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In Spain medicinenetcom medications lincocin 500mg otc, the cumulative total number of reported cases (more than 80 cases confirmed by endoscopic techniques) has increased rapidly during the last few years because of increased awareness among physicians 7 medications emts can give lincocin 500mg for sale. Pseudoterranovosis medications not to take before surgery purchase lincocin online pills, normally affecting the stomach, is especially frequent in northern Japan (5) and the United States (15). In Japan, gastric anisakidosis is apparently far more common than intestinal anisakidosis (95% of cases), while in Europe and the United States the opposite is true. These differences have been attributed to the more widespread use of endoscopic techniques by Japanese doctors and to their greater awareness of the disease (5). The transmission of these foodborne pathogens is clearly related to traditions of consumption of raw or unproperly cooked fish. A number of fish dishes are considered to be high-risk for the contraction of anisakidosis, including Japanese sushi and sashimi, Dutch salted or smoke herring, Scandinavian gravlax, Hawaiian lomi-lomi, South American cebiche, and Spanish boquerones en vinagre (pickled anchovies) (127). The main transmitter species is the spotted chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and Japanese flying squid (Todarodes pacificus) (38,134). In the United States, the majority of reported cases were due to ingestion of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. In western Europe, herring (Clupea arengus) is the main species involved (13,130,137), although cases with other species that were insufficiently cooked (microwaved, grilled, or shallow-fried) have also been reported. In Spain, most cases have been related to the consumption of pickled anchovies (Engraulis encrasichorus) and raw sardines (Sardina pilchardus). The principal transmitters of pseudoterranovosis are possibly Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephala) and the Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepsis) in Japan and the red snapper (Sebastes spp. The recent increase in the number of cases worldwide may be associated with the following factors: (a) a better knowledge of the disease and its diagnostic techniques, (b) proliferation of Japanese restaurants in the western world, (c) recent tendencies to cook food for a very short time Copyright 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. Since the authors of this chapter started to work with this parasite, it has become clear that it is the most important food allergen in the Basque country in northern Spain (78). It should also be borne in mind that the three lip bulges become three intended lips at this stage. Identification is difficult when the larva cannot be isolated by endoscopy and only histological biopsies are available. In such cases, identification would be easier if the structure of the larva is conserved, allowing observation in histological sections of internal structures such as the excretory cell, the ventricle, the hypodermal lateral cords, and the intestine. These enzymes are probably produced by the dorsal esophageal Copyright 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. Recently, a 40 kDa enzyme that degrades chondroitin sulfate-A and hyaluronic acid (147), and also a 30 kDa serine proteinase similar to that present in the bacterium Dichelobacter nodosus (148), have been characterized. Immunopathological Mechanisms the involvement of immunological mechanisms in the pathogenesis of acute anisakiosis was first proposed in 1964 by Kuipers with the "double hit" hypothesis, which explained why more severe pathological changes occurred after reinfection in rabbits (150). To date there have been insufficient studies to provide a detailed understanding of host-parasite interactions in the various clinical and histopathological forms of human anisakiosis. The presence of type I responses in acute anisakiosis is indicated by the fact that serum anti-Anisakis IgE levels increase rapidly during the first few days and remain high for months (114,155,156). Eosinophils are not capable of destroying Anisakis larvae in vitro (157); however, eosinophil infiltration of the tissue surrounding the parasite is one of the most distinctive features of the local inflammatory lesions observed in anisakiosis. The presence of these cells may reflect the late stage of the type I response, following release of eosinophilic chemotactic factors during the acute stage of the response. In addition, it is possible that some parasite-derived substances also attract eosinophils to the damaged tissue. Although blood eosinophilia is a common feature of nematode infections (159), it appears to occur in less than 30% of cases of anisakiosis (47,86,160). IgE levels can persist in these patients for years even if marine fish are eliminated from the diet. Western blot studies showed that the human IgE and IgG antibody response to Anisakis simplex antigens is highly heterogeneous and varies dramatically between individuals (108). This may be explained by genetic differences between individuals, by differences in the nature and number of immunizations, and/or by the nature of the immunogen to which the patient had been exposed. In experimental studies of mice, differences in antibody response have been found depending on whether animals are exposed to living A. This may suggest that freezing or cooking of fish could in the long term reduce the incidence of allergic reactions, though it would not prevent them in already sensitized individuals. What is more, it is possible that other related nematodes present in marine fish. Other Related Pathologies In addition to the aforementioned mechanisms, there are some aspects of the pathogenesis of diseases caused by Anisakis and Pseudoterranova that need to be studied in more depth. In some cases, for example, secondary infections with bacteria have been observed, which may cause more severe inflammatory changes (56,152). Finally, it has been suggested that infection with Anisakis simplex may be related to the gastric carcinogenic lesions observed in some patients (82,164). Presumably these strategies are aimed primarily at the natural hosts, not at accidental hosts (like humans for Anisakis). There have been no studies of possible among-genotype differences in virulence for animals and humans. Due to the high incidence of infection of fish by anisakids, it is striking that only a few individuals appear to be susceptible to both anisakiosis and Anisakis allergy. The disproportionately large number of cases occurring in the Basque country, compared to other regions with similar diets within Spain, might be due to a genetic predisposition to this allergy or to different culinary practices in this region. In Holland, the prevalence of anisakidosis dropped dramatically after 1967, when legislation was introduced obliging deep-freezing of herring before consumption (13). Note, however, that efficient freezing has certain requirements, which mainly depend on the size of the fish and the type of freezer used. The nematodes present in fish muscle can survive several traditional food-preserving methods for different periods of time. Anisakis larvae can survive up to 25 days in the salt and vinegar mixtures used to marinate herring in Holland (176), 21 days of salting (161), and 35 or 42 days in marinating mixtures, prepared according to German and Danish recipes, respectively (177). The mortality rate in marinated fish appears to be a matter of time, dependent mainly on the salt concentration in the aqueous phase of the fish tissue: approximately halving the salt concentration while keeping the acetic acid concentration constant leads to a threefold increase in survival time (177). In addition to these procedures, the fish industry and researchers have over the last three decades searched for other methods to detect and eliminate or kill the anisakid larvae present in the fish musculature before marketing and consumption. Brattey has observed that this technique may overlook about 30% of the larvae present in the musculature (178).
