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The institutions are to pulse pressure young adults order discount bisoprolol be allowed wide latitude in the expenditure of general research funds blood pressure medication manufacturers purchase generic bisoprolol line, but these expenditures are to arteria facial purchase generic bisoprolol on-line be subject to review periodically by the Foundation, which is to have the power of cancellation. It is recommended that general research funds be used in part for junior fellowships to be awarded, without reference to the Foundation, to students working for an M. Junior fellowships are not to be used as scholarships to defray medical school tuition. The policy of each institution in regard to number of Junior Fellows, the value of the stipend, and other features of general importance is to be subject to review by the Foundation. Formal discussions concerning renewal of general research funds should be completed 1 to 3 years in advance of termination. If an application for general research funds is refused, the applicant institution may appeal directly to the board of trustees for a review. In allocating general research funds, the Foundation is to consider both the immediate needs and promise of development of the applicant institutions, and is to take cognizance of the effects of such funds upon the support of medical 74 schools by their parent institutions. Equipment purchased under general research funds is to become the property of the institution to which the block grant is made. In the initial selection of Fellows, potentialities for development of leadership in medicine should be weighed as heavily as past performance in research work. Fellows are to be encouraged to take further work in the fundamental sciences to remedy any deficiencies in a contemplated research career, but fellowships are not to be used to provide residencies, or primarily for obtaining postgraduate degrees or for qualifying for Certification by the Specialty Boards. Fellowships are primarily intended to enable men to receive research training and to engage in active research, but they should include experience in teaching or the clinical care of patients, as these exercises are essential to balanced research training and are imperative if a Fellow is to fit himself for maximal usefulness in medicine or the medical sciences. Fellowship stipends are to be determined by the Foundation with due consideration of university salaries paid persons with equivalent training and experience, and to the desirability of encouraging relatively senior men to devote themselves to research. A fellowship is to lapse automatically if a Fellow transfers to another institution without approval by the Foundation. Applications for grants-in-aid are to carry the endorsement of the applicant institution. Formal discussions concerning renewal should be completed prior to the beginning of the last third of the period of the grant. Reasonable overhead expenses may be included in the financial statement accompanying a request for a grant, but overhead payments are not to be automatic. Equipment purchased under a grant is to become the property of the institution to which the grant is made. If a request for a grant or for the extension of a grant is refused, the applicant institution may appeal directly to the board of trustees for a review. The Foundation is to initiate and support such new research work as may be indicated, but it is not itself to engage in research. Its integrative and catalytic efforts are to be carried out by recommendation and invitation rather than by direction. Reports the Foundation is to report annually to the President, in the form he requests, on the progress of work carried out under its authority. Authority To Modify Procedure the organization and responsibility of the Foundation are to be defined as broadly as possible. The authority to make and alter specific regulations and to experiment in procedures for fostering medical research is to be incorporated in the charter of the Foundation. If the report aids in any degree in completing the task assigned you by the late President Roosevelt all members of the committee, I feel sure, will be gratifed. Rupert Maclaurin, Secretary, Professor of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Vannevar Bush, Director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, as chairman of a committee to consider this question raised by President Roosevelt in his letter of November 17, 1944, to Dr. Bush: "What can the Government do now and in the future to aid research activities by public and private organizations? The proper roles of public and of private research and their interrelationship should be carefully considered. The support of the social sciences, it is believed, represents an important problem in itself which should be handled as a separate issue. In analyzing the task assigned to the Bowman Committee, the project was divided into the following major questions: 1. What should the Government do to assist research in universities and nonprofit research institutes? What should the Government do to assist scientific research conducted by the Government itself? What changes, if any, should be made in our present tax structure to stimulate industrial research? What policy should the Government follow to encourage greater international interchange of scientific knowledge and engineering art after the war? The Committee was divided into working groups to consider each of these questions except the last. The whole report is concerned with the basic problem of the proper roles of public and private agencies in scientific research. The analyses undertaken by the working groups have been combined into a final report which is submitted herewith. In addition to numerous meetings of the subcommittees the main Committee has held three full meetings, the first of which was devoted to resolving the problem into its major parts, the second to discussing the concept of the Federal Government in relation to research, and the last to considering the recommendations of the subcommittees. It is equally clear that public health, higher standards of living, conservation of national resources, new manufacturing which creates new jobs and investment opportunities-in short, the prosperity, well-being and progress of the American Nation-all require the continued flow of new scientific knowledge. In view of the importance of science to the Nation, the Federal Government, by virtue of its charge to provide for the common defense and general welfare, has the responsibility of encouraging and aiding scientific progress. It has recognized this responsibility by providing research laboratories within the structure of government, by providing a climate of law within which industry could progress on its own initiative, and by making limited appropriations to certain types of educational institutions. Study of the present status of research has shown convincingly that certain basic parts of our research structure require increased financial support. Since the evidence is clear that private sources cannot assume the entire burden, the committee has been forced to the conclusion that an increased measure of direct Federal aid is necessary. We believe that it is possible to devise methods whereby great benefits to research may be achieved by such aid without sacrificing the freedom essential for scientific advance or the academic independence of our traditional institutions. We therefore urge that the Federal Government take a more active interest in promoting scientific research, and in assuring that the Nation gain therefrom the benefits of increased security and increased welfare. We are convinced that the most effective way for the Federal Government to serve these purposes is to provide to our educational institutions and research institutes support for basic research and training for research. By so doing, the Government will increase the flow of new knowledge and the supply of young scientists trained in research. It is on this new knowledge that applied science must build, and it is from the ranks of those trained in research that the leaders in applied science must come. If this new knowledge and an adequate supply of trained men are provided, it is our opinion that the ordinary course of industrial activity can be relied upon to convert to practical application in industry most of the advances made in research. However, we believe that in certain instances measures can and should be devised to expedite the transition from scientific discovery to technological application.
