in modification, continually adapting to the current state of affairs. Schemas were originally conceived as fixed cognitive structures What Makes Tony Run? Even if your buddy next to you is dying with whatever that caused it, that you knoll). Gauvin, for example, went on to say that he has to have Blue Cross coverage because his wife is sick. Furthermore, this is not, as in the success model, a matter of putting upward mobility ahead of all else. The men were not talking about the possibility of upward mobility so much as the pitfall of downward mobility. Each man was considering a situation in which he or someone like him held a job that paid well-and the question was whether or not to keep it. If the alternative is another manufacturing job, this could easily mean, at least for the Ciba-Geigy workers, a much lower income. In 1985 most of the Ciba-Geigy workers I interviewed had incomes between $20,000 and $25,000. In Rhode Island as a whole, the average manufacturing wage in 1985 was only $15,860. Also part of this model is the knowledge-for Rhode Islanders with a high school education or less-that there are not many jobs in the state for men of their skills that pay a decent wage. Then, however, Collins pauses and indicates that he could have left the job; it is just that he liked the wage scale there, which gave him the money for " doing what I like to do. Their tendency, as shown by the way they usually talked, is not to see the value of avoiding downward mobility as a value. This is quite different from the way they talked about success, which they consistently treated as a value. Knowing that the success model represents widely shared values led several men to respond verballydefensively in some cases, with pride in o the r s - t o the imagined judgment that they had not been very successful. It may be that awareness of their failure to live up to these values has affected their selfesteem. This is an excellent example of how cognitive anthropologists tend to see culture as a mental rather than material phenomena. By contrast, in talking about the sorts of situations they or others have faced as breadwinners, Collins said, "I had to go with the flow" (14. Of course, these men are not literally trapped, without any choice, in jobs that are tiring, dangerous, and interfere with family life. The metaphors of necessity these men use hide the implicit value premise that downward mobility is bad, highlighting instead the day-to-day realities of their work li ve s. On another occasion Collins was talking about how his life had become very routine: 18. No, boredom did set in, I believe, after twelve or fourteen years, I was kind of getting edgy and said, Wish I would go somewhere else or go look for something. You know, you get to say, Well, I like putting a few 13 Here again Strauss is following the method pioneered by the ethnoscientists of the 1950s. Previous notes have already discussed the weaknesses of the ethnoscientific approach and the difficulties of applying it to any more than the few people who were interviewed. Schemers as Motives Reconsidered, Claudia Strauss model was less effective than the breadwinner model at motivating action: only one of the bluecollar interviewees who endorsed the model acted on it consistently in his work life. Every man who spoke of breadwinner role expectations as an inescapable reality, on the other hand, assumed primary responsibility for supporting his family, subordinating his own interests to the need to keep a steady paycheck coming. For these four men at least, the values they felt constrained by were usually seen not as values, but as simple reality. In one sense Gallucci did subordinate his interests by going to work in as dangerous an environment as a chemical plant. This is consistent with his initial decision to work at the chemical plant, where he made less money initially than he had in his previous job but had more time to court the woman he married. If a person talks about A and B using the same significant terms, then A and B are linked for them. He had been working at Ciba-Geigy for twenty-five years, first as a chemical operator, then as a maintenance mechanic. These personal semantic networks are unbounded, that is, they are connected to a wide variety of experiences.
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However treatment 247 order aricept american express, many feminist symptoms dehydration buy aricept 10mg otc, minority symptoms kidney disease order aricept 5mg with amex, and Third World scholars do not reject the idea of objectivity and in fact find that the epistemological relativism typical of much post-modernist writing undercuts attempts to identify what has actually happened in the world and what needs to be changed. A recognition of many kinds of science as applied to anthropology forces us to consider that the study of the human condition requires a division of labor in the research process. Geertz makes the point that his politics of tolerance and und e r s t a n d i n g - o f fighting against provincialism and e t h n o c e n t r i s m - a r e just as moral as other positions and that it is unfair to be labeled " without politics " by those who have other politics. The postmodern focus on oppression may, in fact, obscure the real reasons people do not attempt to change their lives. The objective model attempts to discover how things work, but the moral model focuses on assigning blame and punishment. He positions himself as a minority voice arguing against an overwhelming tide of antiscience and irrationality. In the last line, he goes as far as to suggest that if the forces of d a r k n e s s- th e postmod- ernists- win, the existence of the discipline of anthropology itself will be threatened. But it is important to note that the debate between those who view anthropology as the description of culture and those who view it as a science of culture designed to produce generalizable laws is as old as the discipline itself and unlikely to abate. It is not much of an exaggeration to say that this debate is one of the basic forces that drives anthropological theory. Ethnoscientists produced highly