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Flower stems are passed through slits in the bottom of a cardboard tray so that the flower heads face up showing their colors while the stems pass under the box prehypertension 30 years old buy lasix overnight delivery. The boxes are then hung so that the stems dangle downward and can be placed in a rehydration solution (hypochlorite is most commonly used) pulse pressure 38 order lasix american express. Afterward prehypertension natural remedies buy lasix online from canada, two trays of flowers 683 Quality Characteristics and Criteria No specific maturity standards have been developed for these flowers. Make sure flowers do not exhibit chill damage symptoms such as off-colored (grayish/ bluish) blooms. Since insects sometimes make the trip from grower to wholesaler to retailer, make sure flowers are inspected and any insects removed. Gladiolus, Glad Grading and Bunching There are no specific grade standards for gingers. Proper maturity and freedom from flower and foliage defects would be important indicators of quality. Still an important commercial cut flower despite a substantial decline in production in recent years, gladiolus responds well to proper postharvest management. The smaller flowered and "butterfly" cultivars, as well as modern standards in a variety of colors and forms, have helped transform this often stereotypic funeral flower into a contemporary favorite that can be an important accent flower in arrangements. Modern day gladioli are the results of hybridization programs that commenced in Belgium around 1841 using South African species. Ethylene Sensitivity these flowers do not appear to be particularly sensitive to ethylene. Pretreatments Quality Characteristics and Criteria There is no evidence that pretreatments provide any benefit to ginger flowers. Normal harvest is at the stage when the bottom two or three florets on the spike are showing color. For long-distance transportation, an even earlier harvest stage can be recommended if it is combined with sugar pulsing to ensure proper opening of the flowers at their destination. When the knife blade is as low as the cutter believes it should go, it is pulled upward and out, severing the stem, which can then be pulled out of the leaves. It is possible to open almost all florets on flower spikes if they are harvested in the green bud stage and handled properly. However, it is recommended that color be visible in one to three florets at time of purchase to help ensure that most florets will open. This can result in permanent deformation of the upper part of the spike and consequent reduction of flower quality. To avoid deformation, gladioli should be held upright throughout postharvest procedures. This rule may be relaxed only while the flowers are held at low temperature during storage and transportation. Quality factors for gladiolus include stem straightness and strength, freedom from damage and disease, and maturity. For longer storage, gladioli are best stored upright at the lowest safe storage temperature. Packing Gladioli are traditionally packed in tall "glad hampers" clearly marked for upright stacking. Since the advent of precooling, some shippers have packed gladioli in normal flower boxes. This practice is fairly safe if the flowers will remain refrigerated throughout the marketing chain and will be removed from the box on arrival. Excessive moisture on the foliage should be avoided so as to minimize the risk of Botrytis infection. Ethylene Sensitivity Although exposure to ethylene does not affect the life of open florets, it can reduce the flower life by causing abortion of unopened buds (Serek et al. Special Considerations Some cultivars are sensitive to fluoride, which can result in deterioration of the petal margin (bleaching, water soaking, then necrosis), failure of florets to open and develop normally, burning of the floret sheath, and marginal leaf scorch. The varied and fantastic forms and rich colors of the different species of Heliconia make them an important florist item, particularly prized for large and signature arrangements. Heliconia is named after Mount Helicon, the seat of the Muses, the nine goddesses of the arts and sciences in Greek mythology. Like their god Apollo, the Muses supposedly remained young and beautiful forever like the long-lasting and elegant flowers of heliconia. Pretreatments Gladioli respond very well to pulsing with a preservative containing 20% sugar (sucrose or glucose). Flowers are negatively geotropic (they bend away from the force of gravity), so they are commonly stored and shipped upright. One beneficial aspect of low temperature handling and transportation is that this negative geotropic response is inhibited, 685 Quality Characteristics and Criteria Heliconia are normally harvested fully mature: the flowers will not open past the stage at which they are harvested. While flowers last longer if the bracts are less open compared to more open, they generally do not open further after harvest and that may reduce their visual appeal. Therefore, the openness of the flower at purchase often is the most it ever will open. Consumer life varies greatly among species and cultivars; thus, learn species and cultivar differences. They can last for up to 2 weeks in plain tap water if the water is free of microorganisms. Since insects sometimes make the trip from grower to retailer, make sure flowers are inspected and any insects removed. Grading and Bunching Quality flowers of heliconia are fully mature, free of defects (damage or discoloration) on the flowers, and have good quality foliage (when present). Both the smaller, hanging species and the larger, more upright species are packed individually by stem. Evergreen shrubs, hedges and small trees prized for their holiday-season dark green leaves and bright red fruits. The plants carry female and male flowers on separate trees, and are therefore termed "dioecious. Ethylene Sensitivity There is no evidence of any deleterious effects of ethylene exposure on the vase life of heliconias. Quality Characteristics and Criteria Pretreatments No pretreatments have proved beneficial for heliconias. Some species may benefit from the flowers being dipped in an antitranspirant, such as those sold in garden centers for use on woody plants. This indicates poor temperature management and possible fungal growth and ethylene production. Grading and Bunching Storage Conditions Heliconias are native to the tropical Americas, and they are therefore very sensitive to chilling injury.
