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See Wolff-ParkinsonWhite syndrome wrist herbals soaps order ayurslim with paypal, muscles and innervation of herbs cooking ayurslim 60caps generic, 1190t1191t Wuchereria bancrofti infection herbals forum generic 60 caps ayurslim mastercard. See extensively drugresistant tuberculosis xerostomia, 1077 D-Xylose absorption test, 257 D-Xylose urinary excretion test, 1030 Y yaws, 666667 yellow fever, 130, 726 yellow fever vaccine, 1359t yellow jacket sting, 150151 Yersinia pestis. Possible mechanisms of actions include the release of nerve growth factor and antioxidative effects, both of which may be helpful in the regeneration of olfactory receptor neurons. Methods: A total of 23 patients participated (13 women, 10 men; mean age 57 y, age range 2279 y; mean duration of olfactory loss, 14 mo; range, 4 to 33 mo); 19 of them were hyposmic and 4 had functional anosmia. Alphalipoic acid was used orally at a dose of 600 mg/day; it was prescribed for an average period of 4. Olfactory function was assessed using olfactory tests for phenyl ethyl alcohol odor threshold, odor discrimination, and odor identification. Two patients (9%) exhibited a moderate decrease in olfactory function; in contrast, six patients (26%) showed moderate and eight patients (35%) remarkable increase in olfactory function. Two of the 4 patients with functional anosmia reached hyposmia; 5 of 19 hyposmic patients became normosmic. Overall, this resulted in a significant improvement in olfactory function following treatment (P. At the end of treatment parosmias were less frequent (22%) than at the beginning of therapy (48%). Interestingly, recovery of olfactory function appeared to be more pronounced in younger patients than in patients above the age of 60 years (P. Conclusions: the results indicate that -lipoic acid may be helpful in patients with olfactory loss after upper respiratory tract infection. However, to judge the true potential of this treatment, the outcome of double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in large groups of patients must be awaited, especially when considering the relatively high rate of spontaneous recovery in olfactory loss after upper respiratory tract infection. It is known to stimulate the expression of nerve growth factor, substance P, and neuropeptide Y. Alpha-lipoic acid is approved for the treatment of neuropathy in diabetes mellitus and is safe. Other potential causes of smell loss,26 including head trauma, inflammatory affections of the nasal cavity. Olfactory function was assessed before and at the end of the treatment period using olfactory tests for phenyl ethyl alcohol odor threshold, odor discrimination, and odor identification. Specific, standardized questions were asked in relation to the presence of parosmia. Presentation of the odorants was similar to that described above for the discrimination task. Again, subjects were blindfolded to prevent visual identification of the odor-containing pens. Three pens were presented to each subject in a random order; one pen contained the odorant at a certain dilution, and the other two pens, solvent only. Presentation of triplets occurred every 20 seconds, until subjects had correctly discerned the odorant in two successive trials, which triggered a reversal of the staircase. From a total of seven reversals the mean of the last four staircase reversal points was used as threshold estimate. Comparisons between measures obtained before and after treatment were performed using a t test for paired samples. With regard to the three individual tests, this was significant for odor discrimination (t 3. Two of the 4 patients with functional anosmia reached hyposmia; 5 of the 19 hyposmic patients became normosmic. In terms of improvement of olfactory function, no differences were seen between patients with a relatively short duration of olfactory dysfunction (14 mo) and patients with a relatively longer duration of the olfacHummel et al. For odor identification, 16 odorants were presented to each subject, who was free to sample the odors as often as necessary to identify the odors from a list of four descriptors. The experimenter presented odor pens separated by an interval of at least 30 seconds to prevent olfactory desensitization. The interval between presentation of individual odor pens was approximately 3 seconds. This recovery is based on regeneration of olfactory receptor neurons from basal cells in the olfactory epithelium. In a summary of the literature up to the year 1988, Hendriks1 reported that complete recovery of the sense of smell has been seen in 9 of 26 untreated patients (35%); he also presented data showing that 19 of 55 patients (35%) exhibited such recovery who had been reported in various clinical trials as receiving various treatments. Summarizing results from nine different studies conducted between 1870 and 1977, Hendriks1 found that recovery would occur in approximately 90% of the. Results for individual subjects are marked with filled black circles; mean values for the 23 patients are indicated by filled gray squares. Our results encourage the conduct of double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in large groups of patients. These studies are necessary to judge the therapeutic poLaryngoscope 112: November 2002. The line emphasizes the relation between age and change of olfactory function (f(x) 0. For example, after a period of 3 years, 19 of 21 patients scored higher in an odor identification test33; 13 of these 21 patients also reported an improvement in their sense of smell. In any case, although the present study has provided promising results, the rate of spontaneous recovery asks for doubleblind, randomized studies in a larger study group, and such an investigation is currently under way. The present data supported the hypothesis that recovery of olfactory function is better in younger subjects. Subjects younger than 60 years of age exhibited significantly greater improvement in olfactory function than older subjects. This observation may relate to an age-related decreased (but still ongoing) proliferation of neurons in the olfactory epithelium, which has been shown in experimental rats. Other age-related factors potentially affecting olfaction include greater sensitivity to the effects of inflammation and reduced adrenergic innervation of the vasculature. Although this discrepancy may be explained by differences in olfactory testing, further studies are needed to clarify this. The present data do not support the idea that improvement of olfactory function would be better in patients in whom the viral infection occurred more or less recently. Observing this fact from a different angle, it argues for a steady improvement in olfactory function, regardless of whether olfactory loss had occurred 1 or 2 years ago. This interpretation emphasizes observations made by Duncan and Seiden,33 who reported an increase in olfactory function even years after the incident that had caused olfactory loss (compare with Mori et al. Although their origin is unclear, these parosmias may result from the loss of functioning olfactory neurons, which would translate into the inability to form a complete "picture" of a given odorant. Patterns of nonconductive olfactory disorders in eastern Austria: a study of 120 patients from the Department of Otorhinolaryngology at the University of Vienna. Olfactory mucosal findings and clinical course in patients with olfactory disorders following upper respiratory viral infection. A double-blind study of the effects of zinc sulfate on taste and smell dysfunction.