particularistic accounts of culture in reaction to cultural ecology. Ecological and cultural-materialists, in their turn, reacted to the accounts of ethnoscientists, urging a generalizable, empirically based anthropology; and postmodernists, reacting to this, call for highly particular, narrative accounts of culture. Writing culture: the poetics and politics of ethnography Berkeley: University of California Press. Globalization, Power, and Agency S amuel Goldwyn, or Yogi Berra, or Casey Stengle once said "never make predictions, especially about the future. However, based on the tendencies of the last decade or so, it seems that work having to do with globalization, power, and agency will probably play an important role in the discipline. In this concluding chapter, we offer three examples of this sort of work from the 1990s. To some degree, interest in globalization is probably driven by facts on the ground. Today, al-most all anthropologists would accept the notion that cultures are constantly changing. Authors such as Wolf, Leacock, Stoller, and others, have pointed out that most societies studied by anthropologists were deeply affected by the experience of the expansion of Western societies, the emergence of capitalism, colonization, and other external forces. Often, when anthropologists thought they were looking at "primitive" societies and "stone age" peoples, they were, in fact, looking at societies that owed their origin to the policies of European governments. Despite this, when Napoleon Chagnon went to do research among the Yanomamo in 1964, for example, he could be excused if he believed that they were relatively untouched by the outside world and living in more or less the same way they had for countless generations. They had relatively few material goods from outside, had only rarely seen others who did not look like them, and behaved in ways clearly alien to Venezuelan and Brazilian societies. In the past forty years, the Yanomamo have been the subject of endless controversy. Their land has been invaded by gold miners, they have been at the center of disputes about national parks and the rights of native peoples. Their leaders have been frequent presences at universities and government hearings. We have no wish to take sides in any of the controversies surrounding the Yanomamo. However, what is true of them is also the case just about everywhere else in the world. Almost anywhere you go, at least some people have access to the rest of the world. Television is ubiquitous, and it no longer feels terribly strange to be sitting in a small African village watching American sitcoms. No doubt, the distribution of these phones is affected by geography, class, ethnicity, and many other factors, but the numbers are impressive nonetheless. Globalization is simply one of the most obvious and powerful phenomena in the world. This is particularly clear to anthropologists who (like McGee) have worked in a single location for several decades. Briefly, Wolf, strongly influenced by Marx, argued that the societies anthropologists examined must be seen in their historical contexts. In the past several hundred years, the most critical component of this context was the expansion of power of Europe and the incorporation of societies across the globe in an economic system dominated by capitalism. Rather, they tend to focus on the present and the past couple of decades in analyzing the ways in which societies are articulated with the world economy in general and with capitalist enterprises in particular. Critical foci of their studies include the effects of the expansion of multinational corporations, the outsourcing of production and labor, and the ability to move goods and information around the globe. Although Wolf was concerned largely with large-scale economic and social processes, globalization theorists tend to be interested in specific local effects of economic incorporation. Guided by the work of Antonio Gramsci and Michel Foucault (both of whom have been discussed earlier in this book), they seek to understand the ways in which both the powerful and the powerless perceive and manipulate symbols and comprehend their position in the world; how they choose which objects and activities are desirable; and how they view the goals of society. Gramsci and Foucault were both interested in the relationship between ideas and power. Foucault in particular explored the ways in which knowledge, rather than being abstract and universal, is created and used by powerful people and institutions. Rather there are "regimes of truth," conditions and processes under which what counts as "truth" in a given society is established and used. Essentially, globalization theorists attempt to describe the truths of capitalist society and elucidate the processes by which they are both established and challenged. A third influence in globalization theory is the thought of the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu (1930-2002), in particular his ideas regarding habitus and multiple forms of capital. Bourdieu 581 expands upon the notion of habitus found in the work of Marcel Mauss and Norbert Elias (18971990). Habitus is a complex concept, and there is much debate in anthropology over what exactly it means. For Bourdieu, it seems to have the sense of largely unconscious aspects of social life that are inscribed in the body, including dispositions, habits of perception, and action. It would be habitus if it went without saying that, in my society, if one had a dog, one always walked it at 8 P. Habitus refers to those aspects of culture of which participants in the culture are not fully conscious. Economic capital is wealth that can be invested in ownership of the means of production with the goal of increase. Bourdieu points out that in addition to economic capital, individuals in society also manipulate social, cultural, and symbolic capital. Social capital refers to membership in networks of individuals and positions within such networks. An individual with a wide social network can activate it to pursue economic or other goals. Cultural capital refers to the possession of education, special knowledge, and skills.