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For example medicine queen mary order lincocin on line, in China medicine man aurora order lincocin in india, grain yield would have increased by 5% during 1976-89 given less erosion and less soil degradation symptoms iron deficiency order lincocin online pills. More evidence is needed about the relationships between total factor productivity and long-term agroecosystem health. In some cases, intensified production on prime agricultural land may reduce negative impacts on ecosystem health by reducing the incentive to extend production onto marginal lands or into natural areas. Poor irrigation management causes land degradation with negative impact on livelihoods. Goals N, L, E, S Certainty B Range of Impacts -1 to -3 Scale R Specificity Especially in the dry tropics Fifty years ago water withdrawal from rivers was one third of what it is today, with 70% of freshwater withdrawals (2,700 km3 or 2. In both irrigated and rainfed areas, a decline in water available for irrigation, without compensating investments and improvements in water management and water use efficiency, has been found to reduce production with a consequent increase in international cereal prices and negative impacts on low-income developing countries (Rosegrant and Cai, 2001). Global investment in water distribution systems for agriculture has declined relative to other sectors during recent decades. Goals E, S Certainty A Range of Impacts -1 to -5 Scale G Specificity Most agricultural systems Irrigation increases crop productivity in dry areas, but can result in land degradation. While livelihoods have improved through increased production and employment, demands for irrigation water have degraded wetland biodiversity (Huber-Lee and Kemp-Benedict, 2003 quoted in Jinendradasa, 2003). Poorly conceived and implemented water management interventions have incurred high environmental and social costs, including inequity in benefit allocation and loss of livelihood opportunities. Common property resources such as rivers and wetlands, important for poor fishers and resource gatherers, have been appropriated for other uses, resulting in a loss of livelihood opportunities. Communities have been displaced, especially in areas behind dams, without adequate compensation. Direct and indirect negative impacts have been well documented, including salinization, channel erosion, declines in biodiversity, introduction of invasive Traces of the herbicide "Atrazine" and other pesticides are routinely documented in shallow ground and surface waters in industrialized countries. In intensive agricultural regions, streamwater nitrogen concentrations have been found to be nearly nine times higher than downstream from forested areas (Omernik, 1977). Increasing concentrations of nitrate nitrogen in the Mississippi River have also been linked to hypoxic conditions in the Gulf of Mexico (Rabalais et al. The focus on cereals led to an increased per capita consumption of cereals, while in most developing countries, consumption of vegetables remained far below the minimum requirement level of 73 kg per person (Ali and Abedullah, 2002). Goals N, H, L, S Certainty B Range of Impacts -2 to -4 Scale R Specificity Widespread in the tropics Deforestation and increasing pressures from urban infrastructure have reduced the fresh sources of food supply from forests and urban gardens (Ali et al. Projects to reverse this trend promote traditional foods as new crop plants (Leakey, 1999a; Leakey et al. Modern varieties and breeds have had positive impacts on yield and production, especially where environments have been favorable and management has been good. However, there have also been some negative effects on the environment and on biodiversity. Goals N, H, L, E Certainty A, B Range of Impacts -2 to +5 Scale G Specificity Wide applicability Figure 3-4. Agricultural water withdrawal as percentage of total water withdrawal for agricultural, domestic and industrial purposes worldwide. Recently, however, vegetable production has increased in developing countries, through public-private collaboration in the introduction of modern varieties and technologies. The replacement of traditional plant based diets with increased consumption of more energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods with high levels of sugar and saturated fats in all world regions (Popkin, 2003) has been driven by increased incomes and other factors such as changes in food availability, and retail and marketing activities. Goals N, H, L, D Certainty B Range of Impacts -2 to -4 Scale R Specificity Widespread in the tropics In the past, many traditional foods were gathered from forests and woodlands, which provided rural households with food and nutritional security. With the loss of habitat through deforestation, population growth, increased urbanization and poverty and an emphasis on staple food cultivation, this wild resource has diminished. This simplification has had negative impacts on food diversity and security, nutritional balance, and health. Indigenous fruits and vegetables have been given low priority by policy makers, although they are still an important component of diets, especially in Africa. About 1000 plant species have been domesticated resulting in over 100 food and 30 non-food crops (fiber, fodder, oil, latex, etc. Over the last 50-60 years plant and animal breeding was a major component of the Green Revolution. Goals N, L, D Certainty C Range of Impacts 0 to -3 Scale G Specificity Mainly small-scale agriculture Positive impacts on yield have been achieved in Latin America with an increase of 132% (36% from improved varieties and 64% from other inputs) on 32% less land (Evenson and Gollin, 2003a). Negative effects on yield occurred in subSaharan Africa even though overall yield increased 11% (130% coming from improved varieties and -30% from other inputs), since 88% more land was used). However, in many cases the lack of adoption resulted from inadequate delivery of seeds to farmers (Witcombe et al. Poor seed delivery systems remain a major constraint in many parts of Africa (Tripp, 2001). Plants Domestication, intensive selection and conventional breeding have had major impacts on yield and production of staple food crops, horticultural crops and timber trees. Goals N Certainty A Range of Impacts +2 to +5 Scale G Specificity Widespread applicability A number of studies (Pingali and Heisey, 1999; Heisey et al. Benefit-cost ratios for genetic research are substantial: between 2 (significantly demonstrated and empirically attributed) and 17 (plausible, extrapolated to 2011) (Raitzer, 2003). Gains in productivity between 1965 and 1995 were about 2% per annum for maize, wheat and rice (Pingali and Heisey, 1999; Evenson and Gollin, 2003a), though rates have declined in the last decade. The impact of crop improvement on non-cereals has been less well documented as these crops are often far more diverse, occupy smaller areas globally and are not traded as commodities. Nonetheless, plant breeding has increased yields in many protein crops (Evenson and Gollin, 2003b). Assuming that genetic gains in potential yield achieved each year are on the order of 1 to 2%. This has been confirmed by a recent molecular study of genetic diversity in wheat (Reif et al. Goals N Certainty C Range of Impacts -3 to +1 Scale G Specificity Widespread Figure 3-5. Graphic illustrates the importance of "maintenance breeding" and of stagnating yield potential. In maize, about 50% of the increase in yield attributed to genetic gain is due to improvements in stress tolerance (Tollenaur and Wu, 1999), which has contributed to maize expansion in more marginal environments. Crop improvement has reduced genetic diversity, but current breeding strategies are tackling this problem. Goals E Certainty C Range of Impacts -2 to +2 Scale G Specificity Widespread Plant breeding in developed and less developed countries has to date been successful at delivering new, higher yielding varieties, largely through better adaptation, greater partitioning of biomass to seed. However, under conditions where pests are efficiently controlled and there are no limitations to the supply of water and nutrients, there is evidence (Figure 3-5) that the yield potential of the most productive rice, wheat, and maize cultivars has not markedly increased since the Green Revolution (Duvick and Cassman, 1999; Peng et al. Hybrid rice, which yields about 15% more than conventionally bred rice, is already grown on some 15 million ha in China (about half the total area in rice) (Longping, 2004), and hybrid sorghum shows similar promise. Gains in yield per unit area per year are expected to remain lower than historical yields. Genetic diversity can vary both temporally and spatially, and both have to be taken into account in assessing impacts on diversity.