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Premature ripening of fruit blood pressure iphone purchase lasix discount, referred to pulse pressure meaning generic 40mg lasix visa as "soft fruit hypertension yahoo purchase 100 mg lasix with mastercard," is related to low calcium content. This condition is more common following periods of heavy rainfall 2 to 3 mo before harvest, at the start of the final phase of fruit growth (Qiu et al. Intra-ovarian ovaries are common in some strains of papaya (Nakasone and Arkle 1971). These ovaries occur as a proliferation of tissue in the seed cavity and can be a threadlike appendage to round or elongated structures of various sizes and shapes. Sunken, dry, brownish-grey areas are caused by mites feeding on skin during early fruit growth. The red and black mite (Brevipalpus phoenicis [Geijskes]) generally causes this damage in Hawaii. Postharvest Pathology the major postharvest diseases are anthracnose and stem end rot. Postharvest diseases, especially anthracnose, become a problem when fruit have 25% or more skin yellowing (Wardlaw et al. Mechanical injury and chilling injury can enhance development of postharvest diseases (Somner and Mitchell 1978, Alvarez and Nishijima 1987, Nishijima et al. Rhizopus requires breaks in the cuticle for the disease to develop (Nishijima et al. Cuticle disruption occurs as latex vessels break down, when the fruit is 40 to 60% yellow (Paull and Chen 1989). Fruit fly punctures can also increase Rhizopus rot (Hunter and Buddenhagen 1972), as can mechanical injuries and lesions caused by fungi such as anthracnose and Cercospora black spot (Nishijima et al. Quarantine Issues Fruit fly infestation becomes a problem with papaya after fruit have 25% skin yellowing (Seo et al. The damage caused by fruit flies include small surface blemishes, destruction of the edible flesh, and spoilage from decay. Heat treatments and irradiation are used for fruit fly disinfestation (Couey 1989, Paull 1990, Armstrong 1994). Occasionally, heat treatment can cause internal injury and scald (Paull 1995), limit postharvest life, and reduce quality (Paull 1990). Effects of low-pressure storage on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and postharvest infection of papaya. Comparison of hot-water spray and immersion treatments for control of postharvest decay of papaya. Relationship between surface color development and total soluble solids in papaya. Factors influencing development of postharvest incidence of Rhizopus soft rot of papaya. Waxing and plastic wraps influence water loss from papaya fruit during storage and ripening. A review of postharvest handling and losses during marketing of papaya (Carica papaya L). Oriental fruit fly: ripening of fruit and its effect on index of infestation of Hawaiian papayas. Blossom end defects and fruit fly disinfestation in papayas following hot water quarantine treatment. Heyes Heyes is formerly with the New Zealand Institute for Crop and Food Research, Palmerston North, New Zealand. He is now with the Department of Food Science and Technology, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. Parsley is usually packaged in cartons or jumbo crates of 60 bunches, 9 to 11 kg (20 to 25 lb). Precooling Conditions Scientific Name and Introduction Petroselinum crispum (Mill. The edible foliage is grown as an annual and used as a garnish and food ingredient. It is highest in calcium, iron, and folate of all vegetables studied (Athar et al. A high proportion of the carotene is 9-cis -carotene, possibly active against cancer and cardiovascular disease (Benamotz and Fishler 1998). Rapid removal of field heat without excessive drying helps retain green color and freshness. Parsley can be precooled with ice (package icing or liquid-icing [Cantwell and Reid 1992]) or by vacuum-cooling (Aharoni et al. Horticultural Maturity Indices Parsley can be harvested progressively or cut all at one time. Light reduces yellowing, but levels in retail shelves are too low to have a significant effect. Postharvest Pathology Both Erwinia and Botrytis can cause postharvest damage from rots and mold (Ryall and Lipton 1979). Ethylene Production and Sensitivity Parsley leaves produce very little ethylene but are very sensitive to it (Joyce et al. Chlorinated water is somewhat beneficial in reducing contamination (Park and Sanders 1992), but personal hygiene of the 454 staff is paramount. Analysis of carotenoids with emphasis on 9-cis -carotene in vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in Israel. Outbreaks of Shigella sonnei infection associated with eating fresh parsley-United States and Canada, July-August 1998. Effect of storage on contents of dietary fibre and its composition in some cultivars of red beet, root parsley and carrot. Young leaves respire at a higher rate than old leaves at harvest, but the respiration rate does not decrease as much after harvest in older leaves as in younger leaves, so younger leaves store better (Apeland 1971). Parsley is used as a medicinal plant to treat hypertension in Morocco (Ziyyat et al. Effect of sowing and harvest date on the quality of root parsley and its storability. Effect of conditions and time of storage on technological quality changes of parsley leaves. Microbial and sensory quality of vegetables for soup packaged in different atmospheres. Occurrence of thermotolerant campylobacters in fresh vegetables sold at farmers outdoor markets and supermarkets.