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The clamps are placed prior untwisting the pedicle to medicine woman dr quinn order aricept uk minimize dislodgement of the thrombi symptoms 0f ovarian cancer 5 mg aricept for sale. Intracystic Hemorrhage: It is more common in serous cyst adenoma with papillary varieties symptoms syphilis buy generic aricept pills. Intracystic hemorrhage also occurs following venous congestion due to axial torsion of the pedicle and also in malignant changes. The organisms are derived from the intestines or uterine tubes when they are adherent to the cyst. Rupture: Rupture of the cyst usually follows in big and tense cysts with degeneration of a part of cyst wall. The rupture also occurs following intracystic hemorrhage or direct trauma, in papillary variety or in malignancy. Pseudomyxoma Peritonei: It is a condition of mucinous ascites usually secondary to mucinous tumor of intra-abdominal organ. But it is often associated with mucinous cyst adenoma of the ovary, mucocele of the appendix and gallbladder and intestinal malignancy. Spontaneous perforation of mucinous cyst may lead to implantation of the cells of low grade malignancy on the peritoneum. Or else, the mesothelium of the peritoneum is converted to high columnar epithelium with secretory activity. Hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with removal of mucin, peritoneal implants along with appendix is recommended. The malignant potentiality is maximum in serous cyst adenoma especially of papillary variety and least in dermoid. The former gives rise to adenocarcinoma and the latter to squamous cell carcinoma. This is because, the complication can occur at any time and the nature of the tumor cannot be assessed clinically. In others, even a benign tumor removed may be proved malignant on histological examination. Differentiation between benign and malignant ovarian tumors could be made by clinical examination, ultrasonography, laparotomy and finally by biopsy (see p. Guidelines for Surgery in an Apparently Benign Tumor y Incision should be vertical paramedian sufficiently big enough to deliver the cyst intact. An attempt to tap a cyst to minimize its size and to deliver it with a small incision is to be condemned. The content may be mucinous, sebaceous material, infective or malignant fluid which contaminates the peritoneal cavity. A sample of the fluid or peritoneal washings should be sent for cytological examination. Note the turns in the pedicle and stretched Fallopian tube y y y y To inspect and to palpate the other ovary, pelvic organs, omentum, liver, under surface of diaphragm and para-aortic group of lymph glands. It is not prudent to bisect the contralateral ovary, if it looks absolutely normal. In parous women around 40 years y Total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingooophorectomy is to be done. In between these two extremes of age Individualization is to be done as regards the nature of surgery. If a part is to be sent, a small piece from the comparatively solid or thick capsule is to be selected. The characteristic features are: They constitute 1020% of all epithelial tumors of the ovary. These tumors are intermediate in position between benign and the malignant in term of histology and prognosis. When there is bilateral ovarian involvement or peritoneal spread, total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and excision of the involved peritoneum are done. The wall consists of connective tissue lined by a single layer of cuboidal or flat epithelium. There may be a thin muscle tissue along with secretory epithelium suggesting tubal origin. Removal of the tumor, when it burrows in the broad ligament, needs a cautious approach as the ureter is either placed at the bottom or on the top of the cyst. Hemostasis at the base is achieved by ligature taking care not to injure the ureter. Key Points h the functional cysts of the ovary are predominantly follicular cyst and corpus luteum cyst. Ovarian cystic mass 8 cm or more after menopause or before puberty or a solid tumor at any age indicates laparotomy. Theca lutein cysts are due to excessive gonadotropin (endogenous or exogenous) stimulation of the ovaries. Fifty percent of molar pregnancies and 10 percent of choriocarcinomas have associated bilateral theca lutein cysts (p. The following criteria must be fulfilled for conservative management of an ovarian cyst: (i) Asymptomatic. The content is mucin - a glycoprotein with high content of neutral polysaccharides. It is lined by tall columnar epithelium with deep stained basal nucleus without cilia, the structure like that of endocervix. Ovarian tumor is commonly confused with full bladder, pregnancy, fibroid or ascites. Torsion of the pedicle is the commonest complication of benign cystic ovarian tumor and the rarest one is malignancy. Pseudomyxoma peritonei is usually associated with mucinous cyst adenoma of the ovary, mucocele of the appendix and gallbladder and intestinal malignancy. In young women, conservative surgery, either ovarian cystectomy or ovariotomy (oophorectomy) is to be done. In patient around 40 years and above, total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is justified. In elderly women total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and omentectomy are done. In all cases, the tumor is subjected to histopathological study to note the nature of the tumor and to exclude malignancy. These ectopic endometrial tissues may be found in the myometrium when it is called endometriosis interna or adenomyosis. More commonly, however, these tissues are found at sites other than uterus and are called endometriosis externa or generally referred to as endometriosis. PrEvalEncE During the last couple of decades, the prevalence of endometriosis has been increasing both in terms of real and apparent. The real one is due to delayed marriage, postponement of first conception and adoption of small family norm.