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These subjective reports were supported by objective velocity data collected during the flight tests symptoms testicular cancer cheap lincocin 500 mg mastercard. Reducing the number of parts and assembly steps in aircraft manufacturing is one way to medicine 3 sixes generic 500mg lincocin with visa reduce costs medications not to take after gastric bypass buy discount lincocin 500mg on-line. Researchers at Langley Research Center, along with industry personnel, built and tested two metal panels to demonstrate the damage tolerance of an integrally stiffened fuselage structure. The panels were fabricated with curvature and stiffener spacing representing a typical fuselage structure. The process involved fewer parts than conventional construction, and potentially could also reduce the weight and fuel requirements of the aircraft. Its objective was to develop and verify at full scale the composite-structures technology. It also sought to verify the design concepts, structural materials, and manufacturing methods required to join composite wings to composite fuselages while saving weight and costs compared to conventional metal commercial transports. The Advanced Stitching Machine could stitch one-piece aircraft wing cover panels 40 feet (12. The process also eliminated the need for thousands of metal fasteners because the skin, stiffeners, intercostals, and spar caps could be stitched into one piece. The estimated cost savings from this technology compared to conventional aluminum-wing structures was 20 percent. It focused on technology that treated aircraft aerodynamics in an integrated manner. Transport flight-test data were used to validate computational codes for evaluating high-lift systems. Additionally, a semispan, large-scale, transonic wind tunnel test evaluated propulsion airframe integration. Top-level integrated wing design objectives were defined as (1) a 50 percent reduction in the aerodynamic design cycle time leading to a one-year reduction in the overall development cycle, and (2) a 4 percent reduction in total aircraft-related operating costs compared with the baseline. An aircraft with this configuration could potentially carry 800 passengers over 7,000 miles (11,265 kilometers) at a cruise speed of approximately 560 miles (901 kilometers) per hour, but it would require advanced flight-control systems. The way in which air flows over the surface of an aircraft affects the amount of aerodynamic drag that is generated and is a major factor in how much fuel is used by the aircraft. Flow in which the fluid (air) near the aircraft surface moves in smooth-flowing layers is referred to as "laminar flow. Citing "better-than-expected finds" and "one of the most significant events in the history of boundary-layer control," the team announced that laminar airflow was achieved over the first 65 percent of the upper surface of the modified wing section (measured from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the wing) on all flights during the five-month test period. The team stated that if the entire span of both wings could be modified, a reduction in total airplane drag of up to 10 percent or more could be realized, resulting in savings of millions Albert L. Braslow, A History of Suction-Type Laminar-Flow Control with Emphasis on Flight Research, Monographs in Aerospace History, No. A large laminar-flow sweptwing model was designed and fabricated, establishing the state of the art and identifying deficiencies in current methods for designing wings and high-lift devices. The next year, testing of the laminar-flow model was completed in the 8-foot transonic-pressure wind tunnel at Langley. One of the most challenging areas of research in aerodynamics is the reduction of skin friction, especially for turbulent flow. For aircraft, less drag can lead to less fuel burned or to a greater flight range for a fixed amount of fuel. Many techniques and methods have been tried; however, none have significantly reduced skin friction in the flight environment. Microblowing reduces the surface roughness and changes the flow velocity profile on the surface, thereby reducing skin friction. The results of the experiment "Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology," Fiscal Year 1996 Estimates. The system (also known as Distortion Tolerant Control) underwent flight tests at Dryden Flight Research Center on a highly modified F-15 jet that explored a variety of advanced control system technologies. It incorporated an aircraft-mounted, high-speed processor that sensed changes in airflow at the front of the engine and allowed the system to command trim changes to the engine automatically to accommodate changing distortion conditions. The primary benefit of Distortion Tolerant Control was its ability to set the margin of stability on line and in real time. This could allow the built-in stall margin to be reduced, which could then be "traded" for decreased weight, increased performance, or both. The result would be higher-performance military aircraft and more fuelefficient commercial aircraft. Pratt & Whitney, Boeing Phantom Works, and the Air Force Wright Laboratories partnered in the research. The new concept could lead to significant increases in performance of both civil and military aircraft flying at subsonic and supersonic speeds. The twin-engine F-15 is equipped with new Pratt & Whitney nozzles that can turn up to 20 degrees in any direction, giving the aircraft thrust control in the pitch and yaw directions. Lewis Research Center teamed with Teledyne Continental Motors and its industry partners to develop, fabricate, and test an extremely advanced intermittent combustion piston engine. The engine incorporated a horizontally opposed, four-cylinder, liquid-cooled, two-stroke compression ignition (diesel) engine. The new design used lightweight construction techniques and produced 200 horsepower at an engine weight comparable to that of current 200-horsepower aircraft engines. The engine used jet fuel rather than leaded gasoline and was about 25 percent more fuel-efficient than gasoline engines. Its single-level power-control operation allowed the pilot to give full attention to flying the aircraft. These cockpit systems technologies were developed by a group of 10 companies led by Rockwell Collins and AvroTec. The experiments resulted in the first successful combination of a number of new technologies in a single aircraft. The pusher propeller-driven configuration seats four to six people (including the pilot) in a midwing, threesurface, twin-tailboom configuration. Expanding capacity and reducing runway congestion at the busiest airports by permitting some short-haul traffic (trips of less than 500 miles [805 kilometers]) to shift to tiltrotors would free runway space for larger aircraft. It proved the fundamental soundness of the tiltrotor concept and provided data about the technical improvements needed for future designs. The second was operated by the Bell Helicopter Company in Arlington, Texas, and was used for tiltrotor development and military and civil demonstrations.
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The Total Questions Asked Score quantifies this aspect of performance and serves as a global achievement measure symptoms 8 dpo lincocin 500mg lowest price. Further treatment in spanish discount lincocin 500mg with amex, this variable is based on the number of yes/no questions asked until the target object is identified for each item symptoms 8 days before period discount lincocin 500mg online, and these scores are summed across the four items on the test to obtain a raw score. A total weighted achievement raw score is obtained by summing the raw scores for the four items. The total raw score is summed across all four items and is transformed into a cumulative percentile rank. The total raw scores for repetition errors and set-loss questions are transformed into cumulative percentile ranks. For each mystery word, the examinee is shown five sentences (clues) that help him or her to decode the meaning of the word. With each new clue sentence for the word, previously presented sentences are also displayed. The denominator (First Sentence Correct Raw Score) reflects the first sentence in which the examinee provides a correct response. Stephens Time, Time-Per-Move Ratio, Move Accuracy Ratio, Total Rule Violations, and Rule-ViolationsPer-Item Ratio). The score is computed by summing the completion times for all items administered and divided by the total number of moves made for all items administered. The total number of moves used by the examinee across all items administered is divided by the fewest number of moves required across all items administered. The two rule violations of the test include moving more than one disk at a time and placing a larger disk on a smaller disk. The raw score is based on the sum of the individual achievement scores of all eight items. The raw score is the sum of the accuracy scores for the eight proverbs; the raw score is converted to a scaled score. Scoring the Tests Scaled scores, cumulative percentile ranks, contrast measures, combined scaled scores, and various optional scores can be derived from each test. Consistency has several meanings, consistent within itself (internal reliability), consistent over time (test-retest reliability), and consistent with an alternate form of the measure (alternateform reliability) (Sattler, 2008). These measures of reliability provide a basis for deriving the standard error of measurement and confidence intervals. A brief description of each reliability scale follows: Internal Consistency: It assumes that all items measure the same trait or construct. It is established by dividing the test into two equivalent halves (split-half reliability). The most common way of dividing the test is to assign oddnumbered items to one form and even-numbered items to the other (Sattler, 2008). Stratification was based on age, sex, race/ethnicity, years of education, and geographic region. Alternate-Form Reliability is the equivalent or parallel form reliability determined by administering two equivalent tests to the same group of examinees (Sattler, 2008). Test-Retest is an index of stability a measure of how consistent scores are over time (Sattler, 2008). The directionality of the scaled scores is used to interpret performance; specifically, the higher the scaled score, the better the performance. This rule pertains to measures reflecting (1) accuracy scores, (2) error rates. Moreover, there are two types of measures in which either low- or high-scaled scores reflect different types of cognitive problems (Delis et al. Contrast measures may signal cognitive difficulties if the scaled score is either too low or too high. For this measure, a contrast scaled score of 7 or lower may reflect greater difficulty with letter fluency than with category fluency. In contrast, a scaled score of 13 or higher may indicate greater difficulty with category fluency than with letter fluency (Delis et al. The directionality of the cumulative percentile ranks is used to interpret examinee performance. A cumulative percentage rank of 10 % on an error measure indicates that 10 % of the normative sample made the same or more errors on that measure. Therefore, achievement measures usually provide an initial level of interpretation in addressing whether or not an examinee generally performed well or poorly on the test (Delis et al. Finally, process measures allow the examiner to pinpoint key areas of deficit and thereby guide appropriate intervention selection. Additionally, the examiner must consider possible nonneurostructural factors, which include depression, anxiety, obsessive thoughts, pain symptoms, or sleep deprivation and fatigue (Delis et al. The examiner should be familiar with characteristics of such factors and consider them within the interpretation of test results. Consequently, an indepth clinical analysis of scores should be used to pinpoint specific areas of deficit resulting in the appropriate identification and selection of intervention practices. The evidence of validity has been provided in terms of sensitivity of the tests in the detection of brain damage, specifically in the frontal lobe area, and in the ability of the tests to measure areas of higher-level executive functions (Delis et al. Additionally, the vast majority of the correlations were not significant, indicating little overlap between the functions assessed by the two instruments. Thus, results of each of the nine tests can be clinically interpreted and used with other assessment results in the validation of various disabilities. Finally, an in-depth analysis of examinee performance can be used to pinpoint specific areas of weakness, making intervention selection more appropriate. Naglieri and Sam Goldstein 14 Interest in executive function has grown exponentially in recent years because the concept helps us better understand the differences between what a child does and what a child can do in the classroom and in life (Naglieri & Goldstein, 2013). Interest in the mental application of human brain behavior relationships has, to a significant degree, driven interest in executive function. Nonetheless, this concept is in a relatively early stage of development (McCloskey, Perkins, & Van Divner, 2009). As in all areas of science and practice, the information we obtain from any evaluation depends upon the quality of the instruments used. Better assessment tools yield more valid and reliable decisions, more useful information, and ultimately greater benefit to the clients.