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I said yesterday that in 1940 Holzloehner had furnished people who were rescued from the sea to hypertension 5 hour energy generic bisoprolol 10 mg online the Rescue Station at Witze heart attack pulse rate purchase bisoprolol on line, where he first gained experience blood pressure medication used to treat anxiety discount 5 mg bisoprolol with visa. Then I lost sight of Holzloehner, since I left the west in the year 1941, and I saw him again for the first time in the fall of 1944, when for some reason that I do not h o w, he visited one of the men in my ofice. A t that time I spoke to him briefly, and since I had learned in the meantime that he was conducting experiments i n Dachau, I asked him whether that was correct or how he was doing it. I remember a t that time he told me that he was conducting experiments based on the experience which he had gained on the coast, and he was supple*Complete testimony is recorded in mimeographed transcript, 25, 26, 27 February 1947, pp. At that time he was speaking about six or seven criminals who had been condemned to death were put at his disposal for that purpose. I gained the impression then that the entire manner of the experiments had impressed him mentally. I had the feeling that he did not want to speak about it; his suicide later confirmed that. Well, this was after you had initiated the sea-water experiments, then;is that right? I n the first part of 1943 you received a report on the Nuernberg meeting, did you not? I n May 1944, Becker-Freyseng told you that Holzloehner, Finke, and Rascher, had carried out experiments on concentration camp inmates at Dachau, did he not? He said that Holzloehner had made the experiments;nothing was said to me about Rascher and Finke. You mean you had not heard up to then that Rascher had worked with Holzloehner on these experiments; is that right? And I very well remember that Rascher had made a comment on this rather long lecture by Holzloehner, from which it could clearly be seen that Rascher himself was experimenting with Holzloehner; do you not remember that? I can say that now, because in the meantime I have seen these reports, "See-Not" and "Winter-Not," and have read them through carefully and acquainted myself with the various names, and I h o w that in this report there is an extensive report by Holzloehner and after that a short remark by Rascher. Well, we will cdme back to the report in just a moment, but right now I want to go on with your discussion with Holzloehner. That is a little too much to ask me to recall a brief remark that I made in 1944 on the occasion of a very short visit. I do recall that I met Holzloehner outside my hut, and I asked him to step in a moment; then I asked him about the experiments. The only thing that struck me was that Holzloehner, who previously had been a very lively and brisk person, seemed very depressed and worn out. That there were other reasons, perhaps, for this, I could only adduce later from his tragic demise. I am not sure at the moment, but I think it is quite possible because Augustinick knew Holzloehner very well and liked him. You said a moment ago you got the impression that Holzloehner did not want to talk about these experiments, and you also had been dabbling in Dachau experiments yourself. I think under these circumstances it might be expected that you would have questioned Holzloehner rather closely about what went on in his experiments. Ac He told me briefly that his observations from the English channel coast could be checked on experiments being performed in Dachau on criminals condemned to death, and that these experiments had been described in the report which he had submitted. That made i t per- fectly clear what was going on, so why should I ask anything further? Yes, some time before, and that must have been why Holzloehner came to me because these experiments had long been concluded. You did not have any one in the nature of representative at the Nuernberg meeting in October 19421 A. Yon stated that you did not know that Rascher and Finke were working with Holzloehner. I found a statement on page 1 of this report 1 which reads as follows: "For the relevant statements, we have to thank the cooperation of Stabsarzt Dr. Now, I think you stated to your own defense counsel that it was impossible for you to conclude from this report that experiments had been carried out, but rather, you thought they were clinical observations made on people fished out of the North Sea, is that right? Yes, I based my testimony solely on the Holzloehner report which was the only thing that interested me. I glanced through them briefly but gave no further attention to them because I did not know the people who had drawn them up. For instance, on page 1 of the 1 translation i t states as follows: "The rapidity with which numbness occurs is remarkable. It was determined that already 5 to 10 miputes after falling in, an advancing rigor of the skeletal muscles sets in, which renders the movement of the arms especially increasingly difficult. Holzloehner in a lifeboat in the North Sea making these observations on some aviator who had fallen in accidentally? There were a beach and dunes, and a guard from the rescue station always stood on the dunes to keep an eye on the water and the surrounding country, particularly when flights to England were taking place, so that it actually did happen that fliers bailed out and fell into the water just in front of the shoreline. Rescue boats were ready at that time and went out to sea immediately, so that it was altogether possible that fliers who fell into the water close to the coast could very quickly be observed and rescued. These are the facts of what actually took place a t that rescue station at that time. On the same page they have this remark: "With the drop of the rectal temperature to 31°, a clouding of coilsciousness occurs, which passes to a deep, cold-induced anaesthesia if the decline reaches below 3 ° " 0. Now, do you suppose that they pulled this aviator in and inserted a rectal thermometer and found his temperature at 31" and then tossed him back and let it drop another degree, all the time watching closely a clouding of consciousness, and then hauled him back in when it was 30" and noted a deep, cold-induced anaesthesia? This is one of the observations that was new to us and to which we paid a great deal of attention in order to explain these incomprehensible fatalities, namely, the fact that when the people were removed from the water their temperature still dropped and simultaneously with the drop i n temperature a fatal collapse of the heart occurred. And I must report again and again that this rescue house was a small place, but it did have the apparatus for observing these people very exactly. Checking of the rectal temperature was carried out by taking the temperature in the stomach and showed complete agreement. After taking dextropur, the de- crease is slower than with the experiments in both a sober and a n alcoholic condition. Hot infusions (10 percent dextro solution, table salt solution, tutofusin, table salt solution with pancortex) were successful only for a time. Today, of course, after this whole question has been exposed I should; but a t that time I never suspected the possibility from that report that these were a special group of human experiments. That was my attitude toward the matter at that time and it has only been changed by what I have discovered here. My comrades, the medical officers in my office at that time in Italy, had no notion either that human experiments were the basis for these reports. Never was one single word said about such a thing on the occasion of my inspection visits.
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The university is blood pressure chart pediatric discount 10 mg bisoprolol free shipping, therefore heart attack female purchase bisoprolol 5 mg on-line, in need of considerable support for its research program in the postwar period blood pressure is determined by bisoprolol 5 mg with mastercard. Research in Small Colleges Quite interesting reports were received from small colleges on their attitudes toward scientific research and their desire to encourage it. One small but well-endowed college in the East stated that its primary objective is a high quality of undergraduate teaching, and that it considers continued scholarly 138 interest in research essential in order to obtain this objective. It has done so, in general, by four different means: (1) Grants-in-aid from a special fund. This resulted in a well-equipped electronics laboratory at the beginning of the war, which was put to valuable use at once when war broke out. The type of policy outlined is much more liberal in its encouragement of research than was found in most of the smaller colleges. It does, however, represent the aims of a considerable number of them, and the adoption of similar policies by others certainly deserves encouragement. Nonresearch Institutions the returns from the 63 colleges that do not have organized research programs were mostly in the form of letters; few attempted to fill out the questionnaires. The replies are of some interest, however, and they suggest that the small liberal arts colleges fall into two definite groups. Some of these schools view themselves as purely teaching institutions and have no interest in developing research programs. The following comment is typical: In general it is my opinion that the Federal Government should not undertake to establish any far-reaching program for the support of research in either public or private colleges or universities. I do not believe such relations can be established and permanently maintained without involving political control, which has proved so disastrous in Germany and other totalitarian states. On the other hand, many of the smaller colleges feel that they could make important contributions to research, if funds were available to them for that purpose. Of the 63 nonresearch institutions reporting, 25 made statements, of which the following are typical: With adequate funds, we could reasonably expect a much greater devotion to research than obtains at present, for the members of our staf have both the interest and the training requisite for fruitful work. In developing a program of postwar federal aid to scientific research, attention should be given to the potentialities of these schools. To the extent that our sample is representative, at least 40 percent of the small liberal arts colleges in this country are desirous of conducting research, and are prevented from doing so by lack of funds. In each university; the president was requested to appoint a consultant in the natural sciences to cooperate in securing the necessary information. Inquiries were made with respect to the departments of chemistry, physics and biology, and of electrical, mechanical and chemical engineering. In those universities which had medical schools, similar inquiries were made in the departments of anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and bacteriology. The relevant data were then compared with research expenditures in 10 of our leading industrial laboratories and in 7 nonprofit science institutes. It should be remembered, in assessing the results, that the data were prepared under pressure of time. The accounting systems in different institutions differ widely; in some instances, detailed figures could be obtained with relative ease, while in others it was necessary to make some rather crude guesses. UniversityResearchExpenditures Time and funds for research varied substantially between departments in the same university and between universities. Analysis of these variations suggests that much remains to be done if the majority of natural scientists with research interests are to be given the opportunities for research that are available in the most favored departments. Engineering departments, in general, appear to have very meager funds for research, although there are a few notable exceptions. At least two of the engineering schools under consideration have undertaken far-reaching expansions in research activity since the year 1940-expansions not due to the war, and, indeed, impeded by the war. If these are carried through according to present plans, the postwar research picture in these institutions will be very different from that for 1939-40. Extraordinary variations are shown in the extent to which direct research expenditures are met from outside sources-especially grants from industry or the foundations. Many departments draw more than half of their support from these outside sources and some of them get all their funds in this way. Comparisons were made of research expenditures in various university 140 departments, industrial laboratories and science institutes. Expenses were divided into professional salaries and direct operating expenses of research. A calculation was then made of the amount of these direct expenses in relation to professional salaries. The minimum figure in any of the industrial laboratories or science institutes studied was about forty cents per dollar of professional salary; typical figures are near one dollar, and in certain cases the figure was more than two, or even three, dollars. The highest figures for the university departments-with one or two striking exceptions, such as the chemistry department in institution number 8-are approximately the same as the lowest figures for the industrial laboratories and science institutes. Typical figures for University departments are about twenty cents per dollar of salary, and often are considerably lower. Although it is very difficult to judge, there appeared to be a correlation between the research contributions of a university department and the amount of research assistance made available to its professional workers. In the institutions and departments less adequately provided with such support there are many men with research ability whose productivity could be significantly increased by the provision of more adequate research funds. Such funds might be used to diminish heavy teaching loads, which leave many men with little time for research, and to provide essential apparatus and technical assistance. TimeDevotedtoTeachingandResearch the universities and engineering schools included in this survey rank among the leading institutions of the country. In all of them research is fostered and encouraged, and is considered an important factor in academic promotion. However, the various institutions differ considerably in the relative emphasis given to teaching and research. In a general way the 13 institutions may be said to fall into two groups: In group A, comprising institutions 1, 5, 8, 10, and 13, the teaching load is relatively light, but varies considerably among individuals. For some members of the staff it is moderately high, while for others it is only 2 or 3 hours a week. These institutions are also likely to have some research professors who do no teaching at all. Most members of the staff are expected to devote more than half of their time to research. The teaching load is considerably heavier in this group, averaging around 12 class-room hours per week. Most members of the staff, however, are able to devote about one-quarter of their time to research, and sometimes more. Research professorships involving little or no teaching are extremely rare in these universities.