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This treatment will increase flower size blood pressure medication photosensitivity purchase 100 mg lasix, percentage of flowers that open blood pressure up during pregnancy order lasix paypal, and vase life (van Meeteren et al blood pressure medication and breastfeeding order lasix 100mg otc. Their postharvest life can be substantial if they are given proper postharvest conditions, but they are sensitive to gravity, to light, and to bacterial contamination of the vase solution. Originally spelled "Gerberia," the genus was named after Traug Gerber, a German naturalist. Quality Characteristics and Criteria Most gerbera varieties should be harvested when the two outer rows of disk florets have begun to open; but some cultivars can be harvested later, particularly those types that close at night. Flowers are harvested by twisting the stems off near the point of attachment to the rhizome; this is thought to encourage subsequent flower production. If flower stems are pulled from the ground, immediately cut 10 cm (4 in) from the bottom to remove the "woody" base of the stem, which does not draw water readily. Make sure that at least one or two rows of disk flowers (tubular flowers in the center of the head) are showing pollen. With well over 300 cultivars in commerce that vary greatly in vase life (Wernett et al. Unfortunately, the large number of cultivars makes it difficult to learn the names of better ones. Grading and Bunching Maturity; freedom from defects; and stem length, strength, and straightness are important quality criteria for gerberas. Some producers place each flower into a firm plastic sleeve and may insert the stem into a plastic tube to reduce stem-bending. The silver nitrate presumably guards against bacterial contamination of the stem and vase water. Stem bending is primarily in response to gravity and is greatly reduced if flowers are held at the proper storage temperature. One of the major problems in postharvest handling of these flowers is their tendency to "conk": the stem folds 10 to 15 cm (4 to 6 in) below the flower head, resulting in an unmarketable flower. This bending has been variously attributed to harvesting of the flower before the stem has hardened sufficiently and to microbial plugging of the stem and subsequent water stress. The tendency to conk varies with variety and also varies throughout the year for any given variety. Be sure to enhance water uptake by keeping holding solutions and buckets clean and including hypochlorite in the water. Since more water is lost through the flower stem (scape) than through the flower petals, the scapes should be handled with as much care as the flowers themselves. Hang flower heads through a meshed support or shipping tray when first hydrating to keep stems straight. Generally, gerberas should not be stored longer than 1 week; even this short storage period can reduce subsequent vase life. Ginger, Shell Ginger, Torch Ginger Scientific Name and Introduction Alpinia zerumbet, A. The ginger flowers represent a range of species and genera from the tropics that include the plants producing the edible ginger rhizome. Torch ginger flowers are spectacular spikes of red flowers that give an especially tropical effect in arrangements. Packing Most commonly, producers pack individual flowers horizontally in shallow cardboard containers especially designed to support gerberas. They are seldom gathered into bunches but may be grouped and placed in polyethylene bags. Ethylene Sensitivity Exposure to ethylene results in loss of berries and leaves and is a common problem in holly handled through mass-market outlets. Huckleberry is native to the West Coast in areas from northern California to British Columbia. Vaccinium is the ancient Latin name for blueberry, and the specific epithet ovatum refers to the oval leaf shape of this species. Quality Characteristics and Criteria Harvest branches when fully mature, without soft tips. Special Considerations Storage Conditions There are major differences among holly types in their sensitivity to ethylene. Some producers will dip holly into various solutions in an attempt to reduce fruit and leaf fall or to package the product in such a way as to extend life. Special Considerations Watch for excessive storage as depicted by fungal growth (fuzziness) and watersoaked or discolored leaves. Because of their intense yellow, blue, and purple colors, and the elegant shape of their flowers and foliage, bulbous (Dutch) iris are in considerable demand as cut flowers. Unfortunately, they are also one of the shortestlived of the commercial cut flowers, and may not open if handled improperly or held too long before sale. In recent years, other iris species; for example the "flag" or German iris, which have even shorter vase life, have been used in the trade. Storage at warmer temperatures will result in "popping" of the flower when it is rehydrated. Quality Characteristics and Criteria Iris grown at low temperature should be harvested more open than those grown in warmer conditions. Special Considerations Some increase in vase life has been realized by including a high concentration of benzyladenine in the vase solution, and pretreatments with gibberellins have been shown to overcome the negative effects of dry storage (Celikel and van Doorn 1995). Leatherleaf Fern Grading and Bunching There are no formal grade standards for iris flowers. Flowers are normally bunched in groups of 10 and tied with rubber bands or twist-ties. By far the most popular cut foliage for use in arrangements, with year-round availability and good display life, leatherleaf fern is grown in shade-houses under subtropical conditions. The specific epithet adiantiformis indicates the similarity to the fronds of Adiantum, the maidenhair fern. The Greek 688 adianton means unwettable-a reference to the fact that fern fronds shed water. The brown bumps (sori or fruit-dots) found on the back of some fronds have not been reported to reduce life.