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Higher rates of change occur for traits with greater genetic variability medicine 319 quality lincocin 500 mg, in traits that are not age- or sex-limited medicine over the counter cheap 500 mg lincocin visa, and in species with a high reproductive rate 4d medications cheap lincocin 500mg fast delivery, like pigs and poultry (McKay et al. These rates of gain have been achieved in practice partly because of the existence of breeding companies in these sectors. Typically, rates of genetic change achieved in national beef cattle and sheep populations have been substantially lower than those theoretically possible, though they have been achieved in individual breeding schemes. The dispersed nature of ruminant breeding in most countries has made sector-wide improvement more challenging. In most species, rates of change achieved in practice through breeding have increased over the last few decades in developed countries. Goals N, H, L Certainty A Range of Impacts 0 to +4 Scale G Specificity Developed countries the greatest gains in productivity as a result of genetic improvement have been made in poultry, pigs and, to a lesser extent, dairy cattle. Greater success through breeding programs in developed countries has been the result of better statistical methods for estimating the genetic merit (breeding value) of animals, especially best linear unbiased prediction methods; the wider use of reproductive technologies, especially artificial insemination; improved techniques for measuring performance. In recent years there has been a growing trend in developed countries for breeding programs to focus more on product quality or other attributes, rather than yield alone. There is also growing interest in breeding goals that meet wider public needs, such as increasing animal welfare or reducing environmental impact. Gains in productivity have been variable if breeds are not matched to the environment Goals N, H, D Certainty B Range of Impacts 0 to +3 Scale G Specificity Developing countries Livestock production is a major contributor of emissions of polluting gases, including nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas whose warming potential is 296 times that of carbon dioxide. Livestock contributes 18% of the total global warming effect, larger even than the transportation worldwide (Steinfeld et al. The share of livestock production in human-induced emissions of gases is 37% of total methane, 65% of nitrous oxide, 9% of total carbon dioxide emissions and 68% of ammonia emissions (Steinfeld et al. This atmospheric pollution is in addition to the water pollution caused by large-scale industrial livestock systems. Aquaculture has made an important contribution to poverty alleviation and food security in many developing countries. Goals N, H, L, S, D Certainty B Range of Impacts +1 to +3 Scale G Specificity Developing countries the gains in productivity per animal have been greatest in developed countries, and in the more "industrialized" production systems in some developing or "transition" countries. The enormous opportunities to increase productivity through wider adoption of appropriate techniques and breeding goals in developing countries are not always achieved. Breed substitution and crossing have both given rapid improvements, but it is essential that new breeds or crosses are appropriate for the environment and resources available over the entire production life cycle. Failure to do this has resulted in herds that have succumbed to diseases or to nutritional deprivation to which local breeds were tolerant. The reproductive rate of the pure European breeds is often too low to maintain herd sizes (de Vaccaro, 1990). It is also important that valuable indigenous Farm Animal Genetic Resources are protected. Approximately 90% of the total aquaculture production is produced in developing countries, with a high proportion of this produced by small-scale producers, particularly in low income food deficit countries (Zeller et al. The potential of aquaculture has not yet been fully realized in all countries (Bene and Heck, 2005ab; World Bank, 2007b). Globally, per capita fish consumption increased by 43% from 11 kg to 16kg between 1970 and 2000. Such large concentration of animals and animal wastes close to dense human population often causes considerable pollution problems with possible negative effects on human health. Large industrial farms produce more waste than can be recycled as fertilizer and absorbed on nearby land. In less intensive mixed farming systems, animal wastes are recycled as fertilizer by farmers who have direct knowledge and control of their value and environmental impact. However in industrial production, there is a longer cycle in which large quantities of wastes accumulate. Goals N, L, S Certainty B Range of Impacts -2 to +3 Scale G Specificity All livestock In developing countries, fish have played an important role in doubling animal protein consumption per capita over the last 30 years-from 6. In the developed world, fish consumption increased by less than one-half during the same period. Urbanization, income and population growth are the most significant factors increasing fish consumption in developing countries, particularly in Asia (Dey et al. The recent increase in aquaculture production is primarily due to advances in induced breeding or artificial propagation techniques (hypophysation). Goals N, L, S Certainty B Range of Impacts -2 to +3 Scale G Specificity Freshwater carp farming Induced breeding and hypophysation have particularly occurred in the carp polycultures and in freshwater fish farming in rice fields, seasonal ditches, canals and perennial ponds. These effects are probably due to genetic deterioration in the hatchery stocks resulting from poor fish brood stock management, inbreeding depression, and poor hatchery operation (Hussain and Mazid, 2004). Goals N, L, S Certainty B Range of Impacts -2 to +3 Scale G Specificity Coastal ecosystems nature of environment-by-gene interactions was not recognized and yield under stress has a low heritability (Baenziger et al. Drought, for example, is not easily quantifiable (or repeatable) in physical terms and is the result of a complex interaction between plant roots and shoots, and soil and aerial environments (Passioura, 1986). Furthermore, much effort was expended on traits that contributed to survival rather than productivity. Although yield and drought tolerance are complex traits with low heritability, it has been possible to make progress through conventional breeding and testing methods. An incremental farmer participatory approach to the development of sustainable aquaculture in integrated farming systems in Malawi (Brummett, 1999) found that integrated farming systems are more efficient at converting feed into fish and produce fewer negative environmental impacts. The widespread adoption of integrated aquaculture could potentially improve local environments by reducing soil erosion and increasing tree cover (Lightfoot and Noble, 1993; Lightfoot and Pullin, 1995; Brummett, 1999). Negative environmental effects resulting from the aquaculture industry include threats to wild fish stocks (Naylor et al. Improvements in management can help to reduce the environmental damage (Lebel et al. Abiotic stresses, especially drought stress (water and heat) have proved more intractable. Goals N Certainty B Range of Impacts 0 to +1 Scale R Specificity Widespread aplicability Breeding for marginal and stressed environments has not been easy, especially where wide-adaptation was also important. For example, in Zimbabwe, where soil fertility is low and drought stress common, the careful selection of test environments (phenotyping) and selection indices can increase maize yields across the country and regionally (Banziger et al. Equal weight to three selection environments (irrigated, drought stress, N-stress), the use of moderately severe stress environments, and the use of secondary traits with higher heritabilities improved selection under stress. In multilocation trials, lines selected using this method outyielded other varieties at all yield levels, but more so in more marginal environments. This would seem to be a successful blue print for conventional breeding for stress environments. Although drought tolerance is a complex trait, progress has been made with other aspects of abiotic stress tolerance. Goals N Certainty B Range of Impacts 0 to +2 Scale G Specificity Many crops Progress in breeding for environments prone to abiotic stresses has been slow, often because the growing environment was not characterized or understood (Reynolds and Borlaug, 2006), too many putative stress tolerant traits proved worthless (Richards, 2006), and because the complex Yield is the integration of many processes over the life of a crop, and as such it is unsurprising that heritabilities are low and progress slow. In contrast, the effects of some abiotic stresses are associated with very specific stages of the life cycle (particularly flowering and seed-set) or are associated with very specific mechanisms, and these appear to be more amenable to selection.