- Biopsy of affected tissue
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Pistachios are strongly alternate-bearing and failure of hull split and blank formation are correlated with "on" and "off" crop years medicine 5658 buy discount aricept 5mg on line. Studies indicate that blanking tends to treatment xerophthalmia buy aricept 10mg line be much higher in "off" years and nonsplit nuts are much more common in "on" years symptoms stomach ulcer discount aricept uk. Of course, crop load is much higher in "on" years, and this has a large effect on assimilate partitioning. Postharvest Pathology Several fungi are capable of infecting growing pistachio nuts and causing damage to hulls and kernels. Infection is often facilitated by early splitting of hulls, which leads to infestations by a number of hemipteran insects that feed on the nuts and serve as nonspecific vectors for diseases. Late season rains will promote activity of Botryosphaeria dothidea on pistachio hulls and kernels (Michailides et al. As with many disease problems of pistachio, vectoring by insects attracted to early split nuts (such as navel orangeworm) is an important contributing factor. The close association of contamination with early split nuts suggests that the potential aflatoxin problem can be reduced by following procedures for reducing early splitting or sorting out nuts with shells stained because of early splitting (discussed above and Michaelides et al. In theory, nuts with aflatoxin contamination could be sorted out based on aflatoxin fluorescence; however, Steiner et al. Further complicating the detection problem is the fact that substantial contamination in a large sample of nuts may be due to the initial contamination and spread by only a few individual nuts. Methyl bromide fumigation treatments for pistachio nuts to decrease residues and control navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Survival of navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) during pistachio processing. Quality and safety of pistachio nuts as influenced by postharvest handling procedures. Quarantine Issues Insect infestation is a potentially important problem, as are the fungal infections that often accompany insect damage. Fumigation with methyl bromide or phosphine has been used for disinfestation, but the former is being curtailed and insect resistance to phosphine has been reported (Zettler et al. New fumigants are being developed and tests of efficacy, including effects on flavor, are being performed (E. Relationship between shell discoloration of pistachio nuts and incidence of fungal decay and insect infestation. Fatty acid oxidation of pistachio nuts stored under various atmospheric conditions and different temperatures. Phosphine resistance in insects infesting stored peanuts in the southeastern United States. The skin covering the kernel contains chemicals that protect fatty acids in the kernel from becoming rancid. Light-colored kernels earn a higher price because the light color indicates that the kernel still has a relatively long shelf-life. An important criterion for evaluating new varieties is yield of light-colored kernels (Hendricks et al. Retention of light color is influenced by the integrity of the seal between the two halves of the shell, because the shell is an important barrier to O2 entry. Shell strength and seal integrity are also important in protecting kernels from insect damage and fungi infections that often follow insect damage. Two-thirds of the California production is sold as shelled products (see Siebert 1998); therefore, additional characteristics of processing quality are ease of shelling and yield of intact kernel halves. Scientific Name and Introduction Persian (English) walnut (Juglans regia and a few related species) is a member of the family Juglandaceae and is by far the most important commercial walnut. The genus Juglans contains three other groups (butternut, east asian species, and black walnut species) that produce edible kernels. Persian walnuts evolved in central and eastern Asia and were introduced into California in the late 1700s. Nuts are mechanically shaken from trees during an extended harvest period from late August to early November. The edible kernel is surrounded by a husk that dehisces as the kernel nears maturity. The husk, which should be well split and relatively dry at harvest, is generally lost when the nuts fall to the ground. Nuts are quickly swept from the orchard floor to avoid damage to the fragile nut and are then dehydrated in forced-air dryers to 8% water content. The temperature of the drying air is kept low, <43 °C (110 °F), to avoid damage leading to kernel rancidity. Horticultural Maturity Indices Kernels are considered mature when oil accumulation is complete. However, harvest should not begin until the husk is well split and separated from the shell. In the hottest growing regions of California, kernels may be mature 3 weeks prior to husk "maturation" (dehiscence). Ethephon applications are used to advance the harvest and make nut maturation more uniform throughout the tree/ orchard (Olson et al. Quality Characteristics and Criteria the primary quality criterion is a high oil content (55 to 65% dry weight) and lack of off flavors caused by oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Not only does this retard the progression of events that lead to rancidity, it also prevents mold growth and maintains the Grades, Sizes, and Packaging In-shell and shelled grades exist and are primarily determined by size, degree of kernel fill, color, and freedom from defects and foreign material. A complete 777 description of Federal quality standards can be found at. In-shell walnut kernels derive protection against oxidative changes from the intact shell and kernel skin. Shelled products should be packaged in airtight, moistureproof, opaque or foil packages to maximize shelflife. Edible coatings may be used as O2 barriers to retard kernel rancidity (Matй et al. There are no documented responses of walnut to ethylene that might affect quality. Respiration Rates the low water content of properly stored walnuts makes them relatively inert metabolically. Optimum Storage Conditions Low water content and high fat content of the kernel make it relatively stable metabolically and able to tolerate low temperatures. The primary objectives of storage are to maintain the low water content attained after preliminary drying (to suppress enzyme activity, retain texture, and reduce microbial activity) and to limit exposure to O2 (to minimize rancidity). The optimum temperature range for storage is 0 to 10 °C (32 to 50 °F), with the lower temperature being better.