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Military forces heart attack vol 1 pt 14 cheapest bisoprolol, and those of the police arteria sacralis mediana best bisoprolol 10mg, the investigative police hypertension 5 mg buy 5 mg bisoprolol with visa, and civilians conducted sweeps in large sectors of the southern part of Santiago through shantytowns in the districts of San Miguel, La Cisterna, and La Granja. Government forces violently forced their way into many houses and took objects that they regarded as subversive. The men were led on foot or in vehicles to nearby soccer fields in each shantytown where their documents were examined. As their documents were checked, they were either released or taken to police facilities. Army personnel usually guarded areas of special importance such as traffic circles, bridges, underpasses, and roads leading into the capital. On some occasions the government stepped in to take total control over the city, particularly during the fourth National Protest on August 11-12, 1983, and the National Strike held July 2-3, 1986. Army forces were especially harsh since they fired their weapons and did not have police experience in maintaining public order. Referring to those who were killed during the fourth Protest, when officials claimed that eighteen thousand soldiers were controlling the capital, one government official said, "People were killed during the protest demonstrations solely because army troops had to react when they were attacked. They also arrested demonstrators, who were then often beaten and mistreated, and sometimes tortured. When they came into the shantytowns, the police and army used their weapons, especially in the evening and at night. In certain limited areas members of the air force and navy were sometimes involved. Government agents took action against nonviolent forms of expression as well as against those that were violent. The Commission determined that it had to examine a particular situation in which some private citizens killed people in the context of mass political demonstrations. Even though the circumstances were unclear, different types of situations can be distinguished. These were generally civilians shooting from a moving unlicensed vehicle or from a vehicle used for public transportation. In such cases the nature of the political motivation of the perpetrators usually cannot be determined. While it is not out of the question that these might be actions committed by subversive groups aimed at making the demonstrations more violent, in some cases the Commission has had indications that these were individuals who supported the government in power. Indeed, the forces responsible for maintaining order were apparently sometimes aware of them or in complicity with them. The fact that the perpetrators often drove around at night during curfew in areas where the police were on patrol supports the conclusion that they had ties to government agents. However, on some occasions private citizens killed someone in self-defense or to defend their property. What they did is not regarded as violating human rights when it has all the features of proportionality and the like to make it legitimate. However, such persons may be regarded as victims of political violence in a more general sense as long as they are not proven to be among the perpetrators of the unjust attack that prompted 930 legitimate self-defense. Similarly, the actions of the government and its supporters sometimes remained within the bounds of political action that was lawful in terms of existing legislation, and on other occasions both government agents and private citizens committed abuses or assaulted fundamental human rights in their actions against mass demonstrations. Nevertheless, there were expressions of violence, especially in outlying shantytowns during the evening and at night. The efforts of social and political leaders to preserve the peaceful character of the demonstrations began to be overwhelmed starting in 1984, and hence the level of violence and disorderly conduct gradually increased. Likewise the measures the government took and the manner in which the government forces acted in order to prevent the disturbance of public order were often excessive. The climate of social confrontation intensified, and the most vulnerable sectors of society suffered the consequences. As the demonstrations increasingly lost their peaceful character and it became clearer that they were not being effective in bringing about their political objective, their impact diminished, especially after July 1986. Criteria for conviction As we have noted with regard to all human rights violations examined, the Commission carried out an investigation in order to ascertain the facts and basic circumstances required in order to come to a conviction about who was indeed a victim of such violations. Thus in all cases the fact and manner of death was verified through autopsies and/or a death certificates. The circumstances of death were established through statements by witnesses that the Commission itself took or through testimonies and written accounts gathered from court cases, human rights organizations, or the press. In those cases in which such accounts point to involvement by government agents or persons working for them, this Commission sent an official request to the particular institution to send the available 931 documentation. With rare exceptions, the answers did not provide additional information on such cases. It was difficult for the Commission to come to a precise conviction about what had happened in all cases, due to the diversity of the kinds of death, the overall context of a disturbance of public order, and the confusion surrounding many situations. Hence here as in other chapters, the Commission made a distinction between victims of human rights violations and people who were killed as a result of the situation of political violence (that is, who suffered the fatal consequences of the clash between the two contending political forces). The former category includes deaths by execution or by the use of undue force by government agents, and deaths caused by politically motivated private citizens. When, however, the use of what could be regarded as justified or proportionate force by government agents caused the unforeseeable death of innocent people, the Commission regarded those killed as victims of the situation of political violence at that time. Such was sometimes the case when people were killed by tear gas canisters; when it could not be reasonably presumed that excessive force had been used; when a private citizen who was not politically motivated caused a death in which there was some relationship to the surrounding violence, as in cases of legitimate self-defense in which it is not clear that the person killed was at fault; when it could not be determined that government agents had committed the action or even when the cause of death could not be determined but it seemed to be connected to the surrounding violence. In weighing items in order to come to a conclusion, a distinction was made between deaths inflicted by government agents and those inflicted by private citizens. The main problem connected with the involvement of government agents was that matters became very complex during the demonstrations. Some actions did indeed disturb public order; the rights of other citizens were affected; and in extreme cases, violent clashes took place. In such circumstances, government forces were not simply acting politically, but were carrying out their institutional duties. This Commission cannot overlook the fact that the law charges these institutions with maintaining public order and that their operations and use of force to attain those ends are inherently 932 justified. To that end the Commission took into account evidence on how government agents acted during the protests in addition to testimony on how they acted in each individual case. Knowledge of the normal procedure-such as whether guns were used more or less frequently and indiscriminately-entered into the consideration of most cases in determining whether the action of government agents had been disproportionate. Where private citizens were responsible for death, it has been necessary to establish a presumption that they were politically motivated. Usually the Commission came to the conviction that a politically motivated human rights violation had taken place, unless there was evidence suggesting other motives or that the use of force had been justified. In such cases overall testimony on actions by private citizens have been taken into account, with regard to both attacks on demonstrators and terrorist actions that could harm people indiscriminately (such as setting off bombs or knocking down power lines). Elsewhere we have referred to ties between the actions of private citizens and government agents, or we have said that these private citizens supported the government in power. The Commission believes that it was very difficult either to affirm or rule out such ties in each and every case. The victims the Commission has come to the conviction that 131 persons died as victims of grave human rights violations or as victims of the situation of political violence surrounding mass demonstrations.