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Some photographs provided by projects do not include an identifying number because the project does not use a numbering system treatment 7th feb buy cheap lincocin 500 mg on line. A few photographs were loaned to art of medicine buy lincocin 500mg cheap the author by project personnel medicine university trusted lincocin 500mg, scanned, and returned to the owner. These images were scanned at a resolution suitable for printing and "cleaned up" to eliminate stray marks. Sometimes the text was reentered to achieve a consistent style or to eliminate typographical errors. Organizational charts were usually redrawn by the author so that each would be consistent with the others in style. Other graphics were scans of images in company or project brochures, or in material provided to the author. They also may have been modified digitally to improve their quality or resolution. Much of this work took place in a time of decreasing budgets and a push to accomplish more "faster, better, and cheaper. Its aeronautics activities focused on meeting national goals in the subsonic, transatmospheric, and supersonic regions of flight. These activities focused on future civil space missions, improving access to space and providing a base of research and technology to support all national space goals. While some tunnel facilities closed during this decade as part of efforts to increase efficiency and reduce duplication, some older facilities upgraded and added new capabilities. The major administrative change was the return of Dryden Flight Research Facility to independent center status. Personnel decreased in number during the decade but became more diverse and better educated. In the procurement area, mergers of aerospace firms consolidated major contracts among fewer businesses. Earth science and applications missions focus on observing Earth and its atmosphere and environment to improve life on the planet. This chapter also looks at technology in terms of materials science, fluid science, and physical processes, as well as addressing practical applications related to the microgravity environment as it affects humans in space. These include pre- and post-launch mission operation reports, press kits and press releases, key personnel announcements, and various reports and plans issued by the Agency. For Shuttle-based application activities, the Space Shuttle mission archives and mission chronologies were consulted. Most have comprehensive Web sites, and many also publish information booklets and fact sheets. The extent and effects of ozone and ozone depletion were a major focus of the decade. The Nimbus satellites continued to provide data on ozone levels from their backscatter ultraviolet instruments. The urgency of the upcoming Upper Atmosphere Research 1 the General Accounting Office became the Government Accountability Office in 2004. The Agency launched 65 operational communications satellites for several governments and communication companies. In collaboration with other federal agencies and international partners, the Agency carried out a wide variety of observation and research programs conducted both from spacecraft in orbit around Earth and from aircraft. The Agency also was active in such international bodies as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the World Climate Research Program, and the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. The Space Shuttle also carried missions that focused on the microgravity environment in terms of both its impact on humans and its role in technological processes. Most of these were Spacelab missions, and some used Spacelab hardware but operated automatically or remotely without the participation of the Shuttle crew. These satellites were then retrieved, reberthed in the Shuttle, and returned to Earth. The remaining divisions were Space Physics, Solar System Exploration, Astrophysics, and Life Sciences (discussed elsewhere in these data books). In the spring of 1991, Robert Rhome became head of the Microgravity Science and Applications Division. Around the same time, the Communications and Information Systems Division was disestablished. Space science missions went to the temporarily named Office of Planetary Science and Astrophysics (Code S). William Townsend, Deputy Associate Administrator, became acting Associate Administrator. In mid-1996, the Flight Systems Division was abolished and a new division, Program Planning and Development, was established. Michael Luther, who had led the Flight Systems Division, became head of the new division. Funds for materials processing, Space Science Data Center activities associated with information systems, and search-and-rescue programs (all formerly considered Earth science and applications activities) were transferred to other program offices. In general, the Agency relied on conference committee reports for more specific direction. The budget tables that follow (tables 2-4 to 2-54) show budget requests and programmed amounts for the programs within Earth science and applications. Programmed amounts are determined after the end of a fiscal year and reflect the amounts actually available to be spent. Electro-optical imaging sensors with varying resolutions and spectral characteristics observed Earth, and sounding instruments produced vertical profiles of the atmosphere from polar-orbiting and geosynchronous satellites. It also joined other organizations in observing ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere and attempting to determine its cause. Richard Goody, chairman, Workshop Executive Committee, "Global Change: Impacts on Habitability, A Scientific Basis for Assessment," 7 July 1982, cited in John M. It also called for an Earth observing system of polar-orbiting and advanced geostationary space platforms as well as additional specialized space research missions. Congress, Global Change Research Act of 1990, Public Law 101-606, November 16, 1990, 101st Congress, 1st sess. Bush, "Remarks on the 20th Anniversary of the Apollo 11 Moon Landing," July 20,1989, bushlibrary. It focused on five major Earth science disciplines- land surface cover, near-term climate change, long-term climate change, natural hazards research, and atmospheric ozone-and sought to understand the components of the Earth system and their interactions, how they functioned, and how they were expected to change over time. It consisted of a planned series of spacecraft carrying a variety of sophisticated instruments to make the most wide-ranging measurements ever taken of Al Gore, Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 2000). The direction and definition of the program were further refined by other advisory groups and steering committees, which also offered implementation strategies. The selections were made for three types of investigations: instrument investigations, research facility investigations, and interdisciplinary investigations. Each observatory had a five-year life and each was to be replaced twice during the 15-year mission. Concurrently, extensive engineering studies were conducted at Goddard to determine the most effective spacecraft configurations to accommodate the instruments on smaller platforms. He also set a 30 percent reduction in budget as a target (from $11 billion to $8 billion).
