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For example muscle relaxant cream buy skelaxin paypal, consider the contradiction inherent in angry and harsh physical punishment (Gershoff spasms after hemorrhoidectomy generic skelaxin 400 mg on-line, 2002) muscle relaxant guardian pharmacy cheap 400 mg skelaxin otc. On the other hand, it teaches children that anger and aggression are acceptable means of solving problems. Peers, Neighborhoods, Television, and Society Peer groups also can encourage delinquent and antisocial behavior (Dishion, McCord, & Poulin, 1999), and among adolescents, peer influences may be stronger than parental ones (Walden et al. In fact, socialized delinquency, in which criminal acts occur in the company of others, may be an important subtype of externalizing disorders (Kazdin, 1995). Television violence is rampant, as is violence in computer games, and research shows that aggressive children both prefer and become more aggressive in response to video violence (Anderson et al. When it came time to discipline Billy, she usually gave in-either because this was the easiest thing to do or because she felt too guilty to say no. Feeling resentful and resigned, she would grab a bag of M&Ms and give it to Billy. Billy also (negatively) reinforced his mother by quieting down when she gave in to his demands. Because both parties were reinforced, the coercive interaction should (and did) continue over time (Patterson, 1982). Parents need to break the pattern by ignoring the misbehavior (extinction), punishing it, or rewarding more positive actions (Herbert, 2002). The next time Billy acted up in the grocery Accepting, Responsive, Child-centered Demanding, controlling Undemanding, low in control attempts Authoritative Rejecting, Unresponsive, Parent-centered Authoritarian figurE 16. Indulgent Neglectful 430 Chapter 16 Psychological Disorders of Childhood A young boy playing Grand Theft Auto. More aggressive children seek out, and are influenced by, the violence found routinely in video games, television shows, and other popular media. Psychological Factors Low self-esteem, feelings of low worth, is sometimes blamed as causing externalizing problems. However, increased prison use is not tied to lower crime rates-and international comparisons contradict the frequent charge that the U. Krisberg, 1994, Images and Reality: Juvenile Crime, Youth Violence, and Public Policy, San Francisco: National Council on Crime and Delinquency. Externalizing Disorders 431 illusory bias appears to be self-protection, trying to appear more competent to peers and oneself (Owens et al. Lack of self-control, the internal regulation of behavior, is often linked to externalizing disorders. A specific problem with self-control is delay of gratification-the ability to defer smaller but immediate rewards for larger, long-term benefits, for example, studying for an exam rather than going out with friends. Children with externalizing problems are less able to delay gratification than are other children. They opt for immediate rewards rather than for long-term goals, an impediment to achieving educational and career goals (Nigg, 2001). They view other children as threatening and may attempt to "get you before you get me. Physically abused children see more anger in neutral facial expressions than normal children (Pollak & Tolley-Schell, 2003). A young boy may say that the reason he behaves well is because "Mommy will get mad. However, they do not appear to benefit learning or lead to long-term improvements. Psychostimulants heighten energy and alertness, and they lead to restless, even frenetic, behavior when abused. One reason for the enduring "paradoxical effect" paradox is that it was deemed unethical to give psychostimulants to normal children, even though the medication was given regularly to millions of "abnormal" children. A group of researchers at the National Institute of Mental Health eventually found a clever way around this problem. They obtained permission from colleagues to study the effects of psychostimulants on their children. In fact, psychostimulants have the same effects on adults when taken in comparably small dosages. Usage and Effects the most commonly prescribed psychostimulants are known by the trade names of Ritalin, Dexedrine, Cylert, and Adderall. The fact that behavior problems in school are the main concern is demonstrated in how psychostimulants are prescribed. A pill is taken in the morning before school, and because the effects of many psychostimulants last only three or four hours, another pill may be taken at the lunch hour. Second, biological, psychological, and social factors clearly interact in causing externalizing disorders. For example, research shows that impulsive youth have unusually high rates of juvenile offending when they grow up in poor versus better-off neighborhoods. However, whether the neighborhood is poor or better off has no effect on offending for nonimpulsive youth (Lynam et al. Source: Reprinted from the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40 (2), J. Traditionally, medication was discontinued in early adolescence, because it was believed that the problem was "outgrown" by that age. However, research shows that, while hyperactivity usually improves during the teen years, problems with inattention and impulsivity often continue (Schachar & Tannock, 2002). More aggressive behavior therapies, including summer treatment programs, may produce more notable benefits (Pelham et al. However, the findings also indicate that improvements are needed in standard community medication management, which was much less effective than carefully controlled medication use. Children on medication complete more reading, spelling, and arithmetic assignments with somewhat improved accuracy (Pelham et al. An even more troubling and puzzling fact is that psychostimulants have not been found to lead to long-term improvements in behavior, learning, or any other areas of functioning (see Table 16. Clearly, the difference in short- versus long-term results is a puzzle that needs solving. Randomization and other critical aspects of the design were necessarily compromised because of ethical concerns in treating this young age group. The study produced two clear results: (1) Preschoolers who remain on the medication improve over 10-month follow-up (although there is no control group) and (2) about one-third of preschoolers discontinue medication (Vitiello et al. Side Effects the side effects of psychostimulants can be troubling, including decreased appetite, increased heart rate, and sleeping difficulties. Other side effects are more serious, such as an increase in motor tics in a small percentage of cases. Evidence that psychostimulants can slow physical growth also is a very important concern. Past research found that children maintained on psychostimulants fell somewhat behind expected gains in height and weight, but the growth efAre psychostimulants fect was interpreted as minor.