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Size classification for pieces are based on the maximum and minimum round diameter in inches through which the pieces will or will not pass and include Mammoth (>1 blood pressure kits stethoscope order 40 mg lasix. The edible seed is surrounded by a shuck that opens (dehisces) when the seed is mature heart attack 64 lyrics order lasix 100 mg free shipping. Nuts are harvested in late fall and early winter by mechanically shaking the trees and gathering the nuts from the orchard floor blood pressure ranges for elderly buy discount lasix on line. Nuts are covered by a shell that is divided into two relatively equal-sized halves. Pecans are native to the southern United States and Mexico and are classified for marketing either as seedling (primarily natives) or cultivars. Seedling pecans have typically thicker shells with smaller kernels, lower shellout percentage, and higher oil content than cultivars. Water content should be <4% to prevent mold growth and retard rancidity development. Water content <2% increases brittleness that induces greater kernel breakage during handling and enhances cracking of the testa, which increases O2 permeation of the nutmeat, favoring rancidity. Oil content of pecan kernels inversely affects shelflife, and oil content varies from 55 to 75% (by weight) and is influenced by cultivar, geographic location, and year of production (Wells and McMeans 1978). Retail Outlet Display Considerations Optimum Storage Conditions Mechanically harvested in-shell pecans should be dried to 4. Pecan nutmeats contain 7 to 9% moisture after shelling and should be dried to 3 to 4% moisture to maintain quality. Frozen pecans are brittle and should be handled with care to prevent excessive breakage. Pecans may be thawed and refrozen without damage, provided they are properly tempered. This can be accomplished by placing pecans from frozen storage sequentially into two rooms for several days each. Tempering prevents moisture condensation onto nutmeats during thawing that could induce a soggy texture and promote mold growth. Use of packaging to reduce O2 concentration and prevent excessive light exposure is recommended for shelled pecans. Chilling Sensitivity Pecans are not sensitive to chilling and are commonly stored at temperatures at or below freezing. Prolonged exposure to ethylene may cause pecans to darken and shorten their shelf-life. Physiological Disorders Wafering is characterized by asymmetric width of halves along the longitudinal axis. This condition is most prevalent during a year in which the crop load on trees is excessive (Smith et al. Stink bug and pecan weevil feeding during pecan development results in round or irregularly shaped black discoloration of the testa that is only evident after shelling. Storage at <2% O2 for 52 days can cause a fruity flavor to develop (Santerre et al. Pecans containing pecan weevil larvae can sometimes be identified by an oil-soaked or reddish appearance. Opalescence, a condition characterized by an opaque or oil-stained appearance of all or a portion of the nutmeat, has been identified and attributed to breakdown of oil bodies and subsequent leakage of oil within the cotyledon. This leakage increases O2 exposure of oil and decreases shelf-life by accelerating oxidative rancidity development. Insufficient moisture in fall, or insect feeding on the shuck, may cause this condition because shuck splitting is an active process that requires the shucks to remain turgid and for abscission layers to form at the sutures and at the peduncle (Worley 1982). Early fall freeze or potassium insufficiency may also increase prevalence of sticktights. Kernels from sticktight pecans are often of lower quality due to premature death of the vascular system feeding the developing kernels. Vivipary (sprouting of nuts on the tree) renders affected pecans unmarketable and may be reduced by late season irrigation (Stein et al. Contamination of nutmeats may occur if shells are broken during harvest or if shells are not properly sanitized by addition of chlorine to heated soakwater just prior to cracking. Because of high amounts of organic material on the surface of pecan shells, chlorine should be monitored and replenished as needed to maintain the desired concentration. Quarantine Issues Pecan shucks, shells, and nuts in the shell, as well as containers, equipment, and vehicles used in association with them, must be free of pecan casebearer, pecan weevil, and hickory shuckworm prior to transportation into California. Special Considerations Pecans marketed in-shell should be cracked and sampled periodically to assess nutmeat quality. Pecan halves and pieces marketed in plastic bags should be handled with care to prevent excessive breakage and grade change. Increased temperature during handling can also enhance darkening and promote development of rancid flavor. Pecans will absorb lipophilic volatiles in the environment that can introduce off flavors. Although frozen storage increases shelflife, once out of storage pecans should be used quickly because of their short shelf-life at room temperature compared to never-frozen pecans. Postharvest Pathology the most common decay found in pecans is caused by molds, with Penicillium and Aspergillus most prevalent (Huang and Hanlin 1975). Quality and mechanical stability of pecan kernels with different packaging protocols. The influence of harvest date on oil and flavor development in Desirable and Whichita pecans. Mechanical fruit thinning influences fruit quality, yield, return fruit set and cold injury of pecan. Summer and fall moisture stress and irrigation scheduling influence pecan growth and production. Tree yield and nut characteristics of pecan with irrigation under humid conditions. It is a native of western Asia and Asia Minor, and wild representatives are still found in hot, dry locations in these areas. The pistachio tree is dioecious; thus orchard plantings must include the appropriate ratio of females and males (8:1 in older plantings, but up to 25:1 in more recently established orchards [Kallsen et al. The reliance on single cultivars poses the potential for catastrophic problems for the industry with pests and diseases, and efforts to evaluate existing alternative germplasm and develop new cultivars are underway (Parfitt 1995a,b). While the Verticillium-tolerant Pistacia integerrima is currently the dominant rootstock in use, P. An important problem for pistachio growers is the strong tendency toward alternate bearing. Shell staining is also an indicator of development, pathogen, and insect problems prior to harvest.