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I f the process of civilization seems the worthwhile end of knowledge of civilization xanax medications for anxiety generic aricept 10mg visa, it must be sought as a process distinct from that of mechanical causality treatment yeast overgrowth buy aricept canada, or the result wi ll be a reintegration that is not history medications given during dialysis purchase aricept 5mg mastercard. Teleology of course does not suggest theology to those free from the influence of theology. The teleology of history involves the absolute conditioning of historical events by other historical events. This causality of history is as completely unknown and unused as chemical causality was a thousand and physical causality three thousand 19 years ago. However, in profession 15 he breaks from Durkheim and from the British social anthropologists who followed Durkheim. Durkheim believed that a science of society similar to the natural sciences could be developed. In professions 15 and 16, he claims that though laws might exist, anthropologists should not be interested in finding them. Like Boas, Kroeber believes that cultures are understandable only in the context of their own historical and environmental circumstances. It is interesting that Kroeber rejects the notion that anthropology can be scientific but supports the idea that psychology is scientific. On the one hand, in the nineteenth century, Wilhelm Wundt and others developed a psychology that was based on laboratory experiments. On the other hand, the form of psychology to which Kroeber was personally drawn was Freudian psychoanalysis, one of the least scientific theories of psychology imaginable. Teleology is the study of ultimate causes and is often linked to some religious conception of the world; the search for ultimate causes usually implies a series of beliefs about human destiny. Echoing Boas, Kroeber says that the cause of history is history, or in other words, culture is sui generis (see page 124). In the last sentence of the profession, Kroeber declares himself to be at the dawn of a new era of study. History has been dominated by studies of great men and the acts of literate nation-states. Now that we understand that history is anthropology and that it is not the biography of the great or the property of technologically advanced nations, Kroeber says, we can begin to document and understand it. In 1959, only a year before his death, Kroeber wrote: "The pursuit of anthropology must often have seemed strange and useless to many people, but no one has ever called it an arid or a toneless or a dismal science" (1959:404). In fine, the determinations and methods of 135 biological, psychological, or natural science do not exist for history, just as the results and the manner of operation of history are disregarded by consistent biological practice. M o s t biologists have implicitly followed their aspect of this doctrine, but their c o n s e q u e n t success has t e m p t e d m a n y historians, especially sociologists, anthropologists, an d theorists, to i mi ta the the m instead of p u r s u i n g their p r o p e r co mp le me ntar y metho d. A s our daily bread, we invent hypotheses in order to test them, as we are told is the constant practice of the high tribe of physicists. If at times some of you, like myself, feel somewhat ill at ease in the house of social science, do not wonder; we are changelings therein; our true p a t e r n i t y l i e s e l s e w h e r. The times and 20 Kroeber and most other Boasians maintained a strong s t a n c e a ga i n s t a s c i e n t i f i c a n t h r o p o l o g y t h r o u g h o u t the i r l i v e s. I n the sa m e e s sa y q u o t e d a b o v e, K r o e b e r writes: utilitarianism have caught up with us, and we find ourselves classified and assigned to the social t. We have seen in fact t ha t even so o p e n m i n d e d a n d s y m p a the t i c a s c h o l a r as J u n g a ppa re ntly still ac ce pts this view (c. T h a t an example like the o n e u sed by J u n g s ho ul d in all good faith be given as rep rese nt at iv e of the n o r m a l or even the a b n o r m a l reaction of a From Primitive Man as Philosopher (1927) primitive m a n to a given e mo ti on al s it ua ti on, shows th e d e p t h of ig no ra nc e that still exists on this su bj ect. Now qu it e a p a r t from the m a n if e s t absurdity involved in the belief that any pa re n t in a primitive g r o u p w o u l d wr ea k his rage at his lack of succe ss in hu nt in g, in this m u r d e r o u s fashion u p o n the first obje c t t ha t c a m e within his re a c h, even if it be his i n n o c e n t and beloved child, th ere are a h u n d r e d a n d o n e re a s o n s that wo ul d have de t e rr e d h i m, even had he been the u n c o n t r o l l e d a n i m a l the il lu st ra ti on a s s u m e s him to have be e n. For