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This is probably related to medicine park cabins order lincocin on line the potential for endemic transmission and the long-term survival of the organism in the environment medications quit smoking 500 mg lincocin. A marked seasonality is associated with infections in Nepal medicine descriptions buy lincocin 500 mg otc, Guatemala, Peru, and Haiti (10,17,30,31), but temporal (annual period of transmission) and environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, rainfall, elevation) follow no consistent pattern between these sites. In North America and other developed countries, nonoutbreak rates of Cyclospora infection (stool positivity) generally fall below 0. Conversely, the vast majority of infection events in Copyright 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. North America have been tied to outbreaks linked to international travel or consumption of imported produce. The low prevalence rate (excluding outbreaks) may be attributable to high water quality, sanitation, and, to a lesser extent, hygiene. Without a mechanism for contamination of water or produce, conditions conducive to the establishment of endemic, entrenched infection are limited. Outbreaks of cyclosporiasis in North America have been linked to imported produce, including raspberries, mesclun (baby) lettuce, and basil (7,9,12,18,32,33). The sources of oocyst contamination were not identified, but given the imported source of the produce and the identification of Cyclospora oocysts in river or tap water from developing countries (14,17), an irrigation-related contamination source may be speculated. With difficulty, the parasite has been identified in histological sections of biopsies from the small intestine, but this is of limited value in routine diagnosis. While some stool samples are heavily laden with oocysts, making direct microscopy of wet mounts a possibility, it is more common to find stools with few to moderate numbers of oocysts, necessitating a concentration step. The concentrate may be prepared as a dried smear and stained using a modified acid-fast technique (35,36) or a hot safranin technique (37); the former yields acid-fast variable oocysts (some oocysts may not stain at all, with a gradation of stain intensity occurring in others from faint pink to intense red), while the latter technique yields oocysts that are nearly uniformly bright red to orange, albeit with a tendency for the background to be more reddish in character. With experience, Cyclospora oocysts are readily distinguished from fecal debris when mindful of the size, nearly spherical shape, and especially the brilliant blue autofluorescent appearance. A negative consideration is that formalin fixation will inactivate the oocysts, preventing the oocysts from maturing and forming the characteristic paired sporocysts with their paired sporozoites within. A definitive diagnosis can be obtained by sporulating the oocysts in the fecal sample or by performing a molecular diagnosis. In either case, the sample should be preserved in a manner that facilitates sporulation or does not inhibit the molecular assay. If the fecal specimen is not diluted with sufficient water or blended with a stabilizer that inactivates the bacteria in the fecal matter, the sample will quickly become anaerobic and inhibit the sporulation process. Ideally, the diarrheic fecal sample should be blended with an equal volume of 5% aqueous potassium dichromate (2. This process inactivates the bacteria but does not interfere with parasite differentiation. A side benefit is that fecal odor is largely neutralized by the dichromate treatment. After approximately 2 weeks, oocysts should be observed, each containing two sporocysts. Dichromate-stabilized stool samples are suitable for molecular analysis after the dichromate is washed out. Alternatively, stool can be stored frozen and later subjected to molecular analyses (35). Cyclospora oocyst detection in environmental samples is confounded by the lack of parasitespecific antibody reagents. Unlike Cryptosporidium and Giardia, which have excellent antibody reagents suitable for both identification and immunomagnetic separation/isolation, no such reagents exist for Cyclospora. Nevertheless, the intrinsic autofluorescent character of the oocysts greatly facilitates identification in complex samples (16,17). Alternatively, water may be concentrated using routine techniques associated with Cryptosporidium and Giardia analyses (41) (http:/ / Identification of Cyclospora in food is more complex given the challenge of recovering oocysts from the wide range of potential food characteristics. Histological examination of small bowel biopsies from clinical cases revealed morphological changes ranging from essentially no alteration of epithelial cell architecture to overt villous blunting, epithelial cell disarray, inflammation, and crypt hyperplasia (27,46). Intestinal malabsorption among individuals with cyclosporiasis was indicated by impaired d-xylose uptake (46,47). Such malabsorption would account for the remarkable diarrhea often accompanying Cyclospora infections. Infections have not been associated with intestinal ulceration or invasion of tissues beneath the epithelium, and bleeding does not accompany the watery diarrheic symptoms (48). Symptoms may be exacerbated in immunocompromised individuals, including the potential for biliary tract involvement (49). Little is known about specific immune responses following Cyclospora infections, and the significance of humoral versus cellular immunity remains obscure. The observation that infections in endemic environments are often associated with mild symptoms or are asymptomatic suggests repeated exposure leads to functional, if partial, immune responses (31). Such responses may minimize infection-related symptoms even if they cannot prevent reinfection. In naive populations, infections appear to be more frequently symptomatic and severe. This reinforces the role of immunity in ameliorating the clinical signs of infection. Until an infectivity model is available that supports the entire life cycle of the parasite, many of these characteristics will remain obscure. Immature, noninfectious oocysts are shed from the infected host and require an extended period in the environment to sporulate and become infectious. Consequently, even with the potential for immediate fecal contamination, direct person-to-person transmission is unlikely. Contaminated food and water are the most likely vehicles for disease transmission, as evidenced by the outbreaks in the United States and elsewhere. Controlling the potential for exposure to contaminated water during produce production should be a priority. Consumption of uncooked, fresh foods is clearly a risk, depending on the likelihood that the produce is contaminated. In the United States, where foodborne vehicles have been strongly implicated or actually identified, most of the outbreaks have been associated with imported produce. Cyclospora oocysts are thought to be quite hardy, much like other coccidian oocysts.
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This supposition may apply to medications 5113 discount lincocin 500 mg otc foodborne botulism medications you cannot crush discount lincocin 500mg on-line, which results from a limited ingestion of neurotoxin medicine 1700s lincocin 500 mg fast delivery. There are at least two unfortunate individuals who have had two episodes of foodborne botulism caused by the same neurotoxin, type B in Norway (94) and type E in Alaska (95). Neutralizing antibody was detected only in those survivors of type E foodborne botulism who had received equine antitoxin, and antibody levels in survivors treated with antitoxin did not increase 14 days after a single immunization with type E botulinum toxoid (96). In contrast, antibody to neurotoxin has been detected in a small number of patients receiving multiple exposures to neurotoxin, whether in adult intestinal colonization botulism (97), infant botulism (98), or after receiving larger doses of injected type A botulinum toxin as therapy (99). As few belong to these groups exposed repeatedly to neurotoxin, few persons, if any, would not develop botulism if exposed to sufficient neurotoxin. Botulinum Neurotoxin Detection the confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of botulism is most effectively achieved by detection of the botulinum toxin in the clinical specimens from patients (61). Blood serum collected from patients before administration of the therapeutic polyvalent antiserum, and feces are routinely tested for botulinum toxin. Constipation from botulism can be an impediment to diagnosis: an enema of sterile water may be required to obtain an adequate fecal sample. Other clinical samples that can be analyzed for botulinum neurotoxins are vomitus, gastric contents, or autopsy specimens submitted from fatal cases. Failure in detecting preformed toxin in the foods consumed before illness might be presumptive of toxico-infectious botulism-wound (101) or intestinal toxemia botulism (102)-which, however, must be supported by additional epidemiological and laboratory findings. The persistence of botulinum toxin in the feces of both infants and adults clearly indicates intraintestinal toxin production by the toxigenic microorganism and is consistent with intestinal toxemia botulism. Toxicity testing is not generally performed on foods consumed by babies less than a year old who present with signs of botulism. While some of these foods might be the vehicle of spores, preformed toxin has never been detected, consistent with their composition and processing (103). However, the demonstration of botulinum toxin in enrichment cultures from environmental, as well as from clinical and food samples not toxic before enrichment, is evidence of the presence of neurotoxigenic spores. These are also identified by testing botulinum toxin production in culture supernatants, since there are no other phenotypic characteristics unique to the species. Botulinum toxin detection remains the most conclusive test to demonstrate