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Yet these defendants blood pressure 9050 cheap bisoprolol 5mg without prescription, all of whom were fully able to pulse pressure stroke purchase bisoprolol australia comprehend the nature of their acts heart attack vs heart failure buy discount bisoprolol 5 mg on-line, and most of whom were exceptionally qualified to form a moral and professional judgment in this respect, are responsible for wholesale murder and unspeakably cruel tortures. It is our deep obligation to all peoples of the world to show why and how these things happened. It is incumbent upon us to set forth with conspicuous clarity the ideas and motives which moved these defendants to treat their fellow men as less than beasts. The perverse thoughts and distorted concepts which brought about these savageries are not dead. Justice Jackson in this courtroom a year ago"The wrongs which we seek to condemn and punish have been so calculated, so malignant, and so devastating, that civilization cannot tolerate their being ignored because it cannot survive their being repeated. Under the leadership of the Nazis and their war lords, the,German nation spread death and devastation throughout Europe. So, too, do they know the consequences t o Germany: defeat, ruin, prostration, and utter demoralization. Most German children will never, as long as they live, see an undamaged <Germancity. To what cause will these children ascribe the defeat of the German nation and the devastation that surrounds them? Will they attribute it to the overwhelming weight of numbers and resources that was eventually leagued against them? Will they perhaps blame their plight on strategic and military blunders by their generals? I f the Germans embrace those reasons as the true cause of their disaster, it will be a sad and fatal thing for Germany and for the world. Men who have never seen a German city intact will be callous about flattening English or American or Russian cities. They may not even realize that they are destroying anything worthwhile, for lack of a normal sense of values. To reestablish the greatness of Germany they are likely to pin their faith on improved military techniques. Such views will lead the Germans straight into the arms of the Prussian militarists to whom defeat is only a glorious opportunity to start a new war game. This case, and others which will be tried in this building, offer a signal opportunity to lay before the German people the true cause of their present misery. The walls and towers and churches of Nuernberg were, indeed, reduced to rubble by Allied bombs, but in a deeper sense Nuernberg had been destroyed a decade earlier, when it became the seat of the annual Nazi Party rallies, a focal point for the moral disintegration in Germany, and the private domain of Julius Streicher. The insane and malignant doctrines that Nuernberg spewed forth account alike for the crimes of these defendants and forthe terrible fate of Germany under the Third Reich. A nation which deliberately infects itself with poison will inevitably sicken and die. These defendants and others turned Germany into an infernal combination of a lunatic asylum and a charnel house. I do not think the German people have as yet any conception of how deeply the criminal folly that was nazism bit into every phase of German life, or of how utterly ravaging the consequences were. These are the high purposes which justify the establishment of extraordinary courts to hear and determine this case and others of comparable importance. That murder should be punished goes without the saying, but the full performance of our task requires more than the just sentencing of these defendants. Their crimes were the inevitable result of the sinister doctrines which they espoused, and these same doctrines sealed the fate of Germany, shattered Europe, and left the world in ferment. Wherever those doctrines may emerge and prevail, the same terrible consequences will follow. Of the 20 doctors, all but one-Pokorny-held positions in the medical services of the Third Reich. To assist the Court in this regard the prosecution has prepared a short expository brief [not introduced into evidence] which is already in the hands of the Court and which has been made available to defense counsel in German b d English. McHaney, in opening the presentation of evidence on behalf of the prosecution, will offer in evidence a series of detailed charts of the various German medical services, which have been certified as accurate by the defendants Handloser, Schroeder, Karl Brandt, Mrugowsky, and Brack. The chart to which I am now directing the attention of the Tribunal is a composite chart based upon those which Mr. The chart in the front of the courtroom to which I now refer will not be offered in evidence; it is intended merely as a convenient guide to the Court and to defense counsel to enable them to follow the opening statement and to comprehend the over-all structure of the German medical services. All power in the Third Reich derived from Adolf Hitler, who was at one and the same time the head of the government, the leader of the Nazi Party, and the commander i n chief of the armed forces. Immediately subordinate to Hitler were the chiefs of the armed forces, the principal cabinet ministers in the government, and the leading officials of the Nazi Party. The only defendant in the dock who was directly responsible to Hitler himself is the d e fendant Karl Brandt. Grand Admiral Erich Raeder was the Commander in Chief of the German Navy until 1943, when he was succeeded by Grand Admiral Karl Doenitz. Prior to the outbreak of the war, the Commander in Chief of the German Army was Field Marshal voii Brauchitsch. Hermann Goering was the Commander in Chief of the German Air Force with the rank of Reich Marshal, until the very last month of the war. For purposes of this case, the medical service of the Navy is not of much importance. During most of the war the defendant Handloser was the Chief of the Medical Service of the German Army; in 1944 he was succeeded in this capacity by Dr. Erich Hippke; from January 1944 until the end of the war, it was the defendant Schroeder. Subordinate to the defendant Schroeder are seven other defendants from the Air Force Medical Service, whose functions I will briefly describe later on. Six other defendants were members of the S S Medical Service and therefore subordinated to Grawitz. The German civilian medical services derived their authority both from the German Government and from the Party. Conti occupied the position of State Secretary for Health in the Reich Ministry of the Interior. Wilhelm Frick, until 1943, and thereafter to Heinrich Himmler who assumed the additional duties of Minister of the Interior in that year. As Reich Health Leader, Conti was subordinate to the Nazi Party Chancellery, the chief of which was Martin Bormann. As the Court will see f r o ~ n chart,* the three principal people in the the hierarchy of German state health and medicine are the defendants Karl Brandt and Handloser, and the deceased Dr. I n July 1942, Hitler issued a decree, a copy of which will later be read before the Court, which established the defendant Handloser as Chief of the Medical Services of the Wehrmacht. Handloser was given supervisory and professional authority over the medical services of all three branches of the Wehrmacht. Handloser and Conti, as will be seen from the chart, were not directly responsible to Hitler himself.