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These three classes of iconic gestures show a gradual move from gesture being redundant to himalaya herbals india 60caps ayurslim with amex gesture being critical in conveying semantic information to kairali herbals cheap ayurslim 60caps line the listener herbals on york discount 60 caps ayurslim with amex. If gesturing serves a crucial communicative purpose in aphasia, we would expect to see a high rate of compensatory gestures in this population. Moreover, a negative relationship would be expected between the rate of compensatory gestures and the informativeness of speech: the more impoverished the speech, the greater the rate of compensation through gesture. Another class of gestures is those that also serve a communicative purpose but do not convey the semantics of the event to be described. Examples include when the speakers raise the hands palm-up to indicate uncertainty or having nothing to say. This class of gestures provides a potential alternative to the previous three types of gestures where gesturing is used to communicate meaning directly. If individuals primarily use gestures in one capacity or another, we would expect a negative correlation between gesture use to convey meaning and gesture use to cue uncertainty. Finally, we investigated whether there is a correlation between producing meaning-laden gestures and facilitation of word retrieval. In fluent speech, words are retrieved at a rate of 1-3 words per second (Butterworth, 1989,1992; Levelt, 1989). Each case was also coded for a binary outcome: the struggle either ended in the speaker finding the correct word (resolved), or it did not (unresolved). We then compared the proportion of resolved trials that contained an iconic gesture with those that contained no gesture or non-iconic gestures. If producing iconic gestures facilitates word retrieval, there should be significantly more iconic gestures on trials in which word retrieval difficulty was resolved. The agreement between coders for the control group was 92% for gesture informativeness, and 91% for gesture function assignments (matching, complementary, compensatory, social cues). Any coding disagreements were resolved through discussion and subsequent consensus. The eleven control participants produced 218 full sentences in response to the events in the video clips (M = 19. For example, "crossing the street" is expressed as "az khiaban rad shodan" (lit: from street crossing). Below are the two examples: (1) Target sentence: Dokhtar dore derakht jasto khiz kard. On the other hand, people with anomia (P4, P6, and P14) in our sample spoke in longer and often grammatical sentences that missed critical content words (see examples 3 and 4 below): 1 Farsi is a pro-drop language, so the absence of subject is not ungrammatical. Example utterance from Anomic participant (P4): Oomad inja, be soorate in oomad, intori raft. Critically, however, the informativeness of gesture did not reliably differ between the two groups (z= 1. The advantage of this method over the traditional t-test is that it treats the mean and standard deviation of the control sample as sample statistics instead of population parameters, which is more appropriate for small control sample sizes, and avoids Type I error. An additional advantage of this test is that the p value provides a point estimate for where the patient score falls compared to the population. Since we are interested in a deficit here, we care about the percentage of population who may have a lower index of gesture informativeness than P1. This is a fairly high percentage; thus, we can conclude that P1 is unlikely to have a deficit in this regard. Table 2 shows the full results of the individual-case analyses for both speech and gesture informativeness. Note that the total % of gestures in this table does not add up to 100% because of the final category, namely gestures that help word retrieval, which are discussed in a later section. The control group showed the highest proportion of gestures in the matching cluster (63%) followed by the complementary cluster (19%) and virtually no gestures in the compensatory category. Critically, however, every patient, 26 except for P14 showed a reliably higher percentage of compensatory gestures than the controls. Moreover, the percentage of compensatory gestures was reliably and negatively correlated with speech informativeness (r = -0. Together, these findings show that iconic gestures are used to compensate for speech deficits in aphasia. Importantly, there was a strong negative correlation between gesture informativeness and the proportion of gestures used as social cues (r = -0. Finally, we turn to the question of whether using iconic gestures may help in word retrieval. Of the 41 resolved cases, 36 (88%) were accompanied by iconic gestures corresponding to the to-be-retrieved lexical item, while in the remaining five either no gesture was produced or other types of gestures were produced. Of the 289 unresolved cases, 163 (56%) were accompanied by iconic gestures while the rest comprised no gestures or other gesture types. In a within-subject comparison, we compared the proportion of resolved trials with iconic gestures to the proportion of unresolved trials with iconic gestures (Figure 4) using the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test. The results suggested that when iconic gestures were produced, a significantly higher proportion of trials with word retrieval difficulty were resolved, compared to when no gesture or other gesture types were produced (z = 2. This 28 result suggests a correlation between the production of iconic gestures and successful word retrieval. Stack bars showing the distribution of trials with iconic gestures compared to those with no gestures or other gesture types (folded into "other") on trials with word retrieval difficulty that was either resolved or not. The right bar shows that >80% of trials in which word retrieval difficulty was resolved contained iconic gestures. The left bar provides a control, showing that this effect is not simply due to greater prevalence of iconic gestures; when the participants were unable to resolve the word retrieval difficulty (perhaps because the representations were lost or too inaccessible), distribution of iconic vs. These included compensating for lost speech with gestures, using gestures to resolve lexical retrieval difficulties, and in some cases, employing gestures as social cues for the interlocutor. Below, we discuss the implications of the findings for theories of language and gesture relationship, as well as therapeutic approaches in aphasia. Theoretical implications Gesture theories differ in whether language and gesture should be viewed as one. Moreover, there is debate among the latter theories on the exact relationship between language and gesture. To test the hypotheses of the two models, it is important to emphasize the intactness of the conceptual system, as all the aforementioned theories assert that damage to concepts should affect both language and gesture systems. The debate is whether gesturing is impaired in individuals with language impairment and spared conceptual representations. These results, however, contradict a few other studies who have suggested that language and gesture impairment go hand in hand (Cicone et al. If a message cannot be constructed, it naturally cannot be communicated by verbal or other modalities of communication. An additional problem was the presence of limb apraxia in some participants, 30 which, as argued in earlier sections, is a comorbid condition in aphasia, but is not part of the aphasic syndrome per se. Taken together, these findings indicate that when conceptual representations are relatively intact, and comorbid conditions such as limb apraxia are ruled out, the gesture system may function effectively, even when language is severely impaired.
