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Another concern (valid for high speed operation) was that when the fit was not perfect it might affect the balance of the machine symptoms gallbladder problems order generic levaquin line. The bars were built up by chrome plating if the force required for pressing was less than 10 medications bladder infections buy levaquin 250mg on-line,000 lbs medicine 6 year in us generic 250mg levaquin, and the material was removed when the press fit was too tight and required more than 30,000 lbs, of force for assembly. Before going into any analysis about the repeated failure of the different types of hammers, the following modes of failure were most predominately noticed. Complete wearing off on the top part of the hammer resulting rounding at 1U6 the top edge. Pitting - Erosion at the top part of the hammer (illustrated hammer where there complete hammer, (illustrated is 9 and lO), 3. Cracking at the bottom part of the a change of section 11 or even breaking of the in. In the early stages of design, the criteria for the selection of hammer and bar material was to have good wear and strength characteristics. The important advantage of this steel is that it can be formed into required shapes in their annealed, soft condition and then heattreated to higher strength after forming. In general, corrosion resistance of these steels is generally inferior to the basic stainless steel grade 304 and the cost is also higher. During the operation of these mills, repeated failure due to plain wear, pitting and arosion and also breaking of the complete hammers were experienced. If one hammer broke during processing, it would hit all other hammers causing damage to the rotor, screen and other hammers. Figure 15 illustrates the damage done to the knife bar and other hammers because of breakage. The initiation of cracks and, hence the breaking at the bottom part of the blade or hammer, where there is a change of section from the dovetail to flat, could be attributed to the stress concentration. The breaking or cracking of the rest of the hammers could be attributed to low impactstrength of the hammers at such high value of hardness. The wearing or rounding of the hammer was only at the top where the centrifugal force is maximum. Due to repeated failures, because of one reason or another, the following knife o Hammers made of stainless steel hardened to Rockwell 56-58 were tested without any success. The failure of the carbide knives materials were also tested is also well illustrated in the Figure 16. Later on, it was found that in some hammers the cracks had initiated at the places where the screws were being forced against the hammer. Also, the "area" of the dovetail where the hammers and the knife bar or the knife bar and the rotor was corroded o this could be attributed to the poor corrosion resistance of the material One of the design modifications done As mentioned above, the hammers would break or wear and would need replacement, but the problem encountered in the design was that due to frequent failures of the blades, and hence in resembling all the components the fit of the mating parts could not be maintained. With frequent blade changes, these bars had badly scarred in pressing them out of the rotor. It was also found that the manufacturing and assembly of new or replacement hammers and bars was quite expensive. As it was virtually impossible to eliminate failures which had been caused because of one reason or the other, another approach was tried to at least reduce the frequency of failure the initial cost and the cost of replacement. Hammers were installed on the rotor just by sliding them in the dovetail slot (originally meant for the knife bar)o They were grouped together along with spacers (also stamped) to provide the desired configuration and held in position by end locks. The cost of hammers, hard-facing and assembly on the rotor was significantly lower as compared to the original design of heat-treated machined hammers and bars. As the stamped hammers slide in ifie dovetail slot, therefore there are no close tolerances to be maintained. Another solution undertaken to overcome the problem of breakage of the hammers has been to make an integral one-piece knife and ifie bar from the same material. This is the most expensive approach taken as the different knife-bar blocks mounted on the circumference of the mill are all different and each of them have to be individually machined and hardened. This has worked quite well in one application, but costs of manufacturing are prohibitive. The bent hammer shows the ductility of stainless 316 Figure 18: Crack initiation prior stamped hammers. C, the statues were cast in bronze by four Italian foundries, (Aspiration and (Valor), Florence (Sacrifice), Rome located in Milan (Music and Harvest). Literature) and Naples There are two interesting First, they were cast in bronze by facts about their fabrication. By 1970 the statues had begun to show definite signs of deterioration, particularly "Music and Harvest" and "Aspiration and Literature". Instead of their original gold color, the statues were turning dark-grey-green, evidence that the gold gilding had deteriorated and was not carrying out its function of preventing corrosion of the underlying bronze. After a preliminary investigation of the problem, the following options were laid out. Do nothing, in which case the statues would continue to deteriorate, but eventually reach a final stage of What the condition would be like in this final patina. Sandblast off the gold coating and let the statues assume a natural bronze patina. Clean the surfaces thoroughly and plate with gold by the "brush-plating" technique, a technique normally this would require that used for industrial purposes. In the National Capital Parks chose the last option, and restoration work was begun in the fall of 1971. The work fell under two broad categories: structural repair, and surface restoration. Structural Repair the various parts of the bronze castings had been bolted together by steel bolts, and steel angle irons had been used in the interior of Unfortunately, the statues the statues to provide structural rigidity. This provided excellent opportunity for condensation of moisture on the inside surfaces of the statues, causing classic galvanic corrosion between the steel and the bronze. This had proceeded to the point where an incipiently dangerous situation had developed with respect to the bolts holding the various parts of the statues together, many of which had corroded almost in two. The steel angle irons had corroded to the point that they had very little structural strength left. The correction of these conditions was straightforward, but required considerable work. All the steel bolts and angle irons were removed and replaced with bronze counterparts, and the statues are now structurally sound. There were numerous cracks in the castings, some very large indeed, being over two Moreover, the abutment between the pieces of the statues feet long. To correct these conditions, the insides of the statues were thoroughly cleaned, and the cracks filled with 97% Sn-3% Ag solder. Surface Restoration the surface restoration proved to be the most difficult and the First the surface was sandblasted, using care to most challenging. After the surface was cleaned and thus available for close inspection, it was found that the castings were of exceedingly poor quality. This was particularly true for "Music and Harvest" and "Aspiration and Literature". They were very porous and in many places hundreds of pits ranging in size from less than one millimeter to several millimeters covered the surface. However, filling in all the pits was impractical, and protection of this surface by a gold plating was impossible.