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Credible witnesses say they saw armed civilians with brass knuckles and walkie-talkies blood pressure medication starting with x buy generic bisoprolol 10mg line. After examining the evidence blood pressure of 100/70 purchase bisoprolol 10 mg without a prescription, this Commission holds the conviction that Marcela Angйlica Vivar died when politically motivated private citizens who presumably had ties to hypertension herbs order bisoprolol with paypal the government, or government agents themselves, violated her right to life. Since circumstantial evidence does not suggest that government agents were involved, this Commission holds the conviction that Jaime Andrйs Cбceres was killed by private citizens who were presumably opposed to the protest and who violated his right to life for political reasons. Credible witnesses have said that at that moment shots were heard on the main street, although nothing was happening at her house. Since there is no evidence on where the bullet came from, this Commission holds the conviction that Inйs Manrнquez died a victim of the political violence of that period. On the night of August 12, police came into the La Estrella shantytown (Santiago) where protest demonstrations were being held. After examining the evidence, this Commission came to the conviction that Sandra Janet Henrнquez died at the hands of government agents who used excessive force and thereby violated her right to life. According to testimony examined by the Commission, they fired their weapons and fatally wounded him. The police officers who were on the scene acknowledged that fact and said that they had fired into the air. This Commission holds the conviction that Roberto Romero died as the result of the violation of his human rights by government agents who used excessive force. In the early morning hours of August 12, as he left for work he was unaware that the curfew was still in effect. He was shot to death by government troops at the corner of Callй Colуn and Padre Hurtado. In view of the evidence presented, this Commission holds the conviction that Juan Nemнas Azema was killed by government agents who used excessive force and thereby violated his human rights. Street demonstrations were taking place in Villa La Reina (Santiago) on August 12. Police tried to break up these demonstrations first by using tear gas bombs, and then by firing their weapons. The Commission has gathered evidence which enables it to express its conviction that Jorge Enrique Araya died a victim of the violation of his human rights by police officers who used excessive force. Around midnight on the 12th, he was killed by a shot to the head while in the street in the La Bandera shantytown (Santiago). Credible witnesses have agreed in saying that government forces shot at him when he 940 ignored an order to stop. In view of the evidence presented, this Commission holds the conviction that Jorge Franco Fuentes was killed by government agents who used excessive force and thereby violated his right to life. On the night of August 12, police were involved in operations to control public order in the area of Villa Francia (Santiago). The evidence gathered on this case makes it possible to come to the conviction that Rudecindo Onofre Villegas died at the hands of government agents who used excessive force and thereby violated his human rights. On August 11, 1983, as demonstrations were taking place and he was standing in the doorway of his house in the Josй Marнa Caro shantytown (Santiago), Retamal sustained a fatal bullet wound. At that moment air force troops were in charge of maintaining public order in the area. On the night of the 12th, clashes took place between police and demonstrators near the Neptuno metro station (Santiago). Barraza sought refuge in the station but a tear gas canister landed next to him, and caused health problems. Since the use of tear gas by police is generally regarded as an acceptable means for maintaining public order, and since it was not established that it was used improperly on this occasion, this Commission holds the conviction that Vicente Osvaldo Barraza died a victim of the political violence of that moment. He was killed by a bullet through his chest during a clash between shantytown dwellers and police forces in the La Victoria shantytown (Santiago). The Chilean Police say that there were no government forces there and that the shots came from civilians who were driving around in an unlicensed vehicle. This Commission does not find the official version plausible, in view of what witnesses say and the precedents of the general procedure used by police forces 941 during mass demonstrations. He was killed by a bullet through the chest while he was taking part in a protest demonstration in the Juan Antonio Rнos shantytown (Santiago). During the trial on this case the Chilean Police acknowledged that their trucks, buses and police lines were at the scene, but deny that the police fired their weapons. Street demonstrations were taking place near the corner of Calle Zapadores and Recoleta (Santiago) on the night of September 8. The Commission has received several accounts indicating that the demonstrators ran away when police officers arrived. There are indications that these people were operating under the protection of government agents. At noon on September 8 on Calle Serrano (Valparaнso), a group of demonstrators were marching in support of the National Protest. The policeman pulled out his weapon and shot him in the shoulder; but the bullet went through and killed Marнa Rodrнguez, a street vendor who was in the vicinity. When the policeman saw he was in danger, he drew his revolver and tried to hit the prisoner with it. The gun went off, and the bullet hit the man in the shoulder and hit Marнa Rodrнguez who happened to be in the vicinity. That night during protest 942 demonstrations near Calle Paicavн (Concepciуn), people who were driving around in an unlicensed car shot him. In view of the evidence presented, this Commission holds the conviction that Carlos Fernando Iturra died a victim of a human rights violation committed by politically motivated private citizens. On the night of September 8, while anti-government demonstrations were taking place in the La Pincoya shantytown (Santiago) he was stabbed and gravely wounded. Witnesses have said, as he himself did before dying, that those who cut him were government agents who tortured him with a yataghan. In view of these facts, this Commission holds the conviction that Oscar Omar Durбn was executed by government agents who gravely violated his human rights. On September 9, clashes and demonstrations took place in a number of places as a continuation of the fifth National Protest. That night as he was on Calle La Granja near the corner of Calle Bolivia (Santiago), he was hit by a bullet from an unknown source. The specific facts of this case and the general circumstances of this period have enabled the Commission to come to the conviction that Nelson Fernando Gуmez died a victim of political violence. Many witnesses have consistently testified that civilians, presumably supporters of the government at that time, were going around shooting from moving vehicles. This Commission holds the conviction that politically motivated private citizens violated the human rights of Jorge Sebastiбn Arellano when they killed him. That day those participating in the Minimum Employment Program and the Employment Program for Heads of Families in the district were summoned to the Santa Corina complex near the municipal building so that they could be driven downtown for the celebration of September 11, 1973 anniversary.