Radin, the intrinsic sophistication, wisdom, and value of culture was evident from the deta ils of the liv es of his inf orman ts. I am well a w a r e t h a t in s o m e tribes this is m o r e definitely expressed t h a n in ot he r s a n d th a t not infre q ue n tl y ce rta in e xc re sc e nc e s; in the ir c e r e m o nial life s e e m to c o n t r a d i c t this ass ert io n. Yet I t h i n k m o s t f ie l d e t h n o l o g i s t s w o u l d a g r e e w i t h m. S i n c e i n t he f a c e o f s o f o r m i d a b l e a b o d y o f o p inion a p p a r e n t l y to the co n tr ar y, in c o n tr o v er tib le e v i d e n c e w i l l be d e m a n d e d o f m e t o s u b s t a n t i a t e so broad and explicit a s t a t e m e n t, I shall confine myself in my p re s e n t a t i o n of the facts to a tribe w h ic h I know personally and w h e r e the material w h i c h I u s e c a n be d e f i n i t e l y c o n t r o l l e d. T h e d a t a u p o n w h i c h I rely c o m e from the W i n n e b a g o I n d i a n s of W i s c o n s i n a n d N e b r a s k a a n d a r e t o b e f o u n d in two m o n o g r a p h s p u b l i s h e d by mc. Only s t a t e m e n t s m a d e by the W i n n e b a g o the mse lves in a c c o u n t s e i the r ac tua lly writte n by the m se l v e s or c o n t a i n e d in ve r ba t im de s c r i p t i o n s of the rituals o b ta in e d in th e original W i n n e b a g o are used in orde r to obviate all inaccuracy. I c a n t h i n k of no b e t t e r m e t h o d of i n t r o d u c i n g th e subject t h a n by q u o t i n g appr op ria the pa ss age s from the W i n n e b a g o texts s e c u r e d ` a n d the n d i s c u s s i n g the m in the light of the k n o w le d g e they t h r o w u p o n the s y s t e m of e t h i c s 2 2. I f y o u c a s t o f f y o u r d r e s s f o r ma n y p e o p l e, th e y will be be nef itte d by your d e e d. I f y o u h a v e a h o me o f y o u r o w n, s e e t o i t tha t wh oe ve r e nt e rs it o bt a i ns s o m e t h i n g to eat. W h e n you are r e c o u n t i n g your war d e e d s on be ha lf of the d e p a r t e d soul, do not try to add to your h o n o r by c la i m i n g m o r e for yourself t h a n you have a c tua lly ac co mp lish e d. If you tell a falsehood the n a n d exaggerate your ac h i e ve m e n t s you Carl Gustave Jung (1875-1961) was a Swiss psychologist an d e ar ly f ollow er of Fr e ud wh o b r o k e with h im o v er the role of sexuality in the development of neuroses. Jung had written an account of a Bushman who, enraged a t h a v in g c a u gh t no th in g w h i le f i sh in g, s tr a n g le d h i s yo ung son who ran out to gree t him an d th en mour ned for the boy with "the same abandon and lack of comprehe n sion as ha d be f ore ma de h im str a n g le h im" (Ra d in 1957[19271:39). In claiming that primitive peoples can be p h ilo so p h e r s, as he d oe s in th e title o f th e b o o k f ro m which this extract is taken, he is attacking cultural evolutionism, particularly the idea that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny. This idea, perhaps most forcefully stated by Freud, suggests that primitive people are childlike and hence lack self-discipline and self-control. Radin uses the term to refer to Native American practices such as ecstatic trances. In many of his works, translated f o lk lo r e or e th n o g ra p h ic o b ser v a tio n s a re p re se n the d with little or no commentary. Some good examples are " D e s c r i p t i o n o f a W i n n e b a g o F u n e r a l " (1911) a n d " O j i b w a E t h n o l o g i c a l C h i t C h a t " (1924). Radin wished to show that "primitive" thinking was simila r to that of modern, "civilize d" p e o p le- th a t it is sophisticated, profound, and self-aware. Kindness will be returned to you and he will treat you in the same way in which you treat him. If at any time you meet a woman away from your village and you are both alone and no one can see you, do not frighten her or harm her. If you meet any one on the road, even if it is only a child, speak a cheering word before you pass on. If there is anything to be done, do not wait till you are asked to do it but do it immediately. If you have put people in charge of your household, do not nevertheless act as though the home were still yours. Therefore, Radin Obviously we are here in the presence of a fairly well elaborated system of conduct. To those who consistently deny to primitive man any true capacity for abstract thinking or objective formulation of an ethical c o d e - a n d their number is very large both among scholars and l a y m e n - the injunctions given above would probably be interpreted as having a definitely concrete significance. That is, they are not to be regarded as attempts at generalization in any true sense of the word but merely as inherently wise saws and precepts of a practical and personal application.