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If the hemorrhage spreads from the putamen into the thalamic region herbals vitamins buy ayurslim from india, they are called putaminothalamic herbs definition discount ayurslim 60 caps with visa. Then they show a large volume extending over the area of the basal ganglia and deep white matter of one hemisphere herbs nursery discount ayurslim 60caps on line. More often, progression is not abrupt but gradual and can be seen occurring over several hours, showing an increase of sensorimotor hemiparesis and a gradual decrease of alertness. Usually transition into drowsiness and stupor occurs in parallel with a decrease in motor function. If a progressive deterioration of consciousness is seen in a hemiparetic patient with a sensorimotor hemiparesis, this can give rise to suspicion of a growing hematoma. Noting such a progression is vital and contrasts with ischemic strokes, most of which tend to remain stable. If no deterioration or progression occurs in the first hours or days, hemorrhages such as small or medium-sized putaminal bleedings also tend to remain stable after the first few days and cannot be distinguished from ischemic infarcts in the basal ganglia and capsular region on clinical grounds alone. They both present with sudden onset of sensorimotor hemiparesis of varying degree and can both be associated with additional hemispheric symptoms such as aphasia or neglect. This contradicts the prevailing opinion at some centers that "typical" hemiparetic strokes that remain stable can be reliably considered to be caused by ischemia and therefore do not need confirmation with neuroimaging. In general, there is also no medical rationale to restrict imaging to young patients or to patients with some other demographic or clinical feature. This is the case in large putaminal or thalamic hematomas that rupture into the ventricles, or in pontine hemorrhages extending over the midline. Contralateral limb weakness and hemisensory symptoms are typical of mid-sized putaminal hemorrhages, whereas bleeding into the thalamus causes a distinct and total hemisensory loss and dense hemiplegia. Conjugate eye deviation to the side of the bleeding signals extension into the frontal lobe. This is a sign either of frontal lobar hemorrhage or of a putaminal hemorrhage extending into the deep frontal white matter. In contrast, thalamic hemorrhage can be accompanied by a conjugate spasm of both eyes, appearing as convergent downward gaze (the patient looks at his/her nose tip). The pupil which is smaller denotes the hemispheric side of the bleeding, and, when present, this invariably denotes involvement of subthalamic structures. Such cases have to be monitored closely because of the likelihood of rupture into the ventricles. This is the case when sudden, bilateral localizing signs appear and loss of consciousness is the rule. It can be a prominent sign in posterior fossa hemorrhage, and, although patients with cerebellar hemorrhages almost always vomit 159 Section 3: Diagnostics and syndromes early in the clinical course, it is not a reliable sign with either localizing or etiological value. Many patients with posterior fossa hemorrhage show severe impairment of sitting balance and ataxia that can be pronounced ipsilaterally. Close observation of vital parameters is crucial, as deterioration can be sudden or progressive over the first few days after onset. Headache can occur in large hematomas and has no localizing value unless it is very severe and then indicates rupturing in cerebrospinal fluid space. Progressive deterioration of consciousness points to a growing hematoma, and sudden posturing and coma to a rupture of the bleeding into the lateral or third Figure 10. The frequency of increased bleeding is high, though it might not be clear in all cases whether growth of volume is due to rebleeding or continuous bleeding. Predictors of hemorrhage expansion include initial hematoma volume, early presentation, irregular shape, liver disease, Figure 10. Shrinking of the hematoma due to clot retraction leads to an accumulation of serum in the early phase . Thrombin and several serum proteins were found to be involved in the inflammatory reaction of the perihematomal zone [51, 52]. Factors released from activated platelets at the site of bleeding, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, may interact with thrombin to increase vascular permeability and contribute to the development of edema . Frequent complications are an increase of the bleeding volume, intraventricular hemorrhage, hydrocephalus and edema. The volume of the hemorrhage into the brain is the most decisive prognostic component. More than 60 ml within one cerebral hemisphere leads to herniation of the medial temporal lobe and compression of the brainstem. Further risk factors: old age, cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, anticoagulation and illicit drugs such as amphetamine and cocaine. Putaminal hemorrhages show a sudden onset of sensorimotor hemiparesis of varying degree and can be associated with additional hemispheric symptoms such as aphasia or neglect. Progressive deterioration of consciousness points to a growing hematoma, and sudden posturing and coma to a rupture of the bleeding into the lateral or third ventricle. Conjugate eye deviation to the side of the bleeding signals extension into the frontal lobe; a conjugate spasm of both eyes appearing as convergent downward gaze signals thalamic hemorrhage. Vomiting and headache are frequent, but not reliable, signs with neither localizing or etiological value. Complications are due to increase of the bleeding, intraventricular hemorrhage, hydrocephalus and edema. Recommendations for the management of intracranial haemorrhage part I: spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage. American Heart Association; American Stroke Association Stroke Council; High Blood Pressure Research Council; Quality of Care and Outcomes in Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in adults: 2007 update: a guideline from the American Heart Association/ American Stroke Association Stroke Council, High Blood Pressure Research Council, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes in Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. Trends in incidence and outcome of stroke in Perth, Western Australia during 1989 to 2001: the Perth Community Stroke Study. Volume of intracerebral hemorrhage: a powerful and easy-to-use predictor of 30-day mortality. Primary intracerebral haemorrhage in the Oxfordshire community stroke project, 2: prognosis. Admission to a neurologic/ neurosurgical intensive care unit is associated with reduced mortality rate after intracerebral hemorrhage. The benefit of an acute stroke unit in patients with intracranial haemorrhage: a controlled trial. Functional outcome of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients after inpatient rehabilitation: a matched comparison. Warfarin-associated hemorrhage and cerebral amyloid angiopathy: a genetic and pathologic study. Aspirin and risk of hemorrhagic stroke: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
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Larval salamanders have gills that vary in size and structure depending on the nature of the aquatic environment herbals and there uses discount ayurslim 60 caps on-line. Salamanders (larvae or adults) that live in ponds have large herbals used for pain order ayurslim 60caps with visa, feathery gills herbals vitamins buy ayurslim 60 caps otc, whereas those that live in streams or other habitats with moving water have smaller, less filamentous gills. Nonmoving water has a lower amount of dissolved oxygen, and larger gills with an increased surface area permit salamanders to survive in these habitats. Salamanders that retain gills as adults include proteids, such as Necturus, cryptobranchids, and paedomorphic plethodontids and ambystomatids. At the cellular level, this transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs by passive diffusion, and, like water, gases flow from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration. Differences in the physical properties of water and air determine the available oxygen supply for all animals, including amphibians and reptiles. Water is denser than air and holds much less oxygen, and the solubility of both oxygen and carbon dioxide decreases as temperature increases. Both water and air contain very little carbon dioxide; thus, the diffusion gradient for carbon dioxide out of an animal is high. The high viscosity of water relative to air encourages concentration-gradient stagnation at the boundary layer of the respiratory surfaces. This problem is overcome by mixing the boundary layer through increased ventilation, stirring and moving the boundary layer by ciliary action, or similar mechanisms that prevent the stagnation effect. Ventilation that involves moving water is energetically expensive because the density of water provides resistance to movement and water generally has a low oxygen concentration. In air, the flow of oxygen into and out of the lungs is less energetically expensive because air has a high concentration (21%) of oxygen, and the low density of air offers little resistance to ventilation movements. The major disadvantage of air breathing is the loss of water from the respiratory surfaces, which must be kept moist to function properly. Adapted from Viertel and gills back and forth to raise the diffusive conductance for oxygen. The internal gills in anuran larvae are perfused by a buccal-pump mechanism, during which water enters the mouth, passes over the gills, and