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He was arrested January 5 blood pressure medication and memory loss generic bisoprolol 5mg amex, 1974 blood pressure essentials reviews order bisoprolol without prescription, and taken to blood pressure medication and exercise purchase 5mg bisoprolol otc the Telecommunications Regiment and from there to the Pisagua prison camp. For the reasons of a more general nature that have already been mentioned with regard to war tribunals, and particularly for the following reasons it can be established that in this trial a number of irregular procedures took place in disregard for the basic rights of Yбсez and Toro. These maneuvers were called Plan 22 and their execution was to involve occupying twenty centers regarded as vital to the city of Iquique such as churches, public buildings, factories, and so forth. The plan also contemplated seizing customs vehicles and weapons from the prison service so as to reinforce the 350 execution of the plan. In order to obtain more arms, the El Colorado police checkpoint and Infantry Regiment No. The court record states, "The tribunal rejects such arguments because besides confession there are other proofs that a crime has been committed. Given the evidence mentioned, this Commission has come to the conviction that Luis Toro and Alberto Yбсez were executed by government agents after a war tribunal which, in departing from the basic requirements of due process, violated the human rights of the accused. Reading and analyzing the sentences of these war tribunals as well as the statements by lawyers who were involved in them, this Commission has been able to come to a conviction about the irregularities common to some of them, which we will now mention: * With regard to the defense, the legislation then in effect provided that the defender should state the defense in writing and indicate the means of proof he or she intended to employ and the list of witnesses and experts who were to testify. Articles 183, 184, 189, 190, 191 and other articles of the Military Justice Code then in effect granted all the guarantees and time periods the defense might need. The code even allowed the possibility of offering the proof either in the place where the tribunal was in session or elsewhere, in which case one of its members was to be delegated for that purpose. They were able to converse with the people they were defending for only a few moments and often they could not even contact them, since they had been officially appointed to defend a large number of defendants. Furthermore, Pisagua was a camp for prisoners of war and so only members of the armed forces and the defense lawyers were allowed access. Hence it was impossible for witnesses to enter, and that made it much harder to establish that the previous conduct of the accused had been blameless, an extenuating circumstance that should have affected the punishment being applied. According to what the lawyers say, at least in the second and third tribunals a statement sworn before a notary in which witnesses declared that the previous conduct of those on trial had been blameless was presented, but the tribunal rejected it as not in accordance with the law. Having examined the family background and antecedents of those whom the war tribunal condemned to death, this Commission can state ten of these twelve people had no criminal background whatsoever. Second Region Antofagasta # Overview the Second Region of the country now consists of the provinces of Tocopilla, El Loa, and Antofagasta, and its main cities are Antofagasta, Calama and Tocopilla. The Commission came to the conviction that in 72 of the cases presented to it that had occurred in this region between September 11 and the end of 1973 there were grave human rights violations which resulted in death or disappearance and in which government agents were involved. The new authorities did not encounter a posture of resistance in this region after September 11. Other indicators of the lack of resistance and indeed of deference to the new people in charge were the fact that in only one instance was a person killed for violating curfew, and the fact that many of those who were imprisoned had voluntarily presented themselves to the military authorities. Furthermore, the only instance of a violent act that ended in the death of two police officers was an isolated event inside police headquarters, and was committed 352 by a low ranking policeman. Since he was the only one sentenced for the action, he was obviously not acting in concert with others. On September 11, the command structure of the armed forces in Antofagasta assumed the authority and overall control over the region. The general in charge of the First Army Division assumed the function of provincial governor and operational commander and by that very fact also served as the judge of the First Military Tribunal of Antofagasta with jurisdiction over all the territory of the First Division. In Calama the commander of the regiment was the operational commander, and in Tocopilla it was the police chief. Nevertheless, repressive actions also affected people who were not politically important, both those who were simply members of parties and even some who were not politically active at all. The most common type of grave human rights violation in the region was the application of the so called "law of escape" [applied to escape attempts]: the authorities explained fortythree deaths in this fashion. According to official accounts presented in each instance, as the prisoners were being transferred from one detention site to another or were being taken to where the procedures ordered by military tribunals were to be carried out, or simply inside the detention sites, they tried to run away by taking advantage of various circumstances such as a lapse on the part of their guards, mechanical problems in the vehicles in which they were being transported, and the like. For reasons that will be noted in each case the Commission could not accept these official versions. In general the so-called "law of escape" was ultimately a way to conceal the actual way the prisoners had 353 died, and to avoid legal trials in which the accusations against the prisoners and their varying degrees of responsibility would have to be proven. Another especially grave event took place in Antofagasta in the execution of fourteen persons which took place without any due process of law, although there was a subsequent attempt to justify these executions as the result of a war tribunal. For reasons that will be presented, the Commission was convinced that there was no such tribunal. The members of a special high level commission which was flying to several cities in the northern part of the country were involved in this matter as well as in the killing of twenty-six prisoners at Calama. The actual number of those who received the death sentence in war tribunals was seven; in addition four people disappeared. Generally it was the police, and to a lesser extent the investigative police, who carried out the arrests in this area. Violence was used in most arrests, and no explanation was offered as to why the person was being arrested or under what charge. On the basis of the documentation gathered by the Commission, it can be said that interrogations and torture took place in several prison sites. The most important was Cerro Moreno in Antofagasta, located near buildings that were part of an old airport which was under air force control. Most of the victims from that city whose cases are considered in this report were held there. Another interrogation and torture site was the investigative police headquarters in Antofagasta, which was used by army agents. The places where mistreatment and torture took place in Calama were the regiment base, the installations of the National Cement Company, and the nearby police station, which was known as the Dupont station. The only prison site where torture took place in Tocopilla was the police station. After arrest there was a period of solitary confinement which began at the police station to which the arrested person was taken. After a few days, generally from three to five, the person was transferred to the local jail or, when he or she was regarded 354 as important (especially in the case of those arrested in Tocopilla), to the jail in Antofagasta. Being transferred to the jail did not mean the end of solitary confinement, but it was simply the moment when the prisoner was placed at the disposal of military tribunals. This second period of solitary confinement in which the prisoner was being held in custody by the military was the time of greatest mistreatment and torture. A war tribunal condemned him as responsible for killing two officers from that same police headquarters, the station head, Major Mario Osvaldo Niсez Carrasco, and the second in command, Captain Hйctor Dбvila Rodrнguez. It has not been possible to determine the exact circumstances of the event since court record 412-73 in which they appear was not sent even though it had been requested from the proper official. Regardless of the possible responsibility of policeman Schmidt for these actions and regardless of their seriousness, the Commission came to the conviction that this man who was sentenced to death did not enjoy his right to a fair trial. This conviction is based on the following reasons: the doubt over whether such a war tribunal actually took place, since the proper official did not provide the Commission with a record of it, and the fact that the accused did not have a lawyer. According to the official report they were killed by troops as they were being transferred from Antofagasta to the Cerro Moreno base: "The event took place at 8:30 p.
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He was arrested September 17 arteria descendens genus buy bisoprolol online pills, 1973 and taken to arrhythmia palpitations order bisoprolol online pills the prison in Copiapу and from there to blood pressure and diabetes buy bisoprolol online pills the regiment headquarters in the city. On September 12 he reported to the authorities in Potrerillos and was held under arrest at the management office of the company. On September 14 he was taken to the Copiapу prison and then to the regimental headquarters. On September 12 he reported to the authorities in Potrerillos after having been summoned to do so by a military edict, and was then released. Soldiers arrested him at his home September 15 and paraded him through the streets in the center of El Salvador gesticulating at him as the head of "Plan Z. The day before these people were shot to death, soldiers who were part of a military delegation from Santiago ransacked their homes. On October 18, the wives of these prisoners received a memorandum attributed to the secretary of the war tribunal, although it bore neither his name nor his signature. The document makes no reference to the trial or sentence nor does it indicate the accusations. The same memorandum indicated that the remains were to be buried in the local cemetery at 7:00 p. At some point in the following years, the remains were moved to another burial site without the knowledge or the permission of the families. The judicial investigation carried out in July 1990 noted that their bodies were not in the place where they had originally been buried. Despite what is said in the memorandum to the relatives, consistent and trustworthy evidence lead this Commission to conclude that military authorities in the region decided to execute these people, that the delegation from Santiago approved of the decision, and that there was no war tribunal or due process. The following considerations in particular support that conclusion: * Despite repeated requests made to the competent institutions, it has not been possible to obtain documents from the trial. However, neither this defense lawyer nor the family members were told that a war tribunal was to take place on October 17. The only evidence of the accusations against them is what appeared in the newspaper Atacama on October 20, 1973, indicating that they were accused of inciting to violence and attempting to paralyze the Cobresal mining operation. In this 384 regard, it should be kept in mind that these three were imprisoned from the first few days after September 11, and therefore they could hardly have committed any crime in wartime. In view of the foregoing, this Commission has come to the conviction that these three persons were executed without any judicial proceeding by government agents who thus gravely violated their right to due process and their right to life. He was shot by civilians who by order of the military were guarding the Vallenar water tanks. They have declared that they had to use their weapons to prevent Javier Edgardo Valdivia from trying to poison the city water tanks. The Commission has examined the court record used as evidence on these events and has received many consistent witness accounts enabling