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Curt Dudley-Marling is professor of education at York University in North York arteria musculophrenica cheap lasix online master card, Ontario blood pressure medication propranolol purchase lasix 40mg otc. The author of many books and articles on whole language theory and practice blood pressure is normally greater in your discount 100mg lasix amex, he is currently the co-editor of Language Arts. He has published two short stories and a poem and was a finalist in the 1996 Poet-of-the-Year competition of the New England Association of Teachers of English. She is also a librarian at Asa Adams School in Orono, Maine, where she has been a state and regional leader in integrating technology into library programs. She is currently enrolled in the doctoral program for literacy, language, and culture at Pennsylvania State University. Perry is professor of curriculum, instruction, and foundations in the College of Education, University of Maine, Orono. Poo ler is associate dean of education and associate professor of social studies education at the University of Maine. As a classroom social studies teacher and administrator, she has dealt with various situations involving controversial issues and censorship. John Skretta is a teacher of at-risk students at Northeast High School in Lincoln, Nebraska. He teaches in a district pilot program that is committed to helping struggling students meet graduation requirements through an interdisciplinary, highly personalized, and student-centered "school-within-a-school" program. He directs the Department of Learning and Teaching in the Graduate School of Education at Rutgers University. Brown, editor Censorship is not simply an attempt to control what is taught in our schoolsit is also an infringement on the legal learning rights of students. Through candid personal examples, discussion of philosophical and psychological considerations, and legal precedents, the authors offer insight into how censorship can come about, its impact and repercussions, and the ways it might be fought. As Brown observes in her introduction, "If we are to meet the challenge of censorship, we must act rather than react. Kenyon Road Urbana, Illinois 61801-1096 Phone: 217-328-3870 Fax: 217-328-0977. Kenyon Road, Urbana, Illinois 61801-1096 Phone: 217-328-3870 Fax: 217-328-0977. Wilhelm, and Kelly Chandler Publication Date: February 6, 1998 Does It Belong in the Classroom I think controversial books are actually the most valuable books, because they make you think. These issues and others are explored in Reading Stephen King: Issues of Censorship, Student Choice, and Popular Literature edited by University of Maine educators Brenda Miller Power, Jeffrey Wilhelm, and Kelly Chandler. The book, which grew out of the Reading Stephen King Conference held at the University of Maine in 1996, is published by the National Council of Teachers of English. In her introduction to the book, Power writes, "The problem with most discussions of censorship and choice is that they are dominated by people who think the answers are simple. In it, he acknowledges how difficult a responsibility choosing books for classroom use is, especially as schools and teachers are "charged with caring for increasingly diverse student bodies in increasingly difficult and argumentative times. When the work of Stephen king enters the classroom, these topics are highlighted in vibrant and practical ways. With contributions from librarians and literary scholars, high school teachers and students, policymakers, parents, and Stephen King himself, this collection maps out the terms of a debate sure to interest literacy educators at all levels. A reference list of literary works, resources to fight censorship, and three appendixes provide additional guidance for the classroom teacher. Kenyon Road Urbana, Illinois 61801-1096 Telephone: 1-800-369-6283 or 217-328-3870 Web site. Edward Walter, Urban Land Institute Authors Anita Kramer Andrew Warren William Maher Melinda McLaughlin Andrew Nelson Onay Payne Eric Tsang Authors, Chapter 3: Property Type Outlook John Vitou, Industrial John McManus, Apartments and Single-Family Homes Paige Mueller, Office Tara Lobo, Hotels Andrew Nelson, Retail Contributors Katharine Burgess John Chang Lesley Deutch Elizabeth Foster David Guarino Beth Burnham Mace Ken Perlman Carl Whitaker Senior Advisers Steven Weisenburger, PwC Fred Cassano, PwC, Canada Miriam Gurza, PwC, Canada Frank Magliocco, PwC, Canada Christopher J. Mulligan, Senior Editor David James Rose, Managing Editor/Manuscript Editor Brandon Weil, Creative Director/Cover Designer Deanna Pineda, Muse Advertising Design, Designer Craig Chapman, Senior Director, Publishing Operations Jacob Behrmann, Senior Associate, Capital Markets and Real Estate Clay Daneker, Senior Associate, Capital Markets and Real Estate Emerging Trends in Real Estate is a trademark of PwC and is registered in the United States and other countries. PwC is a network of firms in 158 countries with more than 250,000 people who are committed to delivering quality in assurance, advisory, and tax services. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission of the publisher. Recommended bibliographic listing: PwC and the Urban Land Institute: Emerging Trends in Real Estate 2021. Notice to Readers Emerging Trends in Real Estate is a trends and forecast publication now in its 42nd edition, and is one of the most highly regarded and widely read forecast reports in the real estate industry. Emerging Trends in Real Estate 2021, undertaken jointly by PwC and the Urban Land Institute, provides an outlook on real estate investment and development trends, real estate finance and capital markets, property sectors, metropolitan areas, and other real estate issues throughout the United States and Canada. Emerging Trends in Real Estate 2021 reflects the views of individuals who completed surveys or were interviewed as a part of the research process for this report. Interviewees and survey participants represent a wide range of industry experts, including investors, fund managers, developers, property companies, lenders, brokers, advisers, and consultants. In several cases, quotes contained herein were obtained from interviewees who are not listed in the back of this report. Readers are cautioned not to attempt to attribute any quote to a specific individual or company. To all who helped, the Urban Land Institute and PwC extend sincere thanks for sharing valuable time and expertise. Without the involvement of these many individuals, this report would not have been possible. Emerging Trends in Real Estate 2021 1 2 Emerging Trends in Real Estate 2021 Chapter 1: Dealing with Certain Uncertainties Dealing with Certain Uncertainties "There are a bunch of things that will change at the margin. More so than any other catastrophe or world war, the novel coronavirus affected and continues to affect virtually every person in every country in the world. With a global infected population close to 35 million and a death count exceeding 1 million as of early October, the magnitude of suffering is immense. The terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, were momentous, but the impacts were felt mainly in the United States. The fact that these new regulations have varied by state has made the response all the more difficult. Emerging Trends in Real Estate 2021 3 Exhibit 1-3 Importance of Issues for Real Estate in 2021 1 No importance 3 Moderate importance 5 Great importance Economic/financial issues Job and income growth 4. Real estate participants like to use American baseball as a way to judge the progression of any trend. Eventually, predicting the current inning became old news as we settled into a long growth period. Using Zoom meetings, the Emerging Trends team interviewed over 550 industry participants, mostly in your homes, although a few have returned to the office. Local district councils held focus group meetings with almost 700 of their members and outside experts. For the in-person interviews this year, we made a concerted effort to broaden the participants in terms of age, gender and ethnicity.
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Gould blood pressure medication met order lasix line, ``Theodore Roosevelt blood pressure difference in arms order 100mg lasix free shipping, Woodrow Wilson heart attack ukulele buy discount lasix 100mg on line, and the Emergence of the Modern Presidency: An Introductory Essay,' Presidential Studies Quarterly 19 (Winter 1989): 43, and the second (``initials'), Sidney M. Ellis, ``The Joy of Power: Changing Conceptions of the Presidential Office,' Presidential Studies Quarterly 33 (June 2003): 282. Milkis and Michael Nelson write that ``there is no direct evidence that Theodore Roosevelt ever spoke or wrote this term. Milkis, ``Theodore Roosevelt and the Birth of the Modern Presidency,' Miller Center Report, Fall/Winter 2003. Another unilaterally expanded a federal entitlement by providing a disability pension to all Civil War veterans over age 62. In his autobiography, Roosevelt noted the weakness of his constitutional authority here: ``There was no duty whatever laid upon me by the Constitution in this matter, and I had in theory no power to act directly unless the Governor of Pennsylvania or the legislature, if it were in session, should notify me that Pennsylvania could not keep order. Gould, the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1991), p. Constitutional or not, the gambit worked: the strike settled when the owners agreed to arbitration. Louis Fisher, Presidential War Power (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1995), p. He won the Nobel Peace Prize for negotiating an end to the Russo-Japanese War in 1905. Bush Could Learn from Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson (New York: Scribner, 2004); Tom Parker, ``The Realistic Roosevelt,' National Interest (Fall 2004). William Michael Treanor, ``Fame, the Founding, and the Power to Declare War,' Cornell Law Review 82 (May 1997): 764. James Chace, 1912: Wilson, Roosevelt, Taft & Debs-The Election That Changed the Country (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2004), p. William Howard Taft, Our Chief Magistrate and His Powers (New York: Columbia University Press, 1925), p. Quoted in Forrest McDonald, the American Presidency: An Intellectual History (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1994), pp. Firmage, To Chain the Dog of War: the War Power of Congress in History and Law (Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1986, 1989), p. Turner, ``Woodrow Wilson: Exponent of Executive Leadership,' Western Political Quarterly 4 (March 1951): 99, 105. Prominent anti-war Progressives included Robert LaFollette, Jane Addams, and William Borah. Richard Weiss, ``The Patrician as Patriot,' Reviews in American History 13 (September 1985): 405. John Patrick Diggins, ``The New Republic and Its Times,' New Republic, December 10, 1984, pp. Beringause, ``The Double Martyrdom of Randolph Bourne,' Journal of the History of Ideas 18 (October 1957): 597. Clements, ``Woodrow Wilson and World War I,' Presidential Studies Quarterly 34 (March 2004): 78. McDougall, Promised Land, Crusader State: the American Encounter with the World Since 1776 (New York: Houghton Mifflin Co. In the 1914 occupation of Veracruz, Wilson requested congressional authorization, while maintaining he did not need it, then ordered U. See Robert Higgs, Crisis and