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They conclude that convincing states and corporations that sharing this information via an international monitoring organization is in their best interest may simply be a matter of gaining their trust treatment kidney disease order levaquin on line. The Space Data Association seems to medicine x boston order levaquin 750mg with amex be a step in this direction on the commercial side (Johnson-Freese & Weeden 911 treatment for hair purchase levaquin once a day, 2012). Ostrom stipulates that appropriators be assessed graduated penalties based on the seriousness and context of their violation either by other stakeholders or by officials held accountable to them. This works because stakeholders may not be willing to submit to strict penalty systems out of fear that it will limit their freedom of action or that adherence might become politically untenable at some point in the future. An example of this would be public reprimanding of an actor that commits a violation, thereby building public pressure on them to change their behavior. The test was carried out without warning to the public and drew condemnation from established space actors through diplomatic and public channels. The test was carried out with advance notice to other countries, and the debris created quickly fell back into the atmosphere as opposed to creating further hazards in orbit. A second Chinese test in 2010 was carried out in similar fashion, with advance warnings given to other states and minimal debris in the aftermath. Weeden and his colleagues conclude that this sort of flexible enforcement is a viable way to establish and enforce norms of behavior that can lead to space sustainability better than harsher penalty systems that may actually encourage conflict and non-compliance (Weeden & Chow, 2012). However, this requires the use of formal diplomatic channels, which would rely on the broader diplomatic relationship between the affected states. This could be problematic if the states involved have hostile relations, or disagree on other key issues that could affect negotiations under the Liability Convention. The Liability Convention has only been invoked once in 1978 after a Soviet satellite crashed in Canada spreading radiation from its reactor over a wide area (Moltz, 2014; Weeden & Chow, 2012). Instead the Soviets agreed to pay $3 million in damages via a separate agreement with Canada. However, it seems creating fora or modifying existing ones to be more inclusive would be a wise strategy. This means rules at one level of governance must be reflected in the rules enforced at other levels. However, Weeden and Chow (2012) point out that not all states regulate in the same way, and some states lack the technical or other requirements to govern properly, leading to situations in which companies and other space actors can seek "flags of convenience" by launching from states that have the least control and fewest regulations. Additionally, the development and rapid adoption of CubeSats discussed earlier presents a new complication that states may not have fully considered. They propose an awareness campaign that would help states understand their responsibilities and offer guidance on how to develop the necessary national space policies and regulatory mechanisms (Weeden & Chow, 2012). This task would have to be handled by an international organization with an appropriate amount of resources and support. Doing more to fulfill it would allow for the creation of a better governance system in anticipation of increased use of space in the coming decades. For example, more and better detection equipment can help catalog and track the debris population, and improved sharing of this data can help reduce the risk of accidental collisions. The second additional principle Stern proposes is related to the first: Integrate scientific analysis with broadly based deliberation. This principle also seems to apply well to space due to the distrust between national militaries noted earlier and the variety of private stakeholders that hold proprietary information about their spacecraft in orbit. Additionally, studies have noted the uncertainty that exists with mathematical models used to make predictions about the orbital debris population (Matney, 2005). Greater deliberation and new data could help reduce uncertainties about the debris population and improve orbital debris models. More importantly, they will provide a more accurate picture of the current state of the orbital environment, including the positions and behaviors of debris objects within it. Producing such a picture is a necessary step to ensuring the safety of space operations, much like gathering and sharing radar and other tracking data is important for the safety of commercial aviation and shipping. Without it, stakeholders in the space environment are flying blind, at least partially. Governance institutions must be able to learn by incorporating new data from the field rather than simply following established protocols (Stern, 2011). Given the highly technical nature of the orbital debris problem and several of the solutions proposed for it, as well as the gaps in knowledge noted earlier, this principle also seems to apply. The fourth new principle Stern proposed is to engage in a variety of institutional forms. This principle has some merit for the orbital environment as well, since there is already some variation in institutional forms to go along with international and national layers of space governance. These common-pool hazards include externalities such as the introduction of toxic substances into the environment or invasive organisms spreading to new ecosystems. As private companies and other non-governmental actors pursue human spaceflight, there are also increasing hazards for life on Earth. For guidance on how this might be accomplished, it is useful to take a brief look at attempts to manage other global commons and what lessons they can offer for the orbital environment. Beginning with the advent of sailing technologies that allowed commerce and transit to occur over long distances, the high seas have been treated as such in practice, if not in law, for centuries. This long-standing commons status partially stems from the fact that the ability to freely access the high seas is critical to the security and economic interests of national governments and their militaries. However, this strategy has not worked as planned, as the continued degradation of many fishing grounds and other marine sources located within territorial waters indicate (Vogler, 2012). Given that negotiations for both treaties began within a decade of each other, this is perhaps unsurprising. Additionally, this organization would have facilitated mandatory technology transfers to developing countries, and would have assessed pollution fees on profits developing countries made from the exploitation of resources on the ocean floor (Ehrenfreund et al. Disagreement over these provisions dragged on until a compromise was reached in 1994 that reduced these measures, leading to the ratification of the treaty and the birth of the International Seabed Authority that same year. The orbital environment does not produce quite this much economic value for the world, but it does play an increasingly significant role in world affairs and seems like it could benefit from a similar delineation of sovereign boundaries. From this process of experimentation, best practices and norms can be established that can help lead the way toward cleaning up existing debris and achieving long term sustainability in Earth orbit. The Antarctic Like space governance, Antarctic governance developed in the context of the Cold War. As technology made regular exploration, study, and exploitation of the continent more realistic, nations began to stake territorial and resource claims to it in the 1950s. However, due to Cold War tensions and fears of conflict, these claims were nullified with the establishment of commons status for Antarctica in 1959 via the Antarctic Treaty (Vogler, 2012). The Antarctic Treaty was initially signed by twelve nations and stipulated that the continent only be used for peaceful scientific purposes. It also established information sharing and dispute resolution protocols, as well as consultative meetings, amendment provisions, and the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, which operates as part of the International Council for Science (Ehrenfreund et al. Tourism, which has become somewhat popular, is managed by an industry-created group known as the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operations.