it to come to the conclusion that these civilians shot him without any action or provocation on his part that would justify such a measure. His attitude does not seem to have been of a kind to arouse suspicion; even if such were the case, however, these civilians could have stopped him or prevented any action on his part since he was on foot and unarmed. His relatives, who visited him the day of his arrest, say that he showed no signs of emotional disturbance nor of having been mistreated. On October 24 his body was left at the morgue and his family was told that he had hung himself from the bars of his jail cell with his shirt. The death certificate states that the cause of death was "asphyxiation by hanging as from a suicide. The following points support that conviction: 385 * the nature of the cell in which he was being held, which his relatives observed when they visited him, made suicide by hanging practically impossible since the only place from which he could have hung were some bars in the windows which were less than a meter and a half high, and the way they were attached to the wall made such an operation unlikely. He had been summoned by a military decree issued by the operational commander in Vallenar, and hence he tried to cross over into Argentina immediately after September 11. The account claimed that Lуpez Torres was armed and had already run away from that same patrol once before on September 12. This Commission finds the explanation that Juan Lуpez was killed while trying to escape of little worth for presumably a patrol ordered to capture a fugitive is normally able to apprehend such a person alive if he or she does not resist, as indeed was the case in this instance. Reinforcing this conclusion is the fact that the authorities had Juan Lуpez buried at the Huasco Bajo cemetery, and they set a period of three years during which his remains could not be exhumed. Had the official account been true, it is not clear why such a measure preventing an examination to see the wounds which had caused his death should have been taken. This Commission has come to the conviction that Juan Lуpez was executed by government agents in total disregard for the law and that this action was a violation of his human rights. Fourth Region Coquimbo # Overview this section deals with the grave human rights violations ending in death that took place in the Fourth Region, which includes the current provinces of Elqui, Limarн, and Choapa. Sixteen of these cases took place in La Serena, three in Vicuсa, two in Andacollo and one in Illapel. The new authorities had matters under control in this region as of September atmosphere was calm and there were no armed clashes or other manifestations of reactions to the authority of the military. After September 11, the commander of the Arica Regiment, based in the city of La Serena, assumed military and political rule and functioned as operational military commander and as governor. Most of those killed were people connected to the previous government, and a number of them had been government officials. In only two instances were the victims not politically active and their deaths were apparently not politically motivated. Thus the human rights violations in the Comquimbo Region were obviously selective. Those responsible for the actions this Commission examined were government agents who belonged to the army or the police. The former were responsible for all the events that took place in La Serena, and the latter were involved in carrying out the arrests. An episode that stands out was the execution of fifteen people at the Arica Regiment in La Serena on October 16, 1973. A military delegation then traveling through the northern part of the country with delegated authority was at that moment in La Serena and it was involved in the execution. In La Serena the prisoners were generally taken to the jail, while elsewhere they were taken to police stations and if there were serious charges against them, they were transferred to the jail in La Serena. The report issued by the International Red Cross on that date notes that overcrowding was a serious problem. Each area has a single toilet, a single wash basin and a single shower (actually a pipe). There were accusations that torture was practiced at the regiment in La Serena, where the prisoners were taken for interrogation. As was the case elsewhere in the country, local authorities, whether military or police, decided what should be done with the bodies of the victims. In La Serena the bodies were not handed over to the relatives, but buried by army troops without informing the families of the site. The same was true of the two people killed in an operation in Vicuсa carried out by soldiers from the regiment at La Serena. Elsewhere, in Vicuсa, Illapel, and Andacollo, the body was generally turned over to the relatives in a sealed coffin so that they could have them buried in a strictly private manner. He had been summoned by edict to report to area authorities some days after he relinquished his responsibility as governor.
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The colleges accepted nearly 1 prehypertension blood pressure chart purchase bisoprolol 10 mg free shipping,000 with tests scores below the average of the group who did not go to hypertension va rating buy bisoprolol with mastercard college and they failed to blood pressure pulse rate discount bisoprolol american express enroll 3,000 with better average scores than the 4,000 they did admit. Although the college group exhibited a test score average superior to that of the non-college group, it did not include the many able and often brilliant high school graduates who could not pay the college bills. In Minnesota a study was made of students who graduated from high school in 1938 to see what they were doing a year later. About 22,000 young people were included in this study which showed the following: "What were youth doing a year following graduation? Minnesota high school graduates of June 1938, fall into three broad groups of approximately equal numbers. Another third continued their training in either collegiate or preparatory schools. The third group was made up of graduates who secured part-time employment only, of the unemployed, and of those graduates for whom principals were unable to supply information. When the relationship of scholastic success in high school to the post-high school status of the graduates of June 1938 was studied, these three trends were found: As one goes down the ability scale (1) the percentage of graduates employed increased, (2) the percentage of unemployed graduates also increased, and (3) the percentage of graduates who continued their training beyond high school decreased. When, however, only those graduates who presumably were in the labor market (not continuing their education) were considered, high school success bore little relation to employment and unemployment. Considerably less than half of the high school graduates who ranked in the upper 30 percent of their high school classes were enrolled in college. More than 15 percent of these able graduates who did not continue their training were unemployed. High marks in school are doubtless desirable, but they were not the open sesame to college halls or employment for those graduates" (p. For every (high school) graduate who ranked in the upper 10 percent of his high school class and entered college, another graduate who also ranked in the upper 10 percent did not enter college. For every graduate who ranked in the upper 30 percent of his class and entered college, two graduates who ranked in the upper 30 percent did not enter college. From the professional end of the occupational scale to the unskilled labor end, (1) employment increased, (2) unemployment increased, and (3) the proportions of graduates continuing their training decreased. From this study of the Minnesota high school graduate of June 1938, it would seem that the probability of college attendance for a graduate who is the son or daughter of a father employed in a professional or managerial group is several times greater than that for the son or daughter of a farmer or of an unskilled laborer. Among the June 1938 graduates, children of the unemployed were themselves unemployed in greater proportion than children of fathers at work" (p. It is of fundamental importance for all the people of the State to know how generally young people who would make the best teachers, lawyers, accountants, doctors, engineers, and statesmen are able to attend colleges and universities. It has been assumed traditionally that the most capable high school graduates go to college. It is suggested by this study, however, that geography and the economic resources of the family are perhaps as closely related to college attendance as is intellectual fitness" (p. For example, a study of youth in Pennsylvania was conducted about a decade ago by the State Department of Public Instruction and the American Youth Commission. The socio-economic status and educational history were ascertained for a group of 910 pupils with intelligence quotients of 110 or above. It is generally assumed that pupils with intel- 194 ligence quotients above 110 are good college material. This group of superior pupils was divided into two subgroups on the basis of socio-economic status. Of the upper socio-economic group, 93 percent graduated from high school and 57 percent attended college. Of the lower socio-economic group, 72 percent graduated from high school and 13 percent attended college. Goetsch on 1,023 able students who graduated from Milwaukee high schools in 1937 and 1938. This number includes all the white high school graduates except those who attended private schools. In Hometown, 80 percent of the boys and girls of high school age attend high school. The lower-uppers and upper-middles account for about the same proportions of pupils as one would expect from their proportions in the total population. The lower-middles contribute less than one would expect and the upper-lower and lower-lower contribute more, probably because the lower-class people have larger families and, therefore, more prospective pupils. Of the total high-school pupils, 20 percent are preparing to go to college and 80 percent were definitely not going to college" (p. Forty-nine 197 percent of 4,000 is 1,960 individuals with high potential college ability, who for some reason or reasons, did not enroll in college. From the point of view of the colleges, as well as of the individuals and of society, the loss in human resources indicated in these data is highly significant. Table 11 shows that the ratio of able boys to able girls in the upper quarter enrolled in college was 6 to 4. Thus, it is clear that the greatest social and personal loss of human resources comes in the ranks of able girls in the upper quarter" (pp. Bulletin of the Bureau of School Service, College of Education, University of Kentucky. When we determine which economic group furnished the largest percentage of seniors possessing the higher grades of intelligence we secure different results. All economic groups except the highest salaried group are represented in the highest one percentile class. Groups 2, 3 and 4, where the income varied from $1,000 to $4,500, have the largest percentage of seniors rated A+ and groups 1 and 5 the smallest. Groups 3 and 4 are superior to group 2 in the percentage of students rated A+ or A. But seniors possessing this grade of ability were found in each of the other economic groups. The brightest students belong to group 4, the annual income of whose parents ranged from $1,000 to $2,000. And 5 students in our lowest economic group (annual income $500 to $1,000) made scores ranging from 175 to 180, while, there was but a single student in our highest salaried group who made a score above 175 points" (Page 213). The poorest salaried group ranks low on central tendency and also has a larger percentage of individuals possessing the lower grades of mental ability. But there are individuals is this class who obtain the highest intelligence rating made by high school seniors" (Page 216). It is still more significant that so many of this most superior group of high school seniors will not attend college, while those with the most inferior grades of intelligence are planning to attend, in ever increasing numbers. Twenty-five percent of the brightest seniors found in the entire State said they were not planning to attend college at all, while 65 to 70 percent of the dullest seniors had definitely decided to go to college, most of them having already selected the college they expected to attend" (Page298). From compilations made by the American Association of Collegiate Registrars, the following figures show the distribution of undergraduate degrees in 1941 among broad academic and professional fields: Social sciences. Social science and allied fields of law, business administration, education, divinity, library training, journalism, etc.