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In 1968 muscle relaxer kick in 400 mg skelaxin visa, Lions had 470 000 "brothers" in the United States and 160 000 in the rest of the world muscle relaxant for joint pain order skelaxin 400mg, in a total of 17 441 clubs infantile spasms 2013 purchase skelaxin no prescription. The Bohemian Club was founded as an organization for selected journalists in 1872 in Monte Rio in Sonoma County, 75 miles north of San Francisco. Every year on 15 July several dozen leading members take part in a ritual dressed as "priests" in red-hooded Illuminati robes, guardians of the fire, worshipping a huge stone owl as Molok. This elite club of Grove Camp is reminiscent of the enclosed area, like the Soviet nomenclature had. It counts 2700 male members, among them Henry Kissinger, George Schultz (former secretary of state), Helmut Schmidt, World Bank director Tom Clausen, Caspar Weinberger (former secretary of defense), Paul Volcker (former Federal Reserve chairman), Gerald Ford, President of the United States George W. All 346 members eagerly pays the 2500 dollars initiation fee and 600 dollars a-year dues. On 15 July 2000, documentary filmmaker Alex Jones and his associate Mike Hanson, equipped with two hidden video cameras and disguised as members of the Bohemian Club successfully infiltrated the elite cult compound. Alex Jones tells about that evening: "Suddenly the owl was lit up by some flood lights and out ran a hundred priests or so in black, red an green robes. Joseph Smith and Brigham Young, founders of the Mormon Church in 1830, were both freemasons of high rank. In their ceremonies, the Mormons wear white gowns with a square on the right side and a pair of compasses on the left. The hippie movement was founded and led by two Jewish freemasons, Herbert Marcuse and Jerry Rabin. They did everything in their power to introduce young people to the use of drugs and to dissonant rock music, thus silencing their protests against the stagnant masonic society. The freemason Henry Kissinger stated: "I prefer chaos and civil war in Russia instead of the tendencies that would lead to a united, strong and centrally governed nation. So also the high-ranking freemason Zbigniew Brzezinski, adviser to President Jimmy Carter, who said: "Russia will be divided and put under guardianship. Russian politicians, or rather, political villains, are constantly supported from abroad, in particular from the United States. In June 1992, the freemasons arranged a seminar under the title the Social Rights of the European Citizens, where they advocated a Europe without borders. Behind the seminar were among others the Grand Orient of France, the Grand Lodge of France, the Grand Lodge of Turkey, the Grand Symbolic Lodge of Spain, the Grand Lodge of Italy. The freemasons appointed a commission, Great Europe, including many wellknown freemasons such as Jacques Chirac (then the mayor of Paris), and Wilfried Martens (former Belgian prime minister). On 21 December 1993, the commission presented its result "Great Europe", a typical masonic document. At a press conference in April 1990, the Grand Master of the Grand Orient, Jean-Robert Ragache, announced that his lodge was also present in Russia. In May 1991, Radio Liberty of Munich urged Soviet citizens to become members of the Pushkin lodge in Paris (Oleg Platonov, "Russia under the Power of Freemasonry", Moscow, 2000, p. When the Russian poet Alexander Pushkin saw through the evil of freemasonry and no longer wanted to remain a member of this movement, he was provoked into a duel and murdered in cold blood. Pushkin as an enemy of freemasonry was regarded as dangerous (Platonov, "The Secret History of Freemasonry", Moscow, 2000, Vol. He conducted a similar operation against Great Britain, making some 1-2 billion dollars. In September 1992, he acquired nearly 300 million dollars, speculating against the Italian lira. On 23 August 1997, he made the following statement: "All these countries have worked for 40 years trying to b u i l d up their economies, only to have a creep l i k e Soros come along with a load of money to speculate against their currencies. Soros, the currency pirate and head of the Quantum Fund, clearly stated on 4 September 1998 that Mahathi bin Mohamad "would need to be removed from power". George Soros has emphasised: "I cannot, and do not, consider the social consequences of my actions. Soros made sure that a special organization, the Magisterium, was founded for the Russian political elite. Soros is himself a member of the Magisterium as are Alexander Yakovlev (Knight of Malta) and Eduard Shevardnadze (Knight of Malta) as well as Yegor Gaidar, Anatoli Chubays, Leonid Abalkin, Stanislav Shatalin, Yevgeni Yevtushenko, Ernst Neizvestny, Anatoli Sobchak, Ivan Brodsky and many other well-known persons. They all received economic support from the United States, as did the freemason Grigori Yavlinsky. In the years 1993-97, Soros has paid out at least 6 million dollars to organizations in the United States promoting legalization of drugs. He has also founded his own institutes for the legalization of drugs and for euthanasia, with offices in his "charitable foundation", the Institute for an Open Society. Judging from his activities, it would seem that to Soros, an "open society" is a country, which opens its doors wide for his attacks of speculation and robbery. With the shock therapy that Soros and his gang have forced on the Eastern European countries, he has extinguished every reasonable possibility of a successful economic reform policy. Jean Izoulet, high-ranking in the Grand Orient and initiated in the organization Alliance Israelite Universelle, wrote in his "Paris, la capitale des religions" in 1931: "The meaning of the history of the last century has been that three hundred Jewish