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The Value of Climate Insurance Uncertainty over climate change creates insurance value in two ways symptoms 4 days after ovulation purchase levaquin 750mg otc, and it is important to medicine 0027 v buy discount levaquin 250mg line keep them clear: 1 medicine 19th century buy cheap levaquin online. Although the impact of any increase in temperature is highly uncertain, it is very likely that the damage function is a convex function of temperature, that is, it becomes increasingly steep as the temperature change becomes larger. As the temperature increase becomes larger, adaptation becomes more difficult, so the damage from an additional 17C of warming becomes larger. The second way that uncertainty creates insurance value is through social risk aversion. Risk aversion refers to a preference for a sure outcome rather than a risky outcome, even if that risky outcome has the same expected value as the sure outcome. We do not know what the "correct" social welfare function is, but we expect it to exhibit at least some risk aversion. This means that society as a whole would pay to avoid the risk of a very bad climate outcome. We will consider a single point in the future, say the year 2050, and we will ignore the issue of discounting future costs and benefits. Note that each additional 27C increase in temperature results in a larger and larger additional loss. First, suppose we know for certain that in 2050 the global mean temperature will have increased by 27C. We think that the temperature might not increase at all, or that it might increase by 47C, with each outcome having a 50% probability. The expected value of the temperature increase is (0:5)(0) + (0:5)(4) = 27C, that is, the same as it was in the first case. No, we just saw that the impact would be much larger; the damage caused by higher temperatures will rise more than proportionally. Because 47C of warming is more likely to cause substantial increases in sea levels. Suppose there is a 75% probability that there will be no temperature increase, and just a 25% chance of an 87C temperature increase. So even though there is only a 50% chance of the 47C increase happening, we would sacrifice a lot to avoid the risk. And an 87C temperature increase is much more than four times as harmful as a 27C temperature increase. So we would be willing to pay a lot to avoid a very bad outcome, even if that outcome has only a small chance of occurring. For example, how much would we be willing to pay for the first row of table 1 instead of the third row, that is, for a certain temperature increase of 27C rather than a 75% chance of no temperature increase and a 25% chance of an 87C increase This is the essence of insurance: we are willing to pay, sometimes a lot, to avoid a very bad outcome, even if that outcome is very unlikely. So we insure our homes against major damage from fire, storms, or floods, we buy medical insurance to cover the cost of a major hospitalization, and we buy life insurance even if we are healthy and expect to live many more years. This framework suggests that we should be willing to pay a considerable amount for insurance against a very bad (even if unlikely) climate outcome. But now suppose your starting income is $160,000, and we add an extra $10,000, for a total of $170,000. The extra $10,000 will still make you happy, but probably not as much as it would if your starting income was only $60,000. We call this a "declining marginal utility of income"; the value (in terms of the satisfaction it provides) of an additional $10,000 of income is lower the higher your starting income is. You would probably refuse a lottery in which you had a 50-50 chance of winning $10,000 or losing $10,000. The reason is that (for most people) the value of winning $10,000 is less than the lost value of losing $10,000. Financial market data tell us that investors in the aggregate seem to have substantial risk aversion, but not everyone is an investor, and averting climate change is not the same as investing in the stock market. If risk aversion for society as a whole is substantial, that would push us further toward a stringent emissions abatement policy. All we can say at this point is that the value of insurance is likely to be substantial, and will push policy toward earlier and more stringent emission abatement. The Effects of Irreversibilities Environmental damage can sometimes be irreversible, which can lead to a more "conservationist" policy than would be optimal otherwise. If the value of environmental amenities to future generations is uncertain, the benefit from protecting the environment today should include an option value, which accounts for the possibility that future generations will deeply regret irreversible environmental damage. This could include sunk cost investments in abatement equipment and an ongoing flow of sunk costs for alternative and perhaps more expensive production processes. If the future value of the environment is uncertain, this would lead to policies that are less "conservationist" than they would be otherwise. Because future generations might find it less valuable than we currently expect, in which case they will regret the irreversible expenditure that we made on preservation. Given that these two irreversibilities work in opposite directions, which one is more important Before proceeding, it is important to be clear about the nature of "learning" and its connection to climate change uncertainty. Over the next 2 decades, it is likely that our understanding of climate change and its impact will improve considerably. Although so far our uncertainty over climate sensitivity has not decreased (and as discussed above, has actually increased somewhat), more data combined with advances in climate science are likely to reduce the uncertainty. And more data will likely improve our understanding and ability to predict climate change impacts. But at the end of the 2 decades there will still be a good deal of uncertainty as we look toward the next 2 decades. The implications of the two conflicting irreversibilities described above can be understood with a simple numerical example. So, denoting emissions now by E1 and the atmospheric concentration by M1, we will have E1 = M1 = 10. Of course 40 years from now there will still be uncertainty over climate change impacts another 40 years out-there will always be uncertainty about future events and impacts. But for purposes of this very simple example, we will only be concerned with decisions now and 40 years from now. The abatement and outcome possibilities are summarized in table 2 and also illustrated in figure 6. If the impact is zero (the "good" outcome), then there is no reason to abate, so we will have A2 = 0. If A1 = 0, there will be 10 units of emissions (E1), which will accumulate in the atmosphere (so M1 = 10), but half will dissipate over the next 40 years (d =:5). Because the difference (11:5 - 7 = 4:5) is less than the 6% cost of abatement, it is better not to abate now, but instead wait and abate in the future only if we learn the impact is "bad. Why not set A1 =:06 at the outset, before we learn whether the impact will be "bad" or "good" If we then learn that the impact is "good," there will be no reasons to abate, so we will set A2 = 0. Because the difference (11:5 - 7 = 4:5%) is less than the 6% cost of abatement, it is better not to abate now but instead to wait and abate in the future only if we learn the impact is "bad.
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Compared to men, women are more likely to be incarcerated for drug and property crimes, and less likely to be incarcerated for violent crime. For information about how to obtain proper government-issued identification upon release, contact any of the following agencies. Each state has its own rules and regulations which can be learned by contacting them directly. If you have never applied for a Social Security Card and are over the age of 12, you are required to apply inperson and provide at least two documents to prove age, identity, and U. To apply for a replacement card, you are required to provide one document to prove your identity. When completed, applicants are required to take (or mail) their applications and necessary documents to a local Social Security office. If you have additional questions or concerns regarding applying for a Social Security Card or the evidence documents required, please visit. Department of State to citizens and nationals of the United States to provide documentation for foreign travel. It is the responsibility of the traveler to check in advance and obtain any required visas from the appropriate embassies or nearest consulates. Each country has its own specific guidelines concerning length of stay and purpose of visit, etc. Some may require visitors to display proof that they have 1) sufficient funds to stay for the intended time period, 2) onward/return tickets, and/or, 3) at least 6 months remaining validity on their U. Each record provides proof of a particular life event and is usually considered valid for obtaining most major forms of identification at both the state and federal level. You may request an application form, fee schedule, and specific eligibility requirements from the Office of Vital Records and Statistics for the state where the event occurred. Additional Resources: National Center for Health Statistics, Where to Write for Vital Records. Individuals with criminal histories should be honest, realistic and focused when it comes to finding and securing employment upon release from incarceration. There are many employment related tools and resources available to those who wish to succeed. The following resources were selected as an introduction to the programs and services available to assist job seekers with obtaining gainful employment regardless of their background. For a listing of programs and services offered within a specific geographic area, please contact your state labor department or an American Job Center for additional information and/or referral. Department of Labor is to foster, promote, and develop the welfare of the wage earners, job seekers, and retirees of the United States; improve working conditions; advance opportunities for profitable employment; and assure work-related benefits and rights. The programs are administered locally by American Job Centers, formerly known as One-Stop Career Centers. The types of training offered by local American Job Centers may vary depending on the job opportunities available in each individual community. As such, individuals are encouraged to contact their local American Job Center for a detailed listing of the programs and services offered within their local area. To help locate training programs in your area, or search for an American Job Center in your state, call 877. Apprenticeship programs