contamination with C. The large variety of antigenic structures and the extreme lethality of botulinum toxins require highly versatile methods capable of detecting very low amounts of substances. Early detection of botulinum neurotoxin is necessary for the avoidance of contaminated food by the public. The conventional method for the detection of botulinum toxin involves the use of laboratory animals, which is impractical, costly, and time consuming, since up to 4 days are necessary for responses. Some of the newest tests are comparable in sensitivity and specificity to the standard in vivo assay. The advantages and disadvantages of these methodologies will be briefly addressed. The same procedure is followed with all types of samples, except that solid samples require a preliminary extraction with gelatin phosphate buffer to solubilize the botulinum toxin. Test fluids are subjected to either centrifugation or membrane filtration to exclude the presence of microorganisms and consequent nonspecific deaths due to infections in mice. These antisera are only available from a few suppliers because limited demand makes their industrial production infeasible (3). Those injected with the untreated or trypsinized toxic fluids show the first symptoms of botulism (in sequence: ruffled fur, weakness of limbs, gasping for breath) within 10 hours. In these cases, one of the following hypotheses must be considered: (a) contamination of samples with lethal nonbotulinum substances; (b) excess of toxin in the sample; (c) botulinum toxin not as yet recognized. Two- or fivefold dilutions of the samples are generally sufficient to rule out the first two. Once toxicity has been demonstrated, the mouse neutralization test with monospecific botulinum antitoxins can be performed to identify toxin type: mice will be "protected" by the antitoxin type-specific for the botulinum toxin involved. The simultaneous presence of two different botulinum toxins may rarely account for excessive toxicity of samples, and a mixture of two monovalent antitoxins will be necessary to achieve complete neutralization (19). For quantitative determination of the toxin level, serial dilutions of the samples are injected intraperitoneally into groups of four mice. In Vitro Assays When a large number of samples has to be analyzed, as, for instance, in microbial risk evaluation studies for food quality assurance programs, a fast alternative for the detection of botulinum toxins is offered by in vitro assays. Methods currently available have recently been reviewed by Hatheway and Ferreira (105). Precipitation assays rely on the formation of immune complexes that can be observed directly in agar gels as in immunodiffusion (108), capillary tube diffusion (109), toxic colony overlay (110) assays, or after molecular separation as in countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (111). Moreover, problems of crossreactivity between different serotypes are encountered which can cause false results. Agglutination assays are based on the ability of red blood cells or latex particles coated with toxin or antitoxin to agglutinate with the corresponding antitoxin or toxin. In the presence of the test sample, the cells or latex particles are cross-linked and can be easily visualized (112,113). Crossreaction between type A and B toxins, due to the use of polyclonal antibodies raised against the large toxin complexes that share nontoxic molecules, interferes with the sensitivity of the tests. Radioimmunoassays were originally developed to increase the sensitivity of earlier tests (114). Several enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay variants have been designed for the detection of botulinum toxin. Improvements have been achieved through production of antibodies against more purified toxins, production of monoclonal antibodies, enhanced detection systems, simplified and faster schemes, increased reproducibility, and automation. Then, alkaline phosphatase labeled fibrinogen is added and the presence of thrombin will cause the hydrolysis of fibrinogen to fibrin. This assay has successfully been applied to the detection of the toxin in foods with results absolutely comparable to the mouse bioassay (120), but its applicability to patients sera samples is still to be verified. A second fluorescently labeled antibody is added and the fluorescence emission generated upon laser excitation is detected by a photodiode. Despite the high speed of responses, its use in food analyses will depend on the cost and availability of technical equipment. A major drawback of immunoassays is that they detect antigenicity rather than toxicity. Hence, limits of detection should be expressed in terms of toxin mass, rather than biological activity, and conversion tables for each toxin type would be convenient for this purpose. Innovative approaches are based on the detection of the recently elucidated zinc endopeptidase activity of botulinum neurotoxins by the use of synaptic vesicles and synthetic peptides (122,123).
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While many students successfully participate in class lessons and accurately complete structured homework assignments symptoms of appendicitis buy lincocin 500 mg online, they may have more difficulty with independent symptoms 6dpo buy lincocin once a day, open-ended tasks symptoms zinc deficiency adults buy lincocin. Reading and note-taking tasks, studying for tests, and completing writing assignments all require students to impose their own structure on the information. When organizational strategies are taught systematically in the context of these school assignments, students are more likely to generalize these strategies and to succeed academically (Krishnan et al. Teaching Organizing and Prioritizing Strategies Strategies for organizing and prioritizing information underlie efficient reading comprehension. Strategies such as templates, thinking maps, and graphic organizers provide a structured format for helping students to read for meaning, extract major themes, and relate new with known information (Kim, Vaughn, Wanzek, & Shangjin, 2004; Mayer, 1984). Most importantly, these organizational strategies can be taught across multiple grade levels from elementary school through high school (Krishnan & Feller, 2010; Ritchie & Volkl, 2000; Scanlon, Duran, Reyes, & Gallego, 1992; Horton, Lovitt, & Bergerud, 1990). Similarly, reading comprehension and written language can be improved using two- or threecolumn note-taking systems instead of the traditional, linear format. The structure imposed by a three-column note-taking system guides students to ask themselves active questions about the text they are reading. This format also encourages students to find the main ideas, "chunk" information into manageable parts, predict test questions, and develop strategies for memorizing the information (see. The student records the main idea or a key question in the first column, summarizes the important details in the second column, and records a memory strategy in the third column. As a result of this change, students from late elementary school onwards are given lengthy writing assignments, long-term projects, and essay tests that rely on executive function processes. For many students, writing can be an overwhelming process because it requires the coordination of numerous cognitive and executive function processes including organization, planning, memorizing, generating language, and editing (Flower et al. Many students struggle to organize their ideas for writing, and they need the writing process to be broken down explicitly with organizers and templates that match both the goals of the assignment and their learning profiles (Graham & Harris, 2003; Harris & Graham, 1996). These strategies help students to break down writing tasks into manageable parts so they can monitor their own performance (Bruning & Horn, 2000). In other words, they are required to Brainstorm, Organize their thoughts, generate a Topic sentence or Thesis statement, Elaborate by providing Evidence, and draw a Conclusion. This is a complex process that requires students to focus on multiple processes simultaneously including listening, organizing, and prioritizing the information while they write down the critical ideas (Kiewra et al. Many students read their textbooks and articles without taking notes, or they take notes in a random, scattered way that does not reduce the information load. Other students have difficulty deciding which information should be recorded and they struggle to separate the key concepts from the supporting details (Hughes, 1991; Hughes & Suritsky, 1994; Suritsky, 1992). Organization and planning improve when students are required to complete strategy reflection sheets that incorporate structured questions and a multiple-choice format. These strategy reflection sheets promote metacognitive awareness, encourage students to use strategies systematically, and remind them to check and edit their work (see. When students are given credit by their teachers for using these strategies, they are more likely to make the effort needed to continue this process. For example, when grades for homework and tests include points for completing these strategy reflection sheets, teachers promote these habits of mind. In other words, metacognitive awareness and effective strategy use are promoted when teachers make strategy use count in the classroom. Accessing Working Memory Working memory refers to the ability to store information for short time periods while simultaneously manipulating the information mentally. Working memory is a critically important process that helps students to focus, direct their mental effort, and ignore distractions in order to accomplish tasks (de Fockert, Rees, Frith, & Lavoie, 2001; Swanson, 1999; Tannock, 2008). From fourth grade onwards, academic tasks rely increasingly on these working memory processes. Consequently, strategic students are generally more successful with tasks that require them to focus on multiple processes simultaneously such as following directions, responding to oral questions, and