exits through a single spiracle or a pair of spiracles. The relative size of gills and other respiratory surfaces varies in response to the availability of oxygen in aquatic environments. Buccal Cavity and Pharynx the buccopharyngeal membranes serve as a respiratory surface in a wide variety of amphibians and reptiles. In this type of respiration, membranes in the mouth and throat are permeable to oxygen and carbon dioxide. In some species that remain submerged in water for long periods, gas exchange by this route can be significant. Respiration across the buccopharyngeal cavity provides a small percentage of gas exchange in lungless plethodontid salamanders. Some turtles (Apalone, Sternotherus) can extract sufficient oxygen by buccopharyngeal and cloacal exchange for survival during long-term submergence, such as during hibernation. Because of low temperatures during hibernation, oxygen requirements for metabolism are reduced. Offspring develop in the dorsal pouch of the female, and oxygen diffuses from the female across the thin, bell-shaped gills of the froglet. Skin the highly permeable skin of amphibians is a major site of gas exchange in terrestrial, semiaquatic, and aquatic species. Cutaneous respiration accounts for some gas exchange in certain species of reptiles. Exchange of respiratory gases occurs by diffusion and is facilitated by a relatively thin layer of keratin and a rich supply of capillaries in the skin. Exchange of gases across the skin in water is limited by the same physical factors as exchange across other respiratory surfaces. In still water, a boundary layer forms around the gills and must be disrupted so that oxygenated water will be available to the animal. Ventilation of skin, as with gills and other respiratory surfaces, is required to disrupt the boundary layer that can develop. Xenopus has been observed to remain submerged longer and to move less frequently in moving compared to still water. Most plethodontid salamanders have neither lungs nor gills and are largely terrestrial. In these salamanders, in contrast to others, there is no partial separation of the oxygenated and venous blood in the heart. Many species of this diverse group, because of their mode of respiration, are limited to cool, oxygenated habitats and to nonvigorous activity. Plethodontids that inhabit tropical habitats where temperatures can be high, such as Bolitoglossa in tropical rainforests, are active primarily on rainy nights. Waterproof frogs sacrifice their ability to undergo cutaneous respiration in exchange for the skin resistance to water loss. Some amphibians increase their capacity for cutaneous respiration by having capillaries that penetrate into the epidermal layer of skin. This modification is carried to an extreme in Trichobatrachus robustus, the "hairy frog," which has dense epidermal projections on its thighs and flanks. Hellbenders, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, live in mountain streams in the eastern United States. These large salamanders have extensive highly vascularized folds of skin on the sides of the body, through which 90% of oxygen uptake and 97% of carbon dioxide release occurs. The Titicaca frog, Telmatobius culeus, which inhabits deep waters in the high-elevation Lake Titicaca in the southern Andes, has reduced lungs and does not surface from the depths of the lake to breathe. Other genera of frogs, salamanders, and caecilians (typhlonectines) have epidermal capillaries that facilitate gas exchange. Gas exchange across the skin is prevalent in bufonids and some torrent-dwelling species that do not develop lungs until metamorphosis. Microhylids, some leptodactylids, and some pipids have reduced gills, thus increasing their reliance on cutaneous respiration. Recent studies show that some reptiles, once thought not to exchange gases through the skin, may use cutaneous respiration for as much as 2030% of total gas exchange. In some aquatic species, such as Acrochordus and Sternotherus, gas exchange across the skin is especially significant for carbon dioxide. Even in terrestrial taxa such as Lacerta and Boa, measurable amounts of gas exchange occur cutaneously. During these dives, oxygen uptake equals 33% of the total, and 94% of the carbon dioxide loss is through the skin. Exchange does not occur through scales but rather through the skin at the interscalar spaces. Lungs Lungs are the principal respiratory surface in many terrestrial amphibians and all reptiles. Orange bars indicate uptake of oxygen; green bars indicate excretion of carbon dioxide. When depressed, the nostrils are open and air is taken into the buccal cavity, where it is temporarily stored.
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Spatial neglect sathuragiri herbals cheap ayurslim 60caps with amex, with or without anosognosia herbals2go cheap ayurslim 60caps without a prescription, may also occur kisalaya herbals limited trusted ayurslim 60caps, particularly with right-sided lesions producing a left hemiparesis. Pure motor hemiparesis may be seen with lesions of the internal capsule, corona radiata, and basal pons (lacunar/small deep infarct), in which case the face and arm are affected more than the leg; such facio-brachial predominance may also be seen with corticosubcortical lesions laterally placed on the contralateral hemisphere. Crural predominance suggests a contralateral paracentral cortical lesion or one of the lacunar syndromes. Hemiparesis is most usually a consequence of a vascular event (cerebral infarction). Mills syndrome is an ascending or descending hemiplegia which may represent a unilateral form of motor neurone disease or primary lateral sclerosis. Cross References Hemiakinesia; Parkinsonism Hemiplegia Hemiplegia is a complete weakness affecting one side of the body, i. Cross References Hemiparesis; Weakness Hemiplegia Cruciata Cervico-medullary junction lesions where the pyramidal tract decussates may result in paresis of the contralateral upper extremity and ipsilateral lower extremity. There may be concurrent facial sensory loss with onion skin pattern, respiratory insufficiency, bladder dysfunction, and cranial nerve palsies. These findings are highly suggestive of the presence of a bony labyrinthine fistula. Cross References Nystagmus; Vertigo Henry and Woodruff Sign Evidence of visual fixation, reported to be helpful in differentiating pseudoseizures from epileptic seizures: the patient is rolled from one side on to the other whilst note is taken of whether the eyes remain directed towards the ground. This may be clinically demonstrated using the coveruncover test: if there is movement of the covered eye as it is uncovered and takes up fixation, this reflects a phoria. Phorias may be in the horizontal (esophoria, exophoria) or vertical plane (hyperphoria, hypophoria). Cross References Cover tests; Esophoria; Exophoria; Heterotropia; Hyperphoria; Hypophoria Heterotropia Heterotropia is a generic term for manifest deviation of the eyes (manifest strabismus; cf. This may be obvious; an amblyopic eye, with poor visual acuity and fixation, may become deviated. Using the alternate cover (cross-cover) test, in which binocular fixation is not permitted, an imbalance in the visual axes may be demonstrated, but this will not distinguish between heterotropia and heterophoria. To make this distinction the cover test is required: if the uncovered eye moves to adopt fixation then heterotropia is confirmed. Tropias may be in the horizontal (esotropia, exotropia) or vertical plane (hypertropia, hypotropia). Cross References Amblyopia; Cover tests; Esotropia; Exotropia; Heterophoria; Hypertropia; Hypotropia - 177 - H Hiccups Hiccups A hiccup (hiccough) is a brief burst of inspiratory activity involving the diaphragm and the inspiratory intercostal muscles with reciprocal inhibition of expiratory intercostal muscles. Most episodes of hiccups are self-limited, but prolonged or intractable hiccuping (hocquet diabolique) should prompt a search for a structural or functional cause, either gastroenterological or neurological. Hiccuping is seldom the only abnormality if the cause is neurological since it usually reflects pathology within the medulla or affecting the afferent and efferent nerves of the respiratory muscles. If none is identified, physical measures to stop the hiccups such as rebreathing may then be tried. Of the many various pharmacotherapies tried, the best are probably baclofen and chlorpromazine. The sign was first described in patients with sarcoglycanopathies, a group of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies, - 178 - HolmesAdie Pupil, HolmesAdie Syndrome H and is reported to have a sensitivity of 76% and a specificity of 98% for this diagnosis. It may reflect an imbalance between afferent pupillary sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic activity. Hitselberg Sign Hypoaesthesia of the posterior wall of the external auditory canal may be seen in facial paresis since the facial nerve sends a sensory branch to innervate this territory. Although sometimes a normal finding, for example, in the presence of generalized hyperreflexia (anxiety, hyperthyroidism), it may be indicative of a corticospinal tract lesion above C5 or C6, particularly if present unilaterally. Reaction to accommodation is preserved (partial iridoplegia), hence this is one of the causes of light-near pupillary dissociation. HolmesAdie pupil may be associated with other neurological features (HolmesAdie syndrome). Pathophysiologically HolmesAdie pupil results from a peripheral lesion of the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system and shows denervation supersensitivity, constricting with