Leviathan (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), pp. Porter, War and the Rise of the State: the Military Foundations of Modern Politics (New York: Free Press, 1994), pp. Stone, Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime from the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism (New York: W. Even so, Wilson thought Congress had given him insufficient power to maintain order at home. He pushed unsuccessfully for a measure that would have given censorship powers directly to the president, and he wanted the suppression of dissent to continue in peacetime, pocket-vetoing a bill to repeal the Espionage and Sedition Acts in 1920. Garry Wills, ``The Presbyterian Nietzsche,' New York Review of Books, January 16, 1992. Thomas Fleming, the Illusion of Victory: America in World War I (New York: Basic Books, 2003), p. Richard Vedder and Lowell Gallaway, ``Rating Presidential Performance,' in Reassessing the Presidency: the Rise of the Executive State and the Decline of Freedom, ed. Quoted in Paul Johnson, Modern Times: the World from the Twenties to the Nineties, rev. Garraty, ``The New Deal, National Socialism, and the Great Depression,' American Historical Review 78 (October 1973): 925. Bernstein, ``The Road to Watergate and Beyond: the Growth and Abuse of Executive Authority since 1940,' Law and Contemporary Problems 40 (Spring 1976): 63. Needs that were narrow or parochial a century ago may be interwoven in our day with the well-being of the nation'); N. Along with the growth in presidential power came growth in quasi-independent administrative agencies, insulated from presidential control by law or practice. Sunstein, ``Constitutionalism after the New Deal,' Harvard Law Review 101 (December 1987): 444: ``There was some tension in the New Deal vision of the executive branch. The increase in presidential power was based on a belief in a direct relationship between the will of the people and the will of the President; hence the presidency, rather than the states or the common law courts, was regarded as the primary regulator. In contrast the faith in bureaucratic administration was based on the ability of regulators to discern the public interest and to promote, though indirectly and through their very insulation, democratic goals. William Safire, ``Language: Breaking the Hours Barrier,' International Herald Tribune, January 28, 2007. Leuchtenburg, ``The Twentieth-Century Presidency,' Miller Center Report (Spring 2000); Fred I. Greenstein, ``Change and Continuity in the Modern Presidency,' in the New American Political System, ed. Michael Nelson, ``Evaluating the Presidency,' in the Presidency and the Political System, 5th ed. Thomas Cronin, ``Superman: Our Textbook President,' Washington Monthly (October 1970): 50.
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They also may be combined with self-ratings of the same characteristics to arrhythmia zinc buy lasix once a day produce more reliable and valid measures of these attributes (McCrae heart attack single cheap 40mg lasix mastercard, 1994) pulse pressure 45 order on line lasix. Informant ratings offer several advantages in comparison to other approaches to assessing personality. A well-acquainted informant presumably has had the opportunity to observe large samples of behavior in the person he or she is rating. Moreover, these judgments presumably are not subject to the types of defensiveness that potentially can distort self-ratings (Vazire & Carlson, 2011). Indeed, informants typically have strong incentives for being accurate in their judgments. Nevertheless, informant ratings also are subject to certain problems and limitations. One general issue is the level of relevant information that is available to the rater (Funder, 2012). For instance, even under the best of circumstances, informants lack full access to the thoughts, feelings, and motives of the person they are rating. This problem is magnified when the informant does not know the person particularly well and/or only sees him or her in a limited range of situations (Funder, 2012; Beer & Watson, 2010). Informant ratings also are subject to some of the same response biases noted earlier for self-ratings. Indeed, it is well-established that parent ratings often are subject to a sibling contrast effect, such that parents exaggerate the true magnitude of differences between their children (Pinto, Rijsdijk, Frazier-Wood, Asherson, & Kuntsi, 2012). Furthermore, in many studies, individuals are allowed to nominate (or even recruit) the informants who will rate them. Because of this, it most often is the case that informants (who, as noted earlier, may be friends, relatives, or romantic partners) like the people they are rating. This, in turn, means that informants may produce overly favorable personality ratings. Indeed, their 274 ratings can be more favorable than the corresponding self-ratings (Watson & Humrichouse, 2006). This tendency for informants to produce unrealistically positive ratings has been termed the letter of recommendation effect (Leising, Erbs, & Fritz, 2010) and the honeymoon effect when applied to newlyweds (Watson & Humrichouse, 2006). As with intelligence tests, the utility of self-report measures of personality depends on their reliability and validity. Some popular measures of personality are not useful because they are unreliable or invalid. Projective Techniques Whereas self-report measures ask people to consciously report on their inner experiences, projective measures are measures of personality in which unstructured stimuli, such as inkblots, drawings of social situations, or incomplete sentences, are shown to participants, who are asked to freely list what comes to mind as they think about the stimuli. The proposed