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Perforated plastic film bags are also used for packaging treatment impetigo order aricept 10 mg fast delivery, as are film-overwrapped trays medicine 54 357 generic aricept 5 mg on-line. Bags are opaque or covered with translucent blue or green paraffin paper to medications kidney infection aricept 5 mg exclude light. Retail Outlet Display Considerations Maintain cold conditions to maximize storage and shelf-life and minimize dehydration, but do not sprinkle or otherwise wet the product. Packaged chicons should be held in conditions similar to those of packaged mushrooms, not in wet storage areas. Ethylene Production and Sensitivity Ethylene production is very low, but exposure to ethylene can produce physiological disorders such as russet spotting and accelerated senescence. Storage life is reduced to 2 to 4 weeks at 2 єC (36 °F), 1 to 2 weeks At 5 єC (41 °F), and 1 week or less at 15 єC (59 °F). Special Considerations Chicons must be handled with care to avoid mechanical damage to minimize discoloration and pathological problems. Physiological Disorders Disorders include brown or hollow core, blackheart, foliage pinking, and red discoloration of tissue that has been bruised or cut. Additional disorders include russet spotting, the formation of light hairlike growth on leaves, and leaf greening. Other causes of chicon deterioration are continued growth of the stem, resulting in leaf spreading and opening; leaf greening, loss of turgor, and wilting that results in a loss of weight, grade, and quality; and the appearance of bruises at the base or on the leaves that become more apparent at retail. Chicons showing any signs of cuts, drying, burses, or torn tissue should be excluded from sale. Postharvest Pathology the most common decays are Erwinia carotovora, Botrytis cinerea, and other pathogens such as Phytophthora cryptogea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Phoma exigua, and several Pseudomonas spp. Infection of the chicons in the forcing facilities is most often due to the disease organism being introduced on the roots. Suitability as Fresh-Cut Product Potential is low, but loose leaves are occasionally marketed in some prepackaged salad mixes. The marketing of detached leaves is occasionally done to recover some value from fresh market product that is damaged or otherwise would be wasted. The wong bok or napa types are about 20 to 25 cm (8 to 10 in) in length, 15 to 20 cm (6 to 8 in) in diameter, and weigh 1. They are shipped in wax-coated corrugated cardboard cartons and wire-bound crates of various sizes. Two head shapes predominate: the wong bok or napa types (which are short and broad) and the michihli types (which are long and tapered) (Wang and Cerkauskas 1999). Chinese cabbage is grown in small acreages in most major temperate vegetablegrowing regions and is available year round in most markets. Precooling Conditions Damaged leaves should be removed, and the heads packed into shipping containers and quickly cooled (vacuum or hydrovac cooling, forced-air cooling, or hydrocooling) to maximize shelf-life (Kasmire and Cantwell 1992). The storage temperature should be as close as possible to 0 єC (32 єF) without freezing (Kasmire and Cantwell 1992). Water loss is reduced and storage life extended when heads are enclosed in perforated plastic bags (Sozzi et al. Storage life is extended by growing Chinese cabbage during cooler growing seasons and placing the heads upside down during storage (Jin-Cheol Jeong, 1998, personal communication). Quality Characteristics and Criteria Chinese cabbage should have uniform, tightly formed heads with crinkly, yellow-green leaf blades. Horticultural Maturity Indices Determination of maturity in species of Brassica is not simple, and no single index of maturity is reliable (Ludford and Isenberg 1987). Harvesting consists of cutting the whole plant at the soil surface when the heads are firm and the outer leaves are bright green (Munro and Small 1997). In some cultivars, the outer leaves may be tied a few weeks before harvest to promote a tighter, upright head. Ludford and Isenberg (1987) cite reports that Chinese cabbage store better when heads are more compact at harvest. Decay increases and offensive odors are produced during continuous 289 exposure to 7. Retail Outlet Display Considerations Chinese cabbage is displayed as individual heads with the outer leaves removed, frequently with a band around the equator to maintain a compressed head shape. Heads should be kept as cool as possible without freezing and sprinkled with water to minimize moisture loss. Physiological Disorders Chilling Sensitivity Chinese cabbage may be chilling sensitive. A physiological disorder (brown midrib) developed after prolonged storage at 0 °C (32 °F) (Apeland 1985). A 50% loss of product occurred after about 150 degreedays (°F) below the cultivar-specific critical temperature. Brown midrib, a physiological disorder causing significant storage losses, is a symptom of chilling injury (Apeland 1985). Postharvest Pathology Geeson (1983) reported the occurrence of leaf spots caused by Alternaria spp. Ethylene Production and Sensitivity Chinese cabbage produces very little ethylene, <0. Levels inside cartons of Chinese cabbage in wholesale markets have been measured at 1. The shelf-life-limiting factors are browning on cut surfaces and leaf surfaces, as well as appearance of black speck (gomasho). Influence of weather conditions during growth on storage ability of different Chinese cabbage cultivars. A summary of requirements and recommendations for the controlled and modified atmosphere storage of harvested vegetables. Enhancement of senescence in nonclimacteric fruit and vegetables by low ethylene levels. Horticultural Maturity Indices Young coconuts are harvested 6 to 9 mo after flowering as they approach full size and the skin is still green (Consignado et al. In immature nuts, the skin surface around the calyx (cap) on the top of the coconut is creamy white or a whitish yellow. When the area surrounding the cap is green, the coconut is considered mature and is 10 to 12 mo old. At maturity the skin begins to change from green to yellow, then brown, and the "rat-tail" is entirely brown. At an immature stage, the fruit (water coconut) contains mainly water and a little jellylike meat instead of the hard, white flesh (meat/endosperm) found in mature coconuts. In Thailand, and now marketed in the United States, immature green nuts are trimmed and shaped, removing most of the husk.