application of dilute (0. The rest tremor may resemble parkinsonian tremor and is exacerbated by sustained postures and voluntary movements. If a causative lesion is defined, there is typically a delay before tremor appearance (4 weeks to 2 years). It is based on the fact that when a recumbent patient attempts to lift one leg, downward pressure is felt under the heel of the other leg, hip extension being a normal synergistic or synkinetic movement. The first two mentioned signs are usually the most evident and bring the patient to medical attention; the latter two are usually less evident or absent. The sympathetic innervation of the eye consists of a long, three neurone, pathway, extending from the diencephalon down to the cervicothoracic spinal cord, then back up to the eye via the superior cervical ganglion and the internal carotid artery, and the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal (V) nerve. Recognized causes include · · · · · · · brainstem/cervical cord disease (vascular, demyelination, syringomyelia); Pancoast tumour; malignant cervical lymph nodes; carotid aneurysm, carotid artery dissection; involvement of T1 fibres. Arm symptoms and signs in a smoker mandate a chest radiograph for Pancoast tumour. In this situation, a symptomatic cause is seldom identified despite investigation. Observation of anisocoria in the dark will help here, since increased anisocoria indicates a sympathetic defect (normal pupil dilates) whereas less anisocoria suggests a parasympathetic lesion. Ageusia may also be present if the chorda tympani branch of the facial nerve is involved. Reduction or absence of the stapedius reflex may be tested using the stethoscope loudness imbalance test: with a stethoscope placed in the patients ears, a vibrating tuning fork is placed on the bell. Normally the perception of sound is symmetrical, but sound lateralizes to the side of facial paresis if the attenuating effect of the stapedius reflex is lost. Cross References Anaesthesia; Hyperalgesia Hyperalgesia Hyperalgesia is the exaggerated perception of pain from a stimulus which is normally painful (cf. This may result from sensitization of nociceptors (paradoxically this may sometimes be induced by morphine) or abnormal ephaptic cross-excitation between primary afferent fibres. Cross References Allodynia; Dysaesthesia; Hyperpathia Hyperekplexia Hyperekplexia (literally, to jump excessively) is an involuntary movement disorder in which there is a pathologically exaggerated startle response, usually to sudden unexpected auditory stimuli, but sometimes also to tactile (especially trigeminal) and visual stimuli. The startle response is a sudden shock-like movement which consists of eye blink, grimace, abduction of the arms, and flexion of the neck, trunk, elbows, hips, and knees. Ideally for hyperekplexia to be diagnosed there should be a physiological demonstration of exaggerated startle response, but this criterion is seldom adequately fulfilled. Hereditary/familial: An autosomal dominant disorder with muscular hypertonia in infancy, leg jerks, and gait disorder. Familial cases have been associated with mutations in the 1 subunit of the inhibitory glycine receptor gene. Symptomatic: perinatal ischaemichypoxic encephalopathy; brainstem lesions (encephalitis, haemorrhage); thalamic lesions (inflammation, vascular); drugs (cocaine, amphetamines); Tourette syndrome. Cross References Incontinence; Myoclonus Hypergraphia Hypergraphia is a form of increased writing activity.
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After 3 days of nonspecific symptoms herbals and vitamins buy ayurslim canada, half of pts have a rash characterized by macules appearing on the wrists and ankles and subsequently spreading to herbals product models purchase ayurslim 60caps free shipping the rest of the extremities and the trunk herbs n more generic 60caps ayurslim with mastercard. The palms and soles become involved after day 5 in 43% of pts but do not become involved at all in 1864%. Bleeding is a rare but potentially lifethreatening consequence of severe vascular damage. The mortality rate is 35% despite the availability of effective antibiotics, mostly because of delayed diagnosis. Recognized principally in New York City, rickettsialpox has been reported in other urban and rural locations in the United States as well as in Ukraine, Croatia, Mexico, and Turkey. Clinical Manifestations A papule forms at the site of the mite bite and develops a central vesicle that becomes a painless black-crusted eschar surrounded by an erythematous halo. Clinical Manifestations Prodromal symptoms 13 days before the abrupt onset of chills and fever include headache, myalgia, arthralgia, nausea, and malaise; nausea and vomiting are nearly universal early in illness. The diagnosis can be based on serology, immunohistochemistry, or detection of the organism in a louse found on a pt. It is endemic in eastern and southern Asia, northern Australia, and the Pacific islands. Clinical Manifestations Clinical findings are nonspecific and include fever (96%), headache (72%), myalgia (68%), and malaise (77%). Clinical Manifestations Given high seroprevalence rates in endemic areas, it appears that most people develop subclinical infections. Cattle, sheep, and goats are responsible for most cases of human infection; many other animals can serve as vectors of transmission or as reservoirs of disease. It is reactivated in pregnancy and is found at high concentrations in the placenta. Clinical Manifestations the specific presentation of acute Q fever differs geographically. The vegetations differ from those in bacterial endocarditis of other etiologies and manifest as endothelium-covered nodules on the valve. Genome sequence data from many different Mycoplasma species have helped define the minimal set of genes necessary for cellular life. Lacking a cell wall and bounded only by a plasma membrane, mycoplasmas colonize mucosal surfaces of the respiratory and urogenital tracts. Infection causes upper respiratory tract disease ~20 times more frequently than pneumonia. Diagnosis Clinical findings, nonmicrobiologic laboratory tests, and chest radiography are not useful in distinguishing M. Transmission occurs through contact with ocular discharge from infected pts, which can also be transferred by flies. Epidemiology Trachoma is a leading cause of preventable infectious blindness, with ~6 million pts having been affected. In the hyperendemic regions of northern and subSaharan Africa, the Middle East, and parts of Asia, the prevalence of trachoma is ~100% by the third year of life. Treatment of sexual partners is needed to prevent ocular reinfection and chlamydial genital disease. Clinical Manifestations Psittacosis in humans can range in severity from asymptomatic or mild infections to acute primary atypical pneumonia (which can be fatal in 10% of untreated cases) to severe chronic pneumonia. Seropositivity is first detected at school age and then increases by ~10% per decade. Pts have antecedent upper respiratory tract symptoms, fever, nonproductive cough, minimal findings on auscultation, small segmental infiltrates on chest x-ray, and no leukocytosis. The incubation period for primary infection with either virus is 126 days (median, 68 days). Pain, itching, dysuria, vaginal and urethral discharge, and tender inguinal lymphadenopathy are the predominant local symptoms. In general, these isolates are also resistant to valacyclovir and famciclovir, which have similar mechanisms of action. The virus replicates and causes viremia, which is reflected by the diffuse and scattered skin lesions in varicella; it then establishes latency in the dorsal root ganglia and can reactivate through unknown mechanisms at a later time. Chickenpox Pts present with fever, malaise, and rash characterized by maculopapules, vesicles, and scabs in various stages of evolution. First episodes: Oral acyclovir (200 mg 5 times per day or 400 mg tid), valacyclovir (1 g bid), or famciclovir (250 mg bid) for 714 days is effective. Symptomatic recurrent genital herpes: Short-course (1- to 3-day) regimens are preferred because of low cost, likelihood of adherence, and convenience. Oral acyclovir (800 mg tid for 2 days), valacyclovir (500 mg bid for 3 days), or famciclovir (750 or 1000 mg bid for 1 day, a 1500-mg single dose, or 500 mg stat followed by 250 mg q12h for 3 days) effectively shortens lesion duration. Other options include oral acyclovir (200 mg 5 times per day), valacyclovir (500 mg bid), and famciclovir (125 mg bid for 5 days). Suppression of recurrent genital herpes: Oral acyclovir (400800 mg bid) or valacyclovir (500 mg daily) is given. Pts with >9 episodes per year should take oral valacyclovir (1 g daily or 500 mg bid) or famciclovir (250 mg bid or 500 mg bid). First episode: Oral acyclovir (200 mg) is given 4 or 5 times per day; an oral acyclovir suspension can be used (600 mg/m2 qid). Recurrent episodes: If initiated at prodrome onset, single-dose or 1-day therapy effectively reduces pain and speeds healing. Herpetic whitlow: Oral acyclovir (200 mg) is given 5 times daily for 710 days (alternative: 400 mg tid). Monitoring for relapse should be undertaken, and some authorities recommend continued suppression with oral acyclovir suspension for 34 months. In contrast, immunocompromised pts have numerous slower-healing lesions (often with a hemorrhagic base) and are more likely to develop visceral complications that, if not treated, are fatal in 15% of cases. Pts are infectious for 48 h before onset of rash and remain infectious until all vesicles have crusted. Historically, children 59 years old accounted for half of all cases; vaccination has dramatically changed the epidemiology of infection and has caused a significant decrease in the annualized incidence of chickenpox. The onset comes 35 days into illness, with tachypnea, cough, dyspnea, fever, cyanosis, pleuritic chest pain, and hemoptysis. Cutaneous dissemination occurs in 40% of these pts and increases the risk for other complications (pneumonitis, meningoencephalitis, hepatitis). Prednisone (given along with antiviral therapy at a dosage of 60 mg/d for the first week of zoster, with the dose then tapered by 50% weekly over the next 2 weeks) can accelerate quality-of-life improvements, including a return to usual activity; prednisone treatment is indicated only for healthy elderly persons with moderate or severe pain at presentation. Irrespective of serologic status, pts >60 years old should receive a vaccine with 18 times the viral content of varicella vaccine; zoster vaccine reduces the incidence of zoster and postherpetic neuralgia.