can be sponsored by individual employers, joint employer and labor groups, and/or employer associations. Department of Labor is to safeguard the welfare of apprentices, ensure equality of access to apprenticeship programs, and provide integrated employment and training information to sponsors and the local employment and training community. Additional information regarding apprenticeship programs such as local program options may be identified by visiting the U. A listing of state and regional apprenticeship offices is available in Appendix 3-B. Job Corps combines classroom, practical, and work-based learning experiences to prepare youth for stable, long-term, high-paying jobs. Established under the Workforce Investment Act, the centers offer referrals, career counseling, job listings, and similar employment-related services. The Employment and Training Administration website provides a clickable map of American Job Center websites for each state and a list of state, regional, and local center locations at. For added convenience, a list of State American Job Center websites is located in Appendix 3-C. Through the program, individuals who complete a one-week Occupational Safety and Health Administration trainer course are authorized to teach 10-hour or 30-hour courses in construction or general industry safety and health standards. Program participants work at community and government agencies and are paid the federal or state minimum wage, whichever is greater. They may also receive training and can use their participation as a bridge to other employment positions which are not supported with federal funds. Department of Labor assists veterans, reservists, and National Guard members in securing employment. For additional information regarding any of the above Employment and Training Programs, contact the U. Additional Resources: Occupational Outlook Quarterly, the 2010-20 Job Outlook in Brief publications. Eligibility requirements, benefits, and length of benefits are determined by individual states in accordance with applicable law. Your source for employment information and inspiration the place to manage your career Your pathway to career success Tools to help job seekers, students, businesses and career professionals Sponsored by the U. The website provides contact information for a range of local workrelated services, including unemployment benefits, career development, and educational opportunities. Users can identify occupations that require skills and knowledge similar to their current or previous job, learn more about these suggested matches, locate local training programs, and/or apply for jobs. The models and other competency-based resources support development of curriculum and increased awareness of careers in high-growth industries. The website includes a Job Search tool with job listings for all fifty states updated daily. 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Some of the apparatus of this discrimination and power imbalance are ordinary day to treatment narcissistic personality disorder purchase cheap levaquin on line No one may see these processes and activities as taking part in the discrimination of the female persons in Gikuyu community treatment questionnaire discount 250mg levaquin free shipping. It is only through unravelling of the discourses of these processes that the discrimination and power inequality get exposed treatment yeast infection nipples breastfeeding cheap levaquin online master card. Some of these apparatus include the referencing system of womenin the Gikuyu community. This study set out to establish how the Gikuyu community references relate to the discrimination of the female person in terms of Identity and power. Specifically, this study sougt to identify the references used to refer to the female person among the Gikuyu speakers; explain the meaning of thosereferences and how they discriminate the female person in terms of power and identity among the Gikuyu speakers; and to analyse the discursive strategies within the references of the Gikuyu female persons among the Gikuyu speakers. The current study is interested in power and discrimination of women through references used among the Gikuyu. This alludes to the fact that micro linguistic structures influence macro social and economic structures of the society; they influence people to behave in a certain way. To find out how these Gikuyu references portray women in terms of social structures and social expectations. Gikuyu female persons whose references are being studied in this research are part of the general marginalized group of women in Kenya, Africa and the world over. KhosraviNik (2010) reports that within the focus of representation of social groups in the text the linguistic (micro) mechanisms may affect the perspectivization of the representation of certain social groups through three distinct yet interwoven levels: social actors, social actions and argumentation. The current study concentrates on the kind of references given to Gikuyu women and the meaning of these references and how they portray women in terms of power and identity. This paper will mainly dwell on the first level of analysis then briefly merge this level with the rest of the levels. According to KhosraviNik (2010: 64) naming of actors may be by, functionalization (what they do or what functions they carry out), aggression (if the actors are referred to as collective entity), along with the positioning of Us/Them categorization through the use of pronouns, status, position among others. The data was collected based on the principle of Mugenda (2003) who posits that in purposeful sampling, subjects are handpicked because they are informative and have the required characteristics. It communicates the fact that according to the expectations of the Gikuyu people a woman should keep quiet at all times. They should listen and follow the opinions of men regarding all issues in the society. According to Foucault (1980) power and knowledge are related and therefore every human relationship is a power struggle. This reference provides certain oppressive knowledge to the woman that should control and influence her character. The woman is therefore assumed not to have the requisite knowledge of important issues in life thus her opinion is irrelevant-she should keep quiet. This still brings out the idea of us and them, in and out group (KhosraviNik 2016). Mkoma thi Translation: One who sleeps down on the floor When a woman gives birth she is expected to separate herself from her husband and sleep down near the fire place with the baby. This is because after giving birth, the woman is considered unclean and therefore should not share a bed with her husband until after some time. She was also separated to keep her husband away from the disturbances of the new born. The fact that the society has already determined where and what a woman should do already denies her power to make decisions thus she has to follow the oppressive dictates of the community. The research noted that there was no equivalent reference for a man who cannot put up with his wife. However if she does not get married and has men friends she is given this abusive reference that also leads to loss of esteem and powerlessness. This makes women be classified in the same manner as things reducing the woman to an object. It is also notable that there is no equivalent words for a man who cannot handle or manage a wife and one who has multiple sexual partners. Conclusion the analysis of the research data in this studyhas shown that the Gikuyu speakers have a systematic referencing system for women and these references have specific condescendingmeaning. The expectations of these references are discriminative and oppressive of the Gikuyu women. This is what brings about inequality in the power relations between men and women among the Gikuyu speakers because they portray women as people who are ignorant and weak and therefore should be dominated and controlled by men. These references were deliberately created to fix the woman in a certain position of subordination in society. This is so because according to this study those who dominate discourse dominate power and control macro structures in the society. Discourse as structure and process of discourse studies: A multidisciplinary introduction. Webb and Kembo-Sure (eds)African Voices: An Introduction to Languages and Linguistics of Africa. Phonological variation and change in Gikuyu: A case study of Mathira dialect in Kenya. The result of this work shown that legal price coefficient indicated for each increase of 1 percent in the legal Price, holding illegal price constant, the expected change in Product is predicted to be about 52%, this mean change in the legal price has a positive effecton the official production and statistically significant (t-value is 2. However, change in illegal price has a negative effect on production (about 53% with t-value equal to 2. Among the most important, are Bakouma uranium deposit (20,000 tons of Uran iu m metal, iron ore deposit Bogoin (3. Among these mineral resources, only the diamond and gold resources are used today in the traditional way. Diamonds and gold mining are almost present over the whole territory of Central African Republic for the reason that the country is endowed with these mineral resources. The production is weakened by a bad quality of governance characterized by the corruption in this sector. Real output is estimated at about double, which means there is a significant economy of smuggling in this sector. Production, trade and diamond cutting, are activities that are regularly p lanned to be nationalized, rather than liberalized. The question of sovereignty over natural resources has preoccupied the minds for decades.