completing multistep instructions (Kincaid & Trautman, 2010). Reading comprehension and written language are also heavily 25 Teaching Executive Functioning Processes. In these areas, students need to remember and manipulate multiple details such as spelling and punctuation while simultaneously focusing on remembering the main ideas, organizing ideas in their minds while they read, prioritizing important information, and figuring out which details to ignore. Young students may also need to think about handwriting and accurate letter formation, skills that may not yet be automatic for them. Similarly, summarizing, taking notes, and studying for tests all require students to focus on multiple processes simultaneously and to remember key ideas, formulate notes while listening, and identify major themes while writing (Kincaid & Trautman, 2010). To remember, retain, and retrieve information, students benefit from learning strategies for sustaining their attention, attaching meaning to information, chunking information to reduce the memory load, as well as rehearsal and review (Kincaid & Trautman, 2010). When students are able to make meaningful associations, they are more successful with transfer of information into long-term memory and later retrieval (Mastropieri & Scruggs, 1998). Teaching Working Memory Strategies Working memory strategies are interconnected with strategies for organizing and prioritizing complex information by reducing the memory load. Mnemonics comprise one of the most effective methods for chunking information and retaining 462 L. Meltzer important details so that information can be mentally manipulated in working memory (Mastropieri & Scruggs, 1991, 1998; Scruggs & Mastropieri, 2000). Mnemonics help students to connect new information to what they already know and to make meaningful connections to seemingly unconnected information (Carney, Levin, & Levin, 1993). Different types of mnemonics improve retention of information and enhance working memory, in particular, keywords, pegwords, acronyms, acrostics, and visuals (Mastropieri & Scruggs, 1991, 1998; Scruggs & Mastropieri, 2000). For example, when students are required to remember the states and their capitals by region, crazy phrases help them to organize, sequence, and chunk the information so that there are fewer details to memorize. Some students prefer to use visual strategies, such as personalized diagrams, cartoons, graphic organizers, and templates (Kincaid & Trautman, 2010). Mnemonics are often embedded within these organizers to further enhance their effectiveness. Chants, rhymes, and songs are effective for those who rely on verbal or auditory strategies to memorize. Students need time to practice and rehearse their memory strategies (Harris, Graham, Mason, & Friedlander, 2008). As students learn and practice memory strategies that are modeled by adults, it is important to encourage students to create their own memory strategies that match their individual learning styles (see Kincaid & Trautman, 2010, for more details and specific memory strategies in different academic areas). As is emphasized by Kincaid and Trautman (2010), educators need to help students to learn how to prioritize and select information to be memorized to reduce the load on working memory. Most importantly, students need to be given sufficient time to process and practice memory strategies, and to develop their own personalized strategies for remembering challenging information. Self-Monitoring and Self-Checking Self-monitoring refers to the ways in which learners manage their cognitive and metacognitive processes to track their own performance and outcomes (Zimmerman, 1998, 2000; Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 1997; Zimmerman & Schunk, 2001).
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He will benefit from support in this area as well as development of strategies to treatment zinc overdose 500 mg lincocin otc help him view himself as a "good" boy while behavioral challenges are simultaneously addressed symptoms ulcerative colitis discount 500mg lincocin with amex. Recommendations to treatment writing purchase lincocin on line Address Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder General Suggestions 1. The first step in dealing with attention deficits is to become familiar with the way they present and methods of addressing them. Many excellent books on this topic are available, and a bibliography is attached for both child and adult reading. Medical personnel should be consulted regarding possible medical management to enhance attention and behavioral control. Our bias is to consider a double-blind placebo medication trial, with dosage levels systematically varied and objectively assessed for effectiveness on behaviors of concern. Impulsive behaviors in the classroom can be further addressed by developing a home/school report card system targeting specific problem areas. The home/ school report card system involves identifying problem areas and awarding points on a daily basis for improved behavior. These points are backed up at home daily by a menu of reinforcers identified by Jack and his mother. Teachers should carefully prepare Jack for transitions or times when he is apt to become overstimulated and lose control. Warn him of the upcoming situation, have him state the "rules" for behavior, and praise him for good self-control when he is successful. He can then be reminded of these rules before situations arise that are likely to be difficult for him. For example, he could be asked to repeat a rule about walking, not running, before going to the gym. Jack can be helped to develop more self-control by taking advantage of his verbal skills. For example, a small, red stop sign could be placed on his desk at appropriate times to remind him to stop and think before interrupting the class. Work completion, monitoring of work, listening, and organization in the classroom may be encouraged by: Targeting these areas on the home/school report card suggested above. Breaking longer assignments into shorter parts and checking back with Jack frequently. Developing with Jack a signal to help him identify when he is off-task or misbehaving. Listening and following directions in the classroom can be improved by the following: Delivering directions slowly, keeping them brief and simple. For written directions, encourage Jack to highlight (underline or circle) points that might be forgotten or overlooked. Jack should be encouraged first to check his own understanding and then to ask questions if necessary. As Jack progresses through the grades, request that teachers initial assignments in an assignment book to ensure accuracy and understanding should he experience difficulty accurately writing down assignments. Again, as he progresses through the grades, if necessary, develop a backup system for remembering books/assignments. Suggestions include identification of a "buddy" who can be called if necessary, development of a color-coded system to ensure all books and assignments are packed for home, and the purchasing of a second set of texts to be kept at home. All extraneous objects and materials should be removed so that the area is visually uncomplicated. This checklist should be permanently positioned in a place where it is easily visible. Such steps include: Carefully read the directions, circle the important words in the directions, do the work, proof to see that directions were followed and all work appears accurately completed, organize for tomorrow, etc. Practice and support with this checklist is important to assist the processes in becoming automatic. Check that work as well as the accuracy of time estimates for completing that portion reinforce for appropriate performance, and repeat the procedure. Should inordinate parental assistance be required, or Jack distract himself too frequently from his homework, the following procedure may be helpful. An item is relinquished each time assistance or a reminder to continue working is necessary. Break homework assignments into smaller, manageable portions and provide opportunities for breaks in between. Listening and following directions at home can be improved by the following: First ensure attention. Turn off the television or other distracter, move physically close to Jack, and gain eye contact. When possible, write directions down to create a permanent reminder that can be referred to as needed. In the home setting, Jack might be given "chore cards" that list each step of a complex task. Warn him of the upcoming situation, have him state the rules for behavior, and praise him for appropriate behavior when he is successful. Set up a regular place in the house to which Jack can retreat should he feel himself beginning to lose control. For example, along with his parents, he can devise a prearranged self-statement to employ when he becomes frustrated. This statement would both acknowledge the frustration and provide an appropriate response. Oppositional behaviors in the home setting can be managed through clear communication of expectations, consistent consequences for inappropriate behavior, and positive attention for good behavior. These points are backed up daily by a menu of reinforcers identified by Jack and his parents. Reading instruction should be multifaceted and include a highly structured, systematic, multisensory phonics approach. Spelling instruction should be coordinated with reading instruction, so that similar principles are practiced in both the decoding and encoding areas. Home reading material should be coordinated with reading instructional materials, so that the same principles are being practiced in both settings and reading material is at an appropriate level. Computer software and phonics rap tapes (available at book stores) might also be helpful in learning basic reading skills. In addition, many reading games are available from local learning stores and offer an additional, and often enjoyable, opportunity to develop basic skills and fluency. To improve sight-word recognition and reading fluency, find a brief reading passage at an instructional level.