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Because amphibians are noted for their inability to kan herbals relaxed wanderer purchase 60caps ayurslim cross huge expanses of salt water herbals and vitamins ayurslim 60 caps amex, these amphibians and perhaps the gecko Ailuronyx are derived from ancestors living on the original AfricanIndian plate herbals and vitamins buy generic ayurslim on-line. The rhacophorid frog Tachycnemis and some reptiles also appear to be derived from an early Seychellan herpetofauna, but likely from taxa that arrived via island hopping across narrow water gaps. The Seychelles chameleon, Calumma tigris, was believed to be closely related to other African Calumma and a relatively recent migrant. However, a multi-locus phylogenetic analysis comparing this species with African ones shows that it is sister to an entire South African clade of chameleons and should be placed in its own genus, Archaius. This lizard appears to have dispersed from Africa to the Seychelles in the EoceneOligocene by transoceanic dispersal on paleocurrents. The day-geckos (Phelsuma) and others are more recent arrivals that show closer affinities with Malagasian and African taxa, but presumably arrived prior to human colonization. A vicariance explanation has been used to explain the present-day distribution pattern of chelid turtles. Age of each taxon is based on its degree of taxonomic differentiation and endemicity. Unfortunately, the most recent cladogram (far right) fails to falsify either of the earlier hypotheses because Chelodina, South American chelids, and remaining Australian chelids form an unresolved polytomy. Two cladistic patterns of relationships among chelid turtle genera suggest different scenarios to account for their distributional history. One cladogram suggests that Pseudemydura is the sister group to all other extant chelids. The Australian Emydura group is the sister group of all Neotropical chelids and the Australian long-necked Chelodina. This pattern of cladogenic events would suggest that all modern genera arose from vicariance events in the deep past on the southern continent. This latter explanation requires a dispersal event across the ocean, highly unlikely for a freshwater turtle. The ancestral chelids occurred broadly on the southern continent, and rifting of the southern continent into the South American and AustralianAntarctica continents was the vicariance event that gave rise to the ancestors for two monophyletic continental clades. While the latter offers a more parsimonious explanation, both explanations and both cladograms are hypotheses that require further testing. The strength of the vicariance model is the ability to test biogeographic hypotheses and reject those that do not match the proposed geologic or other vicariance models. A more recent phylogenetic analysis of chelid turtles fails to resolve the problem, because Chelodina (Australian), the South American chelids, and the remaining Australian chelids form an unresolved polytomy. However, when the best available data are applied, we discover that the relationships between the three critical groups are not clear, and we are left with additional questions that will require more detailed data collection and interpretation. The Seychelles and chelid examples highlight the necessity of a pluralist approach to biogeographic analysis and of the need to provide explanations (hypotheses) that can be tested. Multiple levels of interpretations are likely required for the patterns of most herpetofaunas and their component species. We now examine a subset of the recent analyses that address questions of historical biogeography of amphibians and reptiles. Each of these provides new insights into old questions, and each raises additional questions. The fossils existed, present-day distributions existed, and information on historic distribution of continents existed. What was missing was the ability to independently date divergence patterns in taxonomic groups of interest. To put it another way, distributional histories were fitted to the movement of continents. Dated phylogenies have changed that line of thinking dramatically, and, as previously indicated, historical biogeography has transformed into phylogeography, which has the ability to explicitly test hypotheses. Rather than summarizing everything that is known about biogeography of amphibians and reptiles, we have selected a set of studies that make specific points about the process of distributional histories and diversification. We refer the interested reader to other sources for detailed and more complete summaries of the biogeography of amphibians and reptiles. Amazon Biodiversity High diversity of amphibians and reptiles in tropical rainforests is well known, and a number of hypotheses have been presented to account for this high diversity. One, the Vanishing Refuge Theory (often referred to as the Climatic Disturbance Hypothesis), which was originally applied to birds and lizards, has received considerable attention. This hypothesis basically posits that environmental fluctuations during the Pleistocene (2 million to 10 thousand years before present) resulted in repeated expansions and contractions of rainforest, resulting in repeated isolation of faunas and resultant speciation. Pollen profiles from Pleistocene deposits indicate that the rainforest was both more and less extensive in the past. Other hypotheses include (1) the Riverine Barrier Hypothesis, which suggests that the large rivers in the Amazon basin were distribution barriers for species living in terra firma forest, thus restricting gene flow and resulting in divergence across rivers; (2) the Ecological Gradients Hypothesis, which suggests that habitat gradients. The lizard example used as the basis for the Vanishing Refuge Theory was the Anolis chrysolepis (formerly A. At the time that this was proposed by Paulo Vanzolini and Ernest Williams, four subspecies (now considered to be species) of A. Thus, the mechanism of speciation was isolation caused by expansion and contraction of forest, genetic drift in the lizard populations that were isolated, and, when forest re-expanded, dispersion of the genetically distinct Anolis into surrounding rainforest. The key assumption of this model was that divergence of these anoles occurred during the Pleistocene, coincident with the period during which expansion and contraction of the rainforest occurred. At the time that this theory was proposed, molecular techniques that allowed reliable dating of divergences were not available. In 2001, Rich Glor and colleagues tested this hypothesis using a molecular phylogeny of the A. Their results unequivocally show that divergences in this and other Amazonian anoles occurred much earlier than the Pleistocene, thus falsifying the Vanishing Refuge Theory for these species. Additional studies on another lizard complex (sphaerodactyline geckos) occurring in the Amazon also failed to support the Vanishing Refuge Theory. Although the evolutionary history of sphaerodactyline geckos is complex, revealing several very old and some recent divergences, none occurred during the Pleistocene. Most species-level divergences in these lizards occurred during the OligoceneMiocene, 20+ Ma, which coincides with divergence patterns observed in Amazonian anoles and a host of other vertebrates. Dramatic climate change during this time period along with orogenic events in the Andes account for some of the diversification patterns observed in both these geckos and the anoles previously discussed. Thus the congruent eastwest biogeographic patterns within each of two very divergent lizard clades (anoles and geckos) cannot be tied to a single vicariant event because they occurred millions of years apart. Causes for some of these divergences remain unknown, but clearly diversification of lizards in the Amazon Basin is complex and cannot be explained by one event or hypothesis. Recent studies on birds and other organisms have also failed to support the Vanishing Refuge Theory. Another recent study used a molecular phylogeny to test two competing hypotheses for the distribution of frogs in the Engystomops petersi complex. This frog occurs in the western Amazon, a region that is broken up by major rivers (the Riverine Barrier Hypothesis) and also experiences an elevational gradient from west (high) to east (low). Elevation gradients can influence species distribution (because of correlated ecological variables), thus elevation (Elevation Gradient Hypothesis) might explain distributional patterns in these frogs. Chris Funk and colleagues used sequence data from three genes to test these hypotheses and uncovered a complex pattern of relationships.