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Owen Domestic Animal Endocrinology symptoms umbilical hernia order 750mg levaquin free shipping, 26(1):1-9 treatment plans for substance abuse cheap 750 mg levaquin visa, 2004 Effect of supplemental types of non-fiber carbohydrate and level of rumen degradable protein on intake and digestion of lowquality grass hay by beef cattle J medications with acetaminophen order levaquin uk. Gnad Animal Feed Science and Technology, 115:83-99, 2004 Changes in circulating insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins, and leptin in weaned pigs infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium N. Minton Domestic Animal Endocrinology, 26(1):4960, 2004 03-406-J Effect of types of non-fiber carbohydrate on in vitro forage fiber digestion of low-quality grass hay J. Johnson Animal Feed Science and Technology, 120:93-106, 2005 Accessory gene regulator control of staphyloccoccal enterotoxin D gene expression C. Chapes Infection and Immunity, 72:159-167, 2004 Effect of antibiotics in milk replacer on fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in calves W. Stewart Anaerobe, 11(1-2):123-129, 2005 04-319-J Multiplex detection of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species pathogens in peripheral blood by real-time reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction K. Ganta Infection and Immunity, 73(1):79-87, 2005 Correlation of results of pulmonary computed tomography and pathologic findings in mice with pasteurella-induced pneumonia L. Nagaraja Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71:6431-6433, 2005 04-321-B 05-9-J 04-242-S 05-18-J 05-59-J 05-67-J 05-124-J 04-283-J 97 this publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service has been archived. Loughlin the Professional Animal Scientist, 24:7687, 2008 A comparison of serological responses when modified live infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus vaccine and Mannheimia haemolytica bacterinleukotoxoid are administered with needlefree versus conventional needle-based injection in yearling feedlot steers L. Mosier Bovine Practitioner, 39:106-109, 2005 05-238-J A comparison of serological responses when modified live infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus vaccine, Mannheimia haemolytica bacterin-leukotoxoid, and Leptospira pomona bacterin are administered with needle-free versus conventional needle-based injection in Holstein dairy calves L. Mosier Bovine Practitioner, 39:110-114, 2005 Effects of oral administration of sodium citrate or acetate to pigs on blood parameters, postmortem glycolysis, muscle pH decline, and quality attributes of pork J. Minton Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 111(3-4):199-209, 2006 Dairy research 2005 J. Ganta Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6:351-360, 2006 Dry rolled or steam flaked grain-based diets on fecal shedding of E. Green Virology, 353(2):463-73, 2006 Effects of melengestrol acetate on the inflammatory response in heifers challenged with Mannhemia haemolytica M. Chapes Infection and Immunity, 75(1):135-145, 2007 Presence of non-O157 Shiga toxinproducing Escherichia coli in feces from feedlot cattle in Alberta and absence on corresponding beef carcasses D. Nagaraja Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, 3(3):251-258, 2006 Prevalence and serovars of Salmonella in feces of free-ranging deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Nebraska D. Minton Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 115(3-4):299-308, 2007 06-274-J 06-157-J 06-275-J 06-164-J 06-276-J 06-219-J 06-279-J 06-223-J 06-231-J 06-312-J 06-254-J 99 this publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service has been archived. Zurek Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 80:74-81, 2007 Delayed clearance of and differential immune responses to tick- vs. Chapes Infection and Immunity, 75:135-145, 2007 Ruminal acidosis in beef cattle: the current microbiological and nutritional outlook T. Nagaraja Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73:1002-1004, 2007 Detection and determinants of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in pre-slaughter feedlot pens in Alberta D. Nagaraja Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73(16):5253-5260, 2007 Vector competence of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans L. Zurek Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73:6740-6747, 2007 Effect of dietary nutrients on osteochondrosis lesions and cartilage properties in pigs N. Nagaraja Current Microbiology, 56(6):651-655, 2008 Drosophila S2 cells as a model for studying Ehrlichia chaffeensis infections A. Chapes Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, 15:243252, 2008 Fusobacterium equinum possesses a leukotoxin gene and exhibits leukotoxin activity S. Narayanan Veterinary Microbiology, 127(1-2):89-96, 2008 Human Fusobacterium necrophorum strains have a leukotoxin gene and exhibit leukotoxic activity S. Nagaraja Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74(1):38-43, 2008 07-186-J 07-271-J 07-201-J 07-279-J 07-215-J 07-301-J 07-232-J 07-302-J 07-235-J 07-258-J 07-306-J 07-312-J 07-262-J 101 this publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service has been archived. Nagaraja Zoonoses and Public Health, 55:125-132, 2008 the potential of house flies to contaminate ready-to-eat food with antibiotic resistant enterococci L. Hirt Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74:1726-1730, 2008 Isolation and molecular detection of Ehrlichia from vertebrate animals C. Melgarejo Cardiovascular Research, 73(1):26-36, 2007 Fecal shedding of Salmonella in feedlot cattle that were treated for apparent respiratory disease D. Nagaraja Proceedings of the 87th Annual Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases, 2007 Biocontainment, biosecurity, and security practices in beef feedyards A. Electrical and Computer Engineering 03-81-J Merging genomic control networks and soilplant-atmosphere-continuum models S. Kirkham Agricultural Systems, 86:243-274, 2005 Modeling gene networks controlling transition to flowering in Arabidopsis S. Ramaswamy Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 96(6):865-869, 2003 Mating behavior of Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) and the effect of female mating frequency on offspring production L. Broce Environmental Entomology, 33(1):75-80, 2004 Putative cues used by Pteromalus cerealellae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to locate its bruchid host G. Ramaswamy Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 97:353-360, 2004 Two-dimensional analysis of proteinase activity B. Higgins Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 97:600-604, 2004 Genetic mapping of genes expressing resistance to greenbug and Russian wheat aphid in bread wheat E. Smith Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 109:1230-1236, 2004 Regulation of juvenile hormone biosynthesis in Heliothis virescens by Manduca sexta allatotropin A. Ramaswamy Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 54:121-133, 2003 Larval survival and development of susceptible and resistant Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on diet containing Bacillus thuringiensis F. Higgins Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 7:4552, 2005 Discrimination of self-parasitized hosts by the pupal parasitoid Muscidifurax zaraptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) T. Broce Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 97:592-599, 2004 Species-specific allozyme markers for Appalachian wood-feeding cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Cryptocercidae) indicate reproductive incompatibility B. Kambhampati Biochemical Genetics, 42:149-163, 2004 Comparative analysis of proteinase activities of Bacillus thuringiensis -resistant and susceptible Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) H. Buschman Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 34:753-762, 2004 03-250-J Biological control of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) using Phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot (Acari: Phytoseidae) on ivy geranium: Assessment of predator release ratios G. Margolies Biological Control, 29:445-452, 2004 Transgenic plants expressing Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins H. Buschman Entomologia Sinica, 10(3):155-166, 2003 Eretmocerus picketti new species (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Aphellinidae), reared from Tetraleurodes acaciae (Quaintance) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae: Aleyrodinae) M. Zolnerowich Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 79:119-127, 2003 Indirect effect of early-season infestations of Trichosirocalus horridus on Rhinocyllus conicus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) L. Nechols Biological Control, 30:95-109, 2004 Identification of Aegilops germplasm with multiple aphid resistance C. Holubec Euphytica, 135:265-273, 2004 Effects of Bt corn (mon 863) for corn rootworm control on aboveground nontarget arthropods M.