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As Gellner (1 99 2: 60 -6 1) has said: One particular style of knowledge [scientific knowledge] has proved so overwhelmingly powerful 9 medications that cause fatigue buy aricept 5mg with mastercard, economically medicine 230 aricept 10mg mastercard, militarily medicine river animal hospital order cheap aricept on-line, administratively, that all societies have had to make their peace with it and adopt it. Some have done it more successfully than others, and some more willing or more quickly than others; but all of them have had to do it, or perish. That is, the empirical support for the hypothesis that science advances is simply the strong evidence that scientific knowledge about the world has advanced. Whether, on balance, scientific knowledge has been used for good or evil is an-other question. My own unoriginal conclusion is that, on balance, the world is considerably better off because of science. However, those who disagree on this point would, I believe, still have to agree that scientific knowledge has advanced. Given the obvious success of science as a way of finding out about the world, it is remarkable that many anthropologists are attracted to philosophers and historians who flirt with the idea that there is no true progress in scientific knowledge and no way of knowing what is true. My own opinion is that the success of science is due primarily indication of your own position in the debate between postmodernists and their detractors. What Rorty means by "objectivity" and "truth" is not what the student means; Rorty is talking about ultimate truth and complete objectivity, not ordinary judgments about course performance and broken promises. Rorty does not mean (I think) that in ordinary life the distinctions between object and subject, mind and world, idea and fact, etc. It is only in certain kinds of philosophic discourse that these distinctions are not to be made. The testability of statements and the constant testing of statements ward off the very strong tendency of humans to believe what they want to believe. For example, according to Rorty (1991:41, emphasis added); On the pragmatist view, the contrast between "relations of ideas" and "matters of fact" is a special case of the bad seventeenth-century contrasts between being "in us" and being "out there," between subject and object, between our beliefs and what those beliefs (moral, scientific, theological, etc. Subjectively, I feel I did quite well, and although I said that I would turn in a paper, the fact that I did not simply reinvokes the language/fact distinction, which depends on the flawed correspondence theory of truth. The idea that people can be objective is illusory; people construct the reality that suits them best. Hence an objective model is impossible, and any pretense that such a model can be achieved is simply hegemonic mystification. By shifting from the primary sense to the secondary sense one can make the case that, since people are always biased to some degree, an "objective" account is impossible. Then, since "objectivity" (not having any interests) is impossible, any claim to objectivity must be a "mask," a mystification. However, the accusation -" - - Note the shift of style in this paragraph. Instead he offers us his opinion, which may be right or wrong, but in any event is only an opinion. He is wise in doing this, since he is entering an area where there is much disagreement, and he has told us just above that there is no way to argue from first principles to scientific truth. The notion that the strength of science comes from public attempts to falsify hypotheses comes primarily from the work of Karl Popper and is widely accepted. A brief acquaintanceship with the history of science would certainly dis-abuse anyone of that notion. Science works not because it produces unbiased accounts but because its accounts are objective enough to be proved or disproved no matter what anyone wants to be true. While I am objecting to the rhetorical tricks that are used to identify objectivity and science with badness, I should also note that similar tricks are used to identify objectivity and science with goodness. The methods of science and the use of objective accounts are the best way to find out about the world (I would argue), but the method has no guarantee of working. Employment of the term " science " as an honorific to give weight to unreplicated and often unsound generalizations, sometimes constructed with considerable bias, is a continuing abuse. One could even argue that there is so much positive mystification around the term " science" that some negative mystification is needed as a balance. Fine, if the result is intellectual b a l a n c e - the recognition that, on both sides, rhetoric is not evidence and that " fact " is always a probability, not an absolute. It can be used for all sorts of e n d s - t o create engines of war, to make new products, to cure physical and mental ills, and even just to discover things. It is clear that the types of questions scientists ask and the reasons for which they ask them are set by their personal backgrounds, cultures, histories, and desires. Scientific questions are always in this sense subjective, and scientific observers are human and always have axes to grind. In so doing he is acknowledging that in our society, 571 which Congress and a variety of interest groups, including those who want to do science just for the sake of enlightenment, contend for the money. Objectivity is part of the general hegemony of Western culture, and is authoritarian and oppressive. Abu-Lughod (1 99 1: 15 0- 51) writes: Generalization, the characteristic model of operation and style of writing of the social sciences, can no longer be regarded as neutral description. The first is that, as part of a professional discourse of "objectivity" and expertise, it is inevitably a language of power. On the one hand, it is the language of those who seem to stand apart from and outside of what they are describing. On the other hand, even if we withhold judgment on how closely the social sciences can be associated with the apparatuses of management, we have to recognize how all professional discourses by nature assert hierarchy. Again, the badness is asserted on the basis of first principles, not demonstrated. In opposition to Abu-Lughod, I claim that it is not bad to make generalizations about people and that ethnographic generalizations do not dam-age people. In these cases, the term science is clearly used to lend an air of legitimacy to otherwise nonscientific investigations. My hypothesis that what is being expressed is allegiance to a set of moral principles explains another rather odd aspect of many of the a t t a c k s the i r loose adherence to the laws of logic. These objections have not been answered; the usual response I have heard is that they are " beside the point. One might say, " Well, some of these moral c o n c e r n s may be overdone, but why not use the current moral model? However, there are reasonably well-understood problems with trying to graft moral and objective models together if one wants to find out about the world. What dam-ages people is the way power is used and the way generalizations are used. And what helps people is the way power is used and the way generalizations are used. The result is a spreading pollution that makes it bad to say that the Bedouin are polygynous (AbuLughod 1991:153).