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In northern Brazil herbals on demand reviews ayurslim 60 caps with visa, adults of the frog Pseudis paradoxa repeatedly dive into the schools from the water surface and feed on these tadpoles erbs palsy purchase ayurslim 60caps online. Larvae of dragonflies (especially Anax) on the pond bottom pick off tadpoles from the bottom of the school herbals shampoo buy ayurslim 60caps free shipping, and larvae of predaceous diving beetles (Dytiscidae) prey on tadpoles that P. Although the schools move around throughout the pond, it is not clear whether they do so to find richer foraging sites or to avoid intense predation. In addition, older conspecific tadpoles entered the nests and consumed small tadpoles. Of 230 basins with clutches that were followed, 37% were completely destroyed, and, of these, 74% were killed by predators, primarily by planarian worms and conspecific tadpoles. Temperature data revealed that open basins had higher temperature in the morning and afternoon but not at other times of the day. Other variables impact survivorship of eggs in basins, including flooding rains and desiccation. The trade-offs in this system warrant further study, but a higher developmental rate of tadpoles and thus faster metamorphosis in warmer, open nests may offset the risk of predation. Herpetologists who go out at night to search for frogs have discovered that as a loud chorus is approached, all frogs suddenly go silent. Use of playback experiments revealed that even frogs too far away to detect the disturbance ceased calling. Thus, the sound of silence functions as an alarm cue for many chorusing frog species. A similar type of detection occurs in some species of the Amazonian hylid genus Osteocephalus. In these species, even in choruses composed of hundreds of individuals, the approach of a human "predator" causes all frogs to cease calling and to scramble rapidly up into trees overhanging the breeding pond. Miscellaneous Behaviors A wide variety of other escape behaviors are used by amphibians and reptiles once predators initiate attacks. Some lizards seize parts of their own body, rendering them nearly impossible to swallow. Cordylus cataphractus, for example, bites and holds onto its own tail, making a loop of its body and exposing its large, armored scales to a predator. The elapid snake Vermicella annulata elevates loops of its body to make it difficult for predators to secure a grip on the snake. Construction of basins for egg deposition occurs in some species of hylids and discoglossids. Basins are usually formed by individuals or amplexed pairs pivoting in sand, mud, or pebbly substrate at the edges of streams. In some cases, basins function to increase water temperature and thus increase tadpole growth rates. Basins also allow separation of developing eggs and tadpoles from potential aquatic predators that live in streams. John Malone studied basin construction in the hylid Smilisca sordida in Costa Rica. Females always construct basins in this species, but different types of basins were made. Basins were open or buried beneath the substrate; further, eggs in open basins were either floating or attached to the substrate. Seven types of invertebrate predators Life History Responses to Predation In a general way, life history responses to predation are relatively easy to visualize. For example, in species where mortality on juveniles is density dependent, production of fewer, larger, and more competitive offspring should be the evolutionary response. In species where mortality on juveniles is density independent, production of greater numbers of offspring should be the evolutionary response. Because energy for reproduction is typically limited (see Chapters 4 and 5), production of more offspring means that those offspring will be smaller. Both cases represent life history responses to predation or other mortality sources. The possible combinations of life history responses are nearly unlimited given the many variables that influence the evolution of life histories. The life histories of two species of frogs that breed in the same microhabitat exemplify the complexities of life history responses to predation. The dendrobatid Adelphobates castaneoticus and the bufonid Rhinella castaneotica breed in fallen fruit capsules of the Brazil nut tree in Amazonian Brazil. After the capsules fall to the forest floor, agoutis gnaw the top off the capsules and remove the Brazil nuts, and the capsules fill with water during rainstorms. Mosquitoes, giant damselflies, and both species of frogs use the capsules for breeding. After falling to the forest floor, the indehiscent fruits of the Brazil nut tree are opened by agoutis (upper left), which remove the seeds (upper right) known as Brazil nuts (center) and leave the open fruit capsule on the forest floor. After the capsule fills with water, it is colonized by two frog species and a variety of insects. The frog Adelphobates castaneoticus (middle right) transports a single tadpole to the capsule (bottom right), whereas the toad Rhinella castaneotica (lower left) deposits a small clutch of eggs (middle left). The sequence of arrival and the composition of the fauna in the capsule determine reproductive success in both frogs (see text). The Adelphobates larva is predaceous, feeding on insect larvae and Rhinella tadpoles if any are in the capsule. Predaceous larvae of a mosquito species and the giant damselflies feed on both tadpole species if the tadpoles are small enough. The tiny Rhinella larvae develop rapidly in a race to metamorphose before all are eaten. The density of predators likely determines how many, if any, of the Rhinella tadpoles survive to metamorphosis. The relative size of mosquito, damselfly, and Adelphobates larvae and the order of colonization determine which of these organisms will survive to metamorphosis. For example, if a tadpole of Adelphobates is deposited before the insects, it feeds on all insect larvae subsequently deposited, grows, and ultimately metamorphoses. If one of the insect larvae is deposited first and grows large enough to kill a tadpole of Adelphobates, the insect larvae will grow and metamorphose. Thus, both relative size and sequence of deposition determine survival in this microcosm. On the one hand, Adelphobates has evolved a life history in which a few large and highly competitive offspring are produced to enter a competitive system. On the other hand, Rhinella has evolved a life history that includes a reduced clutch size compared with other species of Rhinella, allowing it to use the small breeding site yet produce enough individual offspring to insure that at least some survive to metamorphosis. Predators and Their Prey: the Evolutionary Arms Race Implicit in any discussion of predators and their prey is the notion that as prey evolve responses to predators, predators Chapter 11 Defense and Escape 345 125°W 120°W 115°W 1. Whole-animal resistance 100 10 Willow Creek Benton Warrenton Bear Lake 1 evolve responses to the changes in prey behaviors that shift predatorprey interactions. If that were not the case, then predators, prey, or both would quickly be driven to extinction. Of course it is not quite that simple because each predator has many different prey from which to select, and each prey species is influenced by more than a single predator.