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Cholecystokinin innervation of monkey prefrontal cortex: An immunohistochemical study medicine mountain scout ranch discount 500mg levaquin fast delivery. Postnatal development of the cholecystokinin innervation of monkey prefrontal cortex medications with aspirin cheap levaquin online visa. Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of the septal area and other regions of the rat Brain treatment tracker order levaquin 250mg without prescription. Characterization of dopamine receptors mediating inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity in rat striatum. Prefrontal cortex and dynamic categorization tasks: representational organization and neuromodulatory control. Dopaminergic modulation of long-term synaptic plasticity in rat prefrontal neurons. Neurochemical interaction between dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex. Tryptophan depletion in normal volunteers produces selective impairments in learning and memory. Basal extracellular dopamine is decreased in the rat nucleus accumbens during abstinence from chronic cocaine. The role of dopamine in maintaining intracranial selfstimulation in the ventral tegmentum, nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex. Intracranial self-stimulation in orbitofrontal cortex and caudate nucleus of rhesus monkey: effects of apomorphine, pimozide, and spiroperidol. Magnitude of dopamine release in medial prefrontal cortex predicts accuracy of memory on a delayed response task. Effect of 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex on neurotransmitter systems in subcortical sites in the rat. Changes in medial prefrontal cortical dopamine levels associated with response-contingent food reward: an electrochemical study in rat. Nucleus basalis of Meynert neuronal activity during a delayed response task in monkey. Differential regulation of fronto-executive function by the monoamines and acetylcholine. Apparent synaptic dopamine deficiency induced by withdrawal from chronic cocaine treatment. Choosing between small, likely rewards and large, unlikely rewards activates inferior and orbital prefrontal cortex. Activation of neurones in the prefrontal cortex by brain-stimulation reward in the rat. Activation of neurotensin receptors in the prefrontal cortex stimulates midbrain dopamine cell firing. Modulation of basolateral amygdala neuronal firing and afferent drive by dopamine receptor activation in vivo. Marked inhibition of mesolimbic dopamine release: a common feature of ethanol, morphine, cocaine and amphetamine abstinence in rats. Muscarinic binding and choline acetyltransferase activity in Parkinsonian subjects with reference to dementia. Direct comparison of cognitive facilitation by physostigmine and tetrahydroamiocridine in two primate models. In vivo release of dopamine from rat striatum, substantia nigra and prefrontal cortex: differential modulation by baclofen. Effects of neurotensin on the release of glutamic acid in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of the rat. Cortical cholinergic inputs mediating arousal, attentional processing and dreaming: differential afferent regulation of the basal forebrain by telencephalic and brainstem afferents. Cortical acetylcholine and attention: Principles directing treatment strategies for cognitive disorders. Attenuation of delay-period activity of monkey prefrontal neurons by an alpha2-adrenergic antagonist during an oculomotor delayed-response task. Laminar distributions of neurons sensitive to acetylcholine, noradrenaline and dopamine in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the monkey. Dopamine modulates neuronal activities related to motor performance in the monkey prefrontal cortex. Delayed response deficit in monkeys by locally disturbed prefrontal neuronal activity by bicuculline. Dopamine enhances the neuronal activity of spatial short-term memory task in the primate prefrontal cortex. Responses of monkey dopamine neurons to reward and conditioned stimuli during successive steps of learning a delayed response task. The principal features and mechanisms of dopamine modulation in the prefrontal cortex. Dopamine receptor sequences: therapeutic levels of neuroleptics occupy D2 receptors, clozapine occupies D4. Is the dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic system necessary for intracranial self-stimulation. Serotonergic axons in monkey prefrontal cerebral cortex synapse predominantly on interneurons as demonstrated by serial section electron microscopy. Tritiated imipramine binding sites are decreased in the frontal cortex of suicides. Learning a new behavioral strategy in the shuttlebox increases prefrontal dopamine. Disappearance of hoarding and disorganization of eating behavior after ventral mesencephalic tegmentum lesions in rats. Synaptic density of the prefrontal cortex regulated by dopamine instead of serotonin in rats. Immunohistochemical demonstration of serotonin nerve fibers in the neocortex of the monkey (Macaca fuscata). Dysfunctional and compensatory prefrontal cortical systems, genes and the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The effects of prefrontal intracortical microinjections of an alpha-2 agonist, alpha-2 antagonist and lidocaine on the delayed alternation performance of aged rats. Development of cortical and nigro-neostriatal dopaminergic systems after destruction of central noradrenergic neurones in foetal or neonatal rats. Topographical distribution of dopaminergic innervation and dopaminergic receptors of the anterior cerebral cortex of the rat. The alpha1adrenergic antagonist prazosin improves sleep and nightmares in civilian trauma posttraumatic stress disorder.
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Or the dozens of artists who came daily to symptoms 7dpo order levaquin with visa the sidewalks around Tahrir 3 medications that affect urinary elimination order 750 mg levaquin otc, to treatment for depression buy 250 mg levaquin with visa draw what was happening. Denys Johnson-Davies in his Introduction to "Fate of a Cockroach" and other plays has observed: The cockroach was struggling for life and it was trying again and again to climb up but due to the slippery sides of the bathtub it was losing its grip and was falling down again and again. Kudos to the Nietzschean Will to power of the cockroach who was tirelessly trying to climb up the tub and much like the spider of Robert the Bruce the cockroach is trying its level best to survive. Act Two and Three both show humans behaving in an even more purposeless, void and meaningless fashion than the cockroaches of Act One. Abrams in his A Glossary of Literary Terms has observed: After the 1940s, however, there was a widespread tendency, especially prominent in the existential philosophy of men of letters such as Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus, to view a human being as an isolated existent who is cast into an alien universe; to conceive the human world as possessing no inherent truth, value, or meaning; and to represent human life - in its fruitless search for purpose and significance, as it moves from the nothingness whence it came toward the nothingness where it must end- as an existence which is both anguished and absurd. This divorce between man and his life, the actor and his setting, truly constitutes the feeling of Absurdity. The company doctor who had assumed that Adil is continuously looking at the cockroach due to a pathological condition and according to him Adil has identified himself with the cockroach but later it is found crystal clear that Adil has not bridged any kind of similarity between him and the petty cockroach. Adil experiences arrays of emotions like horror, kindness and pity from both his wife and doctor. The struggle of masculinity to reassert itself is thus tragic, as well, since once more the odds are against men. The cockroachified Adil is another fallen Adam, and just as cockroaches are destined to fall prey to ants, men are destined to fall prey to sexuality. Umm Atiyya is a working class woman and she is unaware of the heroism of the cockroach King. She runs the bath and as a result the cockroach King is drowned and she flings it in the corner. It is true that Adil had no pity for the cockroach but I cannot deny that he had also saved the life of the insect after locking the door of the bathroom so that neither his wife nor the family cook can destroy it with the help of insecticide or carbolic acid. In Fate of a Cockroach (1973) the cockroach Queen is stereotyped for her small whisker or Samia is tagged as weaker sex, the superstitious priest goes for costly prayers but with zero result. In Waiting for Godot (1952), Godot never arrived to assist the tramps and in the world no one will come to save us because we are lonely, deserted and are living in a void, meaningless world and we will have to struggle for our survival much like the cockroach who tirelessly tried to survive until it was swayed away by the stream of the tub. Donald Trump with a heavy heart on 13 December, 2012 tweeted: Egypt is a total mess. In Fate of a Cockroach (1973) it has been proved that the subject cockroaches like to live in harmony and they like to sing "o night, o lovely night". Fate of a Cockroach (1973) proves Al-Hakim a true mascot of democracy and he has criticized the lack of energy, indecisiveness, gender stereotype, politics of Self and Other etc. The Waste Land (1922) ends with "shantih shantih" (Eliot line 433) but will peace ever come in this politically and economically unstable world where only a selected number of rulers are in the centre and marginalized poor people, minority The microscopic cockroach world can be compared to the macroscopic human world in the sense that cockroaches die due to torrential downpours, moving mountains or by insecticide while human beings are also scattered, crushed and devastated due to unavoidable natural calamity, hunger, poverty, famine, nuclear warfare, domestic violence. Translated by Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith, Lawrence and Wishart, 1978. Directed by Satyajit Ray, performances by Utpal Dutt, Soumitra Chatterjee, Tapen Chatterjee, Rabi Ghosh, and Santosh Dutta. Directed by Satyajit Ray, performances by Soumitra Chatterjee, Dhritiman Chatterjee, Mamata Shankar, Deepankar De, and Shubhendu Chattopadhyay. Directed by Srijit Mukherji, performances by Prosenjit Chatterjee, Aryann Bhowmik, Indraneil Sengupta, Swastika Mukherjee, and Rajesh Sharma. The lack of knowledge about malaria in early childhood is strongly suspected as one of the factors affecting prevention. This research aimed to measure the level of knowledge of elementary school students about malaria and determine how far the school curriculum should have malaria content. Random sampling was performed on 121 elementary school studentsfrom 24 schools,to measure knowledge of malaria and determine its inclusion in curriculum. Data was analyzed to determine the level of knowledge of malaria and the extent to which it appears in curriculum. The results of a survey of 121 (6th grade students) show that the majority (95%) had heard about malaria in general. They understand malaria as a "heat and cold" disease (87%), and transmitted by mosquitoes (98%). Nearly half of respondents (47%) had a family member who had suffered from malaria. When verbally questioned about aspects of the Anopheles mosquito species, only 12% answered correctly. Respondents were less well informed that Anopheles is a transmitter of malaria (25%), and did not understand that the river/pond is a breeding ground for the Anopheles mosquito (5%). In all schools surveyed (100%), we found no local content related to malaria in the elementary school curriculum. Lack of knowledge about malaria is still a factor in the persistence of malaria cases. Curriculum becomes a source of knowledge forelementary school students in endemic areas. The basic k nowledgeabout Anopheles species and its ecology in early childhood is below exectations. Education on malaria is needed to help eliminate malaria in the long term and to ensure the sustainability of malaria control. The elimination of malaria by 2030 is a national target, howeverthere is still huge cases of it. The biggest obstacle in handling the malaria diseases, according to the 2017 World Malaria Report, is the emergence of parasite (plasmodium) resistance to malaria drugs, vector resistance (Anopheles) against insecticides, and inadequate health system performance . Until 2017, an elimination ofmalaria certificate was obtained by 247 districts/cities from 514 districts/cities in Indonesia . Maluku Province, North Maluku, Papua, West Papua, East Nusa Tenggara, are areas with high endemicity. Purworejo is one of the malaria endemic areas in Central Java Province that has not yet received yet the certificate of elimination of malaria[4, 5]. In the Kemiri subdistrict, malaria cases have not occurred in the past 5 years, but malaria has occurred on 2017. The Kaligesingsub district is an endemic area, with malaria cases reported annually. Overall, malaria cases in Purworejo district still show high statistics; in 2015 (1,022 cases of malaria), increased to malaria cases in 2014 as many as 658 cases. Purworejo district has a malaria elimination target of 2023 through this integrated activity.