advantage of these tests is that they are more indirect as they allow the respondent to freely express whatever comes to mind. The Rorschach Inkblot Test is a projective measure of personality in which the respondent indicates his or her thoughts about a series of 10 symmetrical inkblots (Figure 8. The participants are asked to respond to the inkblots, and their responses are systematically scored in terms of what, where, and why they saw what they saw. For example, people who focus on the details of the inkblots may have obsessive-compulsive tendencies, whereas those who talk about sex or aggression may have sexual or aggressive problems. The sketches are shown to individuals, who are asked to tell a story about what is happening in the picture. Trained coders use the stories to develop a personality profile of the respondent. The idea is that when people view ambiguous stimuli, they will describe them according to the aspects of personality that are most important to them, and therefore bypass some of the limitations of more conscious responding. Despite their widespread use, however, the empirical evidence supporting the use of projective tests is mixed (Karon, 2000; Wood, Nezworski, Lilienfeld, & Garb, 2003). The reliability of the measures is low because people often produce very different responses on different occasions. The projective tests often fail to distinguish between people with psychological disorders and those without or to correlate with other measures of personality or with behavior. In sum, projective tests are more useful as icebreakers to get to know a person better, to make the person feel comfortable, and to get some ideas about topics that may be of importance to that person than for accurately diagnosing personality. Trait theories of leadership are theories based on the idea that some people are simply "natural leaders" because they possess personality characteristics that make them effective (Zaccaro, 2007). What characteristics do you think he possessed that allowed him to create such a strong company, even though many similar companies failed Former President Barack Obama photo courtesy Source Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates photo courtesy Source Illinois Senator Tammy Duckworth photo courtesy Source Research has found that being intelligent is an important characteristic of leaders, as long as the leader communicates to others in a way that is easily understood by his or her followers (Simonton, 1994, 1995). Other research has found that people with good social skills, such as the ability to accurately perceive the needs and goals of the group members and to communicate with others, also tend to make good leaders (Kenny & Zaccaro, 1983). Because so many characteristics seem to be related to leader skills, some researchers have attempted to account for leadership not in terms of individual traits, but rather in terms of a package of traits that successful leaders seem to have. Some have considered this in terms of charisma (Sternberg & Lubart, 1995; Sternberg, 2002). Charismatic leaders are leaders who are enthusiastic, committed, and self-confident; who tend to talk about the importance of group goals at a broad level; and who make personal sacrifices for the group. Charismatic leaders express views that support and validate existing group norms, but that also contain a vision of what the group could or should be. Charismatic leaders use their referent power to motivate, uplift, and inspire others. Another trait-based approach to leadership is based on the idea that leaders take either transactional or transformational leadership styles with their subordinates (Bass, 1999; Pieterse, Van Knippenberg, Schippers, & Stam, 2010). Transactional leaders are the more regular leaders, who work with their subordinates to help them understand what is required of them and to get the job done. Transformational leaders, on the other hand, are more like charismatic leaders as they have a vision of where the group is going, and attempt to stimulate and inspire their workers to move beyond their present status and to create a new and better future. In still other cases, different types of leaders may perform differently in different situations. Leaders whose personalities lead them to be more focused on fostering harmonious social relationships among the members of the group, for instance, are particularly effective in situations in which the group is already functioning well, and yet it is important to keep the group members engaged in the task and committed to the group outcomes. Leaders who are more taskoriented and directive, on the other hand, are more effective when the group is not functioning well and needs a firm hand to guide it (Ayman, Chemers, & Fiedler, 1995). Personality and Culture Culture greatly affects how individuals perceive themselves, and one important distinction is where a culture falls on the continuum between individualism and collectivism (Vazire, 2014). Individualistic cultures, such as the mainstream culture in the United States, focus on the self more than relationships. Additionally, personality differences typically assessed, such as the Big Five, appear less noticeable in collectivistic cultures. However, within any culture there will be some members who exhibit more individualism than collectivism and vice versa. Personality and Mental Health Although they may appear unrelated, personality traits and mental health disorders are often on a continuum (Twenge & Campbell, 2017). The line between what is considered normal and abnormal is due to the quantity of a trait. When in very high amounts, traits (such as narcissism) can result in a mental health diagnosis.
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