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Weil felix can be a useful tool when used and interpreted in correct clinical context blood pressure chart to download order bisoprolol with mastercard. In patients in the endemic areas heart attack nitroglycerin cheap bisoprolol 5mg online, presenting with fever hypertension essential buy bisoprolol 10mg fast delivery, respiratory symptoms and hepatitis, scrub typhus should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Scrub typhus in patients reporting with acute febrile illness at a tertiary health care institution in Goa. Sagar Khadanga Assistant Professor Department of Medicine All India Institute of Medical Sciences Bhopal 2. Early identification of sepsis and septic shock patients and appropriate management in the initial hours has seen a nearly 50% reduction in mortality during the last decade. Clinically they are identified by a vasopressor requirement to maintain mean arterial pressure of 65 mmHg and serum lactate level greater than 2 mmol/L (>18mg/dL) in absence of hypovolemia. If it is not logistically possible to obtain cultures promptly (45 minutes), the appropriate antimicrobials should be administered. In sepsis or septic shock patients, the diagnosis includes identification of a specific anatomic site of infection requiring emergent source control. Clinical experience with molecular diagnostic methods for the diagnosis of infection is still limited and needs further verification before they can be recommended for use in clinical practice. In absence of a definitive diagnosis at presentation, which is common (in the Golden hour), empiric broad-spectrum therapy should be initiated to cover all likely pathogens (including bacterial, potentially fungal or viral coverage). Box 2: Factors determining the selection of antimicrobials for sepsis and septic shock 1. Measurement of procalcitonin levels can be used to support shortening the duration of antimicrobial therapy. Triazoles are acceptable in hemodynamically stable, less ill patients who have not had previous triazole exposure and are not known to be colonized with azoleresistant species. De-escalation includes discontinuation of combination therapy within the first few days in response to clinical improvement and/or evidence of infection resolution. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of sepsis and septic shock. These infections are the commonest reasons for outpatient visits as well as antibiotic misuse in both adults and children. Pneumococcal resistance in non meningeal isolates is very low in our country and hence standard doses of amoxicillin generally suffice. Conversely, pneumococcal resistance to co-trimoxazole and macrolides is widespread. The term influenza like illness is used when there are systemic signs such as fever and malaise along with the upper respiratory symptoms. The patients should be warned about symptoms which indicate complications like breathing difficulty, persistent fever beyond 4-5 days or ear pain. Empiric therapy with oseltamivir may be considered in patients with influenza like illness during an ongoing outbreak if they are at high risk of complications such as pregnant women, those with co-morbidities and the immunocompromised. The centor score (3 of 4 criteria) can be used to predict a bacterial etiology: exudative pharyngitis, tender cervical lymphadenopathy, fever, absence of cough. Confirmation of diagnosis by rapid antigen test or throat swab culture is desirable but not always possible. Co- amoxiclav should be used in others and if the patient fails to respond to amoxicillin. The duration of therapy for severe disease and children less than 2 years is 10 days. Children between 2 and 5 years with mild disease can be treated for 7 days and those above 5 years with 5-7 days of therapy. New focal chest signs on examination (bronchial breath sounds and/or crackles); with no other explanation for the illness. The percentage contribution of viruses reduces as age advances and the relative contribution of mycoplasma increases. Mycobacterium tuberculosis should also be considered a possible etiology in some individuals with a slightly protracted illness. Since penicillin resistance is very low, standard doses of amoxicillin (30-40 mg/ kg/day or 500 mg thrice daily in adults)suffice. In the outpatient setting the diagnosis should be confirmed before starting therapy. Similarly, drugs with anti-tubercular activity including linezolid and aminoglycosides should not be used. Patients can be considered for discharge if they are afebrile, accepting orally and hemodynamically stable for 48 hours. Duration of therapy for outpatients is 5 days and for uncomplicated pneumonia in inpatients is 7 days. Infectious Diseases Society of America/ American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in children5years with invasive pneumococcal disease in India - A systematic review. Increasing incidence of penicillin- andcefotaxime-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae causing meningitis in India: Time for revision of treatment guidelines? Microbiological Characterization of Haemophilus influenzae Isolated from Patients with Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in a Tertiary Care Hospital, South India. Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in India: a preliminary report of prospective multihospital surveillance. Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis: 2012 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Tanu Singhal Consultant Pediatrics and Infectious Disease Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital and Medical Research Institute, Mumbai 2. Generally, if the infection remains confined to the viscus, it is considered uncomplicated and if infection spreads from the organ into the peritoneum causing localized or diffuse peritonitis, it is termed as complicated intra-abdominal infection. In these cases, the patient usually has an underlying comorbidity that can lead to bacterial migration into the peritoneum. Considering the plethora of microflora existing within the abdominal organs, migration of the bacteria from any of the organs into the sterile peritoneum can lead to an inflammatory response, resulting in secondary peritonitis. Dispersion of bacteria from their host organs may result from puncture due to trauma, surgery, or perforation. Broad principles of management of intra-abdominal infections include the following: Early initiation of antimicrobials. For hospital acquired infection, culture and sensitivity testing may be useful for guiding empirical therapy. Adequate source control is the backbone of management of patients with intraabdominal infections. Candida species, usually Candida albicans are important healthcare associated pathogens in patients who have received antibiotics. For patients receiving third generation cephalosporins, additional administration of metronidazole would be needed.