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The objectives of the course are: (1) become acquainted with the case method; (2) gain greater insight into design and engineering practices; (3) assess the decision making process as it functioned in a series of cases studied; and (4) write a case study medicine review generic levaquin 500mg with mastercard. During the first five weeks (about 1/3) of the course symptoms tuberculosis cheap levaquin 750 mg overnight delivery, the class studied symptoms your dog is sick order levaquin now, prepared written discussions, and then verbally discussed a series of case studies. Others were student-written case studies generated at the University of California at Berkeley under the direction of Dr. During the next five-to-six week period, the class worked in small teams (usually three students per team) in the "real world". Each team worked with an engineer who was in responsible charge of a project in a local engineering organization. Both the engineer and the project were rather carefully selected in advance in concert with the cooperating organization, since the project engineer served as a "clinical professor". The instructor accompanied the team on its initial meeting with the project engineer at his place of work but not on subsequent visits. During this period, the class did not meet together but the instructor was available 188 for consultation. The first time this course was offered, the team visited the project engineer, listened to his exposition and asked questions (recording the discussion on tape) Between interviews, the team went through the results of the interviews and any file documents and drawings loaned to the team. The team members were expected to review the design from concept to completion (including field performance if possible) with particular attention to chronology, key decisions (and factors involved in reaching them) wrong directions taken as well as successful directions, and critical review of technical aspects. This time, the team again met with the project engineer and discussed the background of the problem and arrived at a problem definition. On each successive visit with the project engineer, the work of the team was reviewed by the project engineer and discussed. Additional information was presented to the team and they proceeded further with their conceptual solution (or substantially altered it, as appropriate). At the end of the series of visits, the project engineer told the team how the problem had actually been solved in practice. A due date was established for a draft with copies being provided for the other students as well as the instructor. Each team was given time to prepare a critical review of the work of each of the other teams. The class then met with each team presenting its study and the other students asking pointed questions. Following this, each team had an opportunity to confer again with the project engineer, fill in gaps in the study, and develop a final written draft. Faculty, project engineers, and other students were welcome at the final presen- tations. The reaction of students, project engineers and instructor is that the students have had a valuable experience. It has been agreed that they gain a greater insight into real product development with its interplay of analysis, testing and decision making, than would be possible through academic study alone. In at least one case, the student team proposed a conceptual solution which the project engineer admitted had not occurred to the industrial team but which appeared superior to the one that had been developed 190. Pelan Professor of Mechanical Engineering Associate Department of Mechanical, Industrial, and Aerospace Engineering Rutgers University New Brunswick, N. Let me lead into my response by first briefly commenting on several considerations. In recent years there has been a widespread movement in engineering education to expose the student to realistic engineering situations, In part, our reason has sometimes contrived but often from real life. We have also believed that somehow we I would be less than cancould then better prepare him as an engineer. There are other reasons, Part of this widespread movement has been the institutoo, of course. The use of the engineering case method, the authentic involvement of students in industrial problems, and the selection of design projects that culminate in such useful hardware as prosthetic devices and unique instrumentation are instances of this movement. The particular approach adopted may depend upon several parameters, including time limitations, teacher preference, and industrial support as in the instance of authentic student involvement cited. However, the adoption Indeed, the of one approach does not preclude the adoption of another. A properly-selected case study can provide background for a design project and also motivate the student by adding the realistic ingredient of an actual engineering situation. My comments here are addressed to the case method, in particular to case problems and case histories that are available, not the writing of them. As you are aware, in a case problem the student is in the position of an engineer facing a problem to be solved whereas in a case history the student has the opportunity to see the problem and the outcome Primarily the teaching objectives. For example, to paced instructional programs including text, audio-visual method to be used depends upon the teaching more nearly individualize instruction, selfcomplete with special course material, tapes, and self-administered progress checks. Traditionally, although possibly not always with complete justification, many engineering courses have been taught using the lecture-recitation method. It is frequently the most viable method to employ, the economics alone being a major conIn such courses, some faculty, wishing to implement motivasideration. The most likely teaching objectives of the case method in engineering were investigated by Professors Vesper and Adams [2,3] Three groups were polled: professors who had attended summer institutes where they had written cases and practiced on them, professors who taught case studies on the first-year graduate level, and, lastly, graduate students in that course. Knowledge of what engineers do and how they work Enthusiasm, motivation for course or for engineering Search for more alternate solutions Identification and definition of practical problems Discrimination between fact and opinion Detection of key facts in the midst of less relevant data Need to be more specific in prescribing action Need to foresee the consequences of alternative actions It is interesting to note that another survey in their investigation revealed that a second group of graduate students participating in a four-week summer institute composed entirely of cases agreed that two major effects of case instruction were exercise in thinking and increased realism  It is not unusual to Case studies may be used at different levels. At the first level it may be used to expose the student to the real engineering situation and have him prepare engineering sketches of student-generated alternatives. The senior may find the case a justification for the time spent on fatigue failures in his stress-strain-strength course and may even have that delight of detecting the reason for the failure and of being able to competently recommend an alternative correction. For the graduate student, on the other hand, here is an opportunity to diagnose the case from an administrative viewpoint. Cases have been assigned in a number of ways, as you have come to suspect: homework reading assignments, problem formulation, background, illustrations, research material, and so on. Normally, I prefer at some figures in brackets indicate the bibliography references at the end of this presentation. A group discussion gives the student an opportunity to do ~ and ideally should demand that he do ~ independent, constructive thinking and make positive contributions. Additionally, it provides the real environment of an Initially I find that the attention of engineering case as background. The case presents an opportunity for detached objectivity, free from the emotional involvement of the original participants. At times the student may be called upon to defend his position in open discussion. But not all students can or do achieve this and not all faculty would be successful with case studies. Good cases in poor hands can be disastrous; poor cases in good hands still might be used effectively.