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The diagram has no time axis; numerous clades and branching events are excluded; and each capitalized name represents a formal clade-group name herbs that heal cheap 60caps ayurslim. Individually these taxa and collectively the Euryapsida have had a long history of uncertainty in their position within the phylogeny of reptiles herbals used for mood cheapest generic ayurslim uk. Only since the late 1980s has their diapsid affinity gained a consensus among zoologists herbs nutrition discount ayurslim, although different interpretations about basal relationships remain. For example, are they a sister group of the lepidosauromorphs or a sister group of the lepidosauromorpharchosauromorph clade? The monophyletic clade interpretation rests on sharing six or more derived characters, such as a lacrimal bone entering the external nares, an anterior shift of the pineal foramen, and clavicles lying anteroventral to the interclavicle. Archosauromorpha and Lepidosauromorpha are the other two clades of the Sauria. Both clades have had high diversity in the deep past, although dinosaurs focus attention on the diversity within archosauromorphs, specifically on the archosaurs. Archosaurs encompass two main clades, Crocodylotarsi (or Crurotarsia) and Ornithodira. They share a rotary cruruotarsal ankle, an antorbital fenestra, no ectepicondylar groove or foramen on the humerus, a fourth trochanter on the femur, and other traits. Aside from the two main groups, archosaurs include some early divergent taxa, for example Erythrosuchidae, Doswellia, and Euparkeria. The Ornithodira and Crocodylotarsi radiated broadly and have modern-day representatives. Pterosaurs were an early and successful divergence from the lineage leading to dinosaurs. The leatherywinged pterosaurs seemingly never attained the diversity of modern birds or bats but were a constant aerial presence over tropical seashores from the Late Triassic to the end of the Cretaceous. Dinosaurs attained a diversity that was unequaled by any other Mesozoic group of tetrapods. Their size and diversity fan our imaginations; nonetheless, numerous other reptile groups. Dinosaur evolution is well studied and outside the province of herpetology but relevant to the evolution of the living reptiles. Birds (Aves) are feathered reptiles, and Archaeopteryx is a well-known "missing link" that has a mixture of reptilian and avian characteristics. Although no one would argue that Archaeopteryx is not a bird, a controversy exists over the origin of birds. The current consensus places the origin of birds among the theropod dinosaurs. The theropod dinosaur hypothesis has the weight of cladistic evidence in its support. The other proposed bird ancestors are an early crocodyliform, among the basal ornithodiran archosaurs, and Megalanocosaurus, another basal archosaur taxon. Although these latter interpretations represent minority positions, the cladistic near Aves Chapter 1 Tetrapod Relationships and Evolutionary Systematics 21 relatives (bird-like theropods) of birds occur much later (>25 Ma) in the geological record than Archaeopteryx. Crocodylotarsi, the other major clade of archosaurs, has an abundance of taxa and a broad radiation in the Mesozoic and Early Tertiary. The Crocodylia, a crown group including the most recent common ancestor of the extant Alligatoridae and Crocodylidae and its descendants, remains a successful group but shows only one aspect of crocodylotarsian radiation. The earliest radiations in the Middle and Late Triassic included phytosaurs, aetosaurs, and rauisuchids. The phytosaurs were long-snouted crocodylian-like reptiles, and the position of their nostrils on a hump in front of the eyes suggests a similar aquatic ambush behavior on terrestrial prey. The aetosaurs were armored terrestrial herbivores, and the rauisuchids were terrestrial predators that developed an erect, vertical limb posture and reduced dermal armor. Another clade, the Crocodyliformes, which includes the later-appearing Crocodylia, also appeared in the Middle Triassic and yielded the diversity of Jurassic and Cretaceous taxa. The crocodyliforms had members that were small and wolf-like, large bipedal and tyrannosauruslike, giant marine crocodilian-like, and a variety of other body forms. All share derived traits such as a lateral ridge of the quadrate supporting a large typanum, no cleithrum in the pectoral girdle, an ectepicondylar foramen rather than a groove in the humerus, and a large medial centrale in the forefoot. The earliest known and basal group is the Younginiformes from the Upper Permian and Lower Triassic. They were aquatic, and adaptation to an aquatic life is a recurrent theme in the evolution and radiation of lepidosauromorphs. Another basal group with a highly specialized Kuehneosauridae Younginiformes Gephyrosaurus Sphenodon lifestyle was Kuehneosauridae. They had elongate thoracic ribs that probably supported an aerofoil membrane and permitted them to glide from tree to tree or to the ground, as in the extant gliding lizard Draco. Some of these are teeth attached loosely to the tooth-bearing bones, fusion of the pelvic bones late in development, hooked fifth metatarsals, and paired copulatory organs (hemipenes; rudimentary in Sphenodon). Of the two sister groups within the Lepidosauria, only two species of tuataras (sphenodontidans) survive. Sphenodontidans were moderately diverse and abundant in Late Triassic and Jurassic, and largely disappeared from the fossil record thereafter. Gephyrosaurus is their sister taxon and shared a similar habitus; however, it had triangular teeth with a shearing bite. In an all-inclusive sense, squamates (lizards and snakes) were and are predominantly smallbodied (<0. This finding forces reconsideration of many interpretations of the evolution of ecology, morphology, behavior, and physiology that assume an IguaniaScleroglossa sister relationship. The fossil history of Squamata and other extant reptilian and amphibian groups is detailed in Chapter 3. Classifying objects is part of human nature and has its origins deep in prehistory. The earliest human societies began to name and recognize plants and animals for practical reasons, such as what is good or bad to eat, or what will or will not eat humans. This partitioning of objects places them into conceptual groups and is practiced daily by all of us. This may seem straightforward on the surface, but the degree to which we now understand the evolution of life on Earth has shaken the very foundations of our thinking on naming organisms and groups of organisms. This catalogue gave a concise diagnosis of all known species of plants and animals and arranged them in a hierarchical classification of genus, order, and class. Scientific names of plants and animals remain binomials and are given in Latin (the language of scholars in the eighteenth century). The botanical and zoological communities separately developed codes for the practice of nomenclature.