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Nevertheless medications gout best levaquin 500 mg, no particular kind of oscillation has thus far been specifically related to treatment myasthenia gravis purchase cheapest levaquin and levaquin working memory in the prefrontal cortex or elsewhere medicine 7 years nigeria buy discount levaquin 250mg. Persistent unit activity in prefrontal or parietal cortex during working memory does not involve the appearance or enhancement of oscillations (Compte et al. It seems that oscillations in practically all frequency ranges can occur in various cognitive states in various cortical regions, prefrontal cortex no exception, but working memory involves such a diversity of simultaneously activated reentrant circuits that no single frequency stands out and can be attributed to working memory. Some of our unit data from parietal cortex in working memory are in accord with that expectation, and provide an explanation for the absence of oscillations that could be identified as typical of that memory state (Bodner et al. The computational analysis of inter-spike intervals in the delay period of a haptic workingmemory task revealed a characteristic fragmentation and proliferation of patterns of cell discharge, when compared with an inter-trial baseline. It seemed that, as the cortex entered working memory, its cells fell into a variety of attractors, almost simultaneously or in rapid succession. In other words, if we define an attractor as a quasistable frequency, and if we consider such a frequency to be the expression of activity in a given reentry loop, the cells appeared to be recruited, almost at the same time, into a variety of reentry loops, each with its own reverberating frequency. This suggests that the cells are part of the many associative networks that define the various attributes of the memorandum. Before discussing this question, it is helpful to state a cardinal concept implicit in previous discussions and to be discussed explicitly in Chapter 8: the neural substrate for all executive functions of the prefrontal cortex is inseparable from, and practically identical to, the neural substrate that represents executive actions, past, present, and future. More specifically, with regard to current discussion, the neural substrate that represents working memory is practically the same as that which represents established (long-term) executive memory. In working memory, that representational substrate is simply modified, updated by present context, and activated for prospective action; however, it remains, in structural terms, essentially the same substrate and inseparable from the executive memory of the task or context in which the working memory is utilized. A corollary of this tenet, which we will try to substantiate in Chapter 8, is that working memory activates a wide cortical network, which includes prefrontal neurons and represents not only the sensory memorandum but also the task or context in its entirety. The executive functions of a prefrontal area or region derive exclusively from the fact that its neurons are part of that representational network which, for a limited period of time. Thus, the executive functions of the prefrontal cortex come from the network at large, not from the prefrontal cortex itself. We can speak of a frontal executive only insofar as the executive representational networks of the frontal lobe come into play engaged by, and engaging, posterior networks in their orderly activation toward the 258 6. Working memory fills the temporal gaps between perception and action by reverberating reentry between frontal and posterior representational networks. In working memory, as in any other form of selective attention, reentrant cortico-cortical loops through prefrontal cortex fulfill the role of "central executive. At certain times, such as at the initiation of a delayed-response trial, the cycle is set into motion by perceptual input, bottom-up, which activates a cortical network ("ignites" it, Braitenberg (1978) would say). Any other view almost inevitably leads to an infinite regress toward an elusive commander. In selective attention and working memory, when the executive network dominates, the prefrontal cortex may temporarily be viewed as exerting what has been termed top-down "cognitive control" over posterior cortex (Desimone and Duncan, 1995; Miller and Cohen, 2001). That control, however, may be nothing other than the establishment and maintenance of excitatory reverberating activity between prefrontal and posterior cortices, together with collateral inhibitory control over competing and interfering perceptual inputs from sensory organs or from the cortex itself. In addition to the experiment noted above, involving prefrontal cooling and inferotemporal units (Fuster et al. Buschman and Miller (2007) record cellular activity simultaneously from parietal and prefrontal cortex in monkeys performing two tasks (Figure 6. The first is an easy pop-out task (bottom-up attention), while the second is a more difficult search task (top-down attention). Prefrontal neurons detect the target first in top-down attention (search task); parietal neurons do it first in bottom-up attention (pop-out task). In working-memory tasks, the cue or memorandum presumably elicits first bottom-up attention and then, almost immediately, top-down attention, as a result of the activation of perceptual and executive memory networks in posterior and prefrontal cortex associated with the cue. The prefrontal cortex interacts by reverberation with a different posterior cortical area depending on the modality of the memorandum (sample or cue) in the four working-memory tasks depicted under the diagrams. Depending on the modality of the memorandum and the nature of the approaching action, different posterior and prefrontal areas are engaged in the cycle (Figure 6. That internal cycle persists until a second cue or prompting stimulus again externalizes the cycle through the environment and, once more by activating perceptual and executive networks, leads to the choice or match, the decision, and the behavioral response. The anticipatory preparation for an action and its results is a hallmark of prefrontal physiology. Expressions like "memory of the future" and "inventing the future" are not uncommon epithets that some people use in discussing the frontal lobe. Motor Preparation Electrophysiology provides the most revealing access to the frontal substrate of anticipation. In the sections on sensory and motor functions, we have dealt with the anticipation at the cellular level of sensory associated stimuli and behavioral sequences. Anticipatory Activity Essentially, all executive functions of the frontal lobe have a future perspective. Even working memory does, as it loses its meaning without its prospective dimension; working memory is active memory for a future outcome, whether this is the solution of a problem or the reaching of a biological 260 6. We have attributed that ramp of discharge to the preparation for an action and, by implication, in the organization of that action. Here we deal more briefly and broadly with the frontal physiology of the organization and preparation for action, before we discuss the role of rules and expected value in those processes and in decision-making. The frontal regions that are involved in the coordination of motor actions are hierarchically organized, with the lateral prefrontal cortex on top, the premotor cortex under it, and the primary motor cortex at the bottom (see Chapter 2). This is the cortical extension of a hierarchy of pyramidal and extrapyramidal structures that in lower levels includes parts of the spinal cord, the cerebellum, the pons, the medulla, the tectum, and the basal ganglia. Since the writings of Hughlings Jackson, in the late nineteenth century, it has been known that, in general, hierarchical order reflects the order in which the representation and coordination of movements are organized. Thus, voluntary movements, defined by the muscle groups that produce them, are represented and organized in motor cortex, whereas movements defined by goal and trajectory are represented and organized in premotor cortex. Much of the evidence gathered in this book strongly indicates that the prefrontal cortex, at the top of that hierarchy, represents and coordinates complex goal-directed sequences of behavior, especially if they contain cross-temporal contingencies. Those sequences are generally processed from the top down through that executive hierarchy, though the process is far from unidirectional and strictly serial.