financiers, all masters of the chair, will rule the world. The freemason Cremieux publicised the aims of the freemasons: "Nations must disappear. This was the cause of such a scandal that the grand master, Prince Edward, was forced to break it up. He was a moving force behind the French president Francois Mitterrand, a freemason whose brother, Air Force General Jacques Mitterrand, grand master of the Grand Orient in 1962-63 and 1969-70 (the masonic magazine Humanisme, No. Until 1986 Mitterrand associated with the chief of police under the Vichy regime, another freemason. He therefore joined the Grand Orient lodge Franklin Roosevelt (named after the American masonic president). The Grand Orient was also behind the campaign directed against Augusto Pinochet, the military leader of Chile, since he had caused the death of the masonic brother Salvador Allende. The Grand Orient of France on 3 November 1998 demanded justice concerning 352 Pinochet. He was officially accused of having ordered the murder of 3000 left-wingers (many of whom were terrorists). At the same time, the media kept quiet about the fact that Pinochet thereby saved the lives of hundreds of thousands of countrymen, who were on the death lists of the Marxist terrorists. Even the non-violent Mahatma Gandhi considered it right to kill madmen who murder innocent people, thereby saving many more. Police officers also have the right to return fire in order to defend themselves and the public. According to the Grand Orient, Augusto Pinochet did not have this right, although he is also a freemason (belonging to another lodge), and had established close contacts with criminal gangs smuggling arms and drugs. The fact that Pinochet is a freemason is made clear by an interview with Roger Letrei, grand master of the Grand Orient of France (Le Point, May 1989).
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Genetic influences on behavior are pervasive muscle relaxant for elderly skelaxin 400 mg online, but we want you to muscle relaxant cream cheap skelaxin line think critically and beyond familiar models of dominant and recessive inheritance spasms coughing buy skelaxin australia. In fact, you should be skeptical of anyone who claims to have found "the" cause of any mental disorder (see Critical Thinking Matters). Genes and the Environment Before turning to psychological and social factors, we need to introduce two key concepts about how genes and the environment work together. This work is very exciting, but here is an important caution: Researchers have failed to replicate many previous "discoveries" of gene-environment interactions (Risch et al. False leads are to be expected, of course, when you combine a new field, 25,000 genes, innumerable potential experiences-and the complexity of human behavior. We know that genes and the environment work together; we are only beginning to discover how (Champagne & Mashoodh, 2009; Cole, 2009). A second key concept is gene-environment correlation, the fact that our experience is correlated with our genetic make-up (Rutter et al. Note how different combinations of genetic risk and stress severity cross the threshold for disorder. Anxious parenting, risk taking, and probably most other experiences are correlated with our genetic makeup. This means that any link between an experience and a disorder may be explained by correlated genes, not by the experience itself. Psychological Factors We must begin our overview of psychological factors in emotional disorders on a humbling note: Psychology does not have a widely accepted theory of personality, the essential traits that, taken as a whole, describe human behavior. We face the task of trying to explain abnormal behavior without a good understanding of normal behavior! This is a huge limitation, akin to describing circulatory diseases before agreeing about the normal structure and functions of blood, arteries, and the heart! As a result, any listing of the psychological factors involved in mental disorders, including our own, is necessarily incomplete and likely to be controversial. Still, we can organize many psychological factors affecting mental health into six categories: (1) human nature, (2) temperament, (3) emotion, (4) learning and cognition, (5) our sense of self, and (6) human development. Attachment Theory the writings of British psychiatrist human naTure What is human nature-psychological motivations that we share with other animals and others that are uniquely human In contrast, Watson suggested that we come into the world as blank slates-there is no human nature apart from experience. Today, psychologists are addressing questions about human nature in an exciting and controversial field of study called evolutionary psychology. Bowlby based his approach, known as attachment theory, on findings from ethology, the study of animal behavior. Ethologists documented that close relationships develop between infants and caregivers in many species of animals. Human infants develop selective bonds to caregivers more slowly during the first year of life. These bonds, together with displays of distress when separated, keep infant and parent in close proximity. You can readily observe this: Ducklings swim in line behind their mother; toddlers explore the world in an irregular orbit around a parent. From an evolutionary standpoint, proximity has survival value, because parents protect their offspring from danger. Evolutionary Psychology Evolutionary psychology is the application of the principles of evolution to understanding the animal and human mind (Confer et al. Evolutionary psychologists study species-typical characteristics-genetically influenced motivations that people share in common. Behavior geneticists, in contrast, study how genes influence individual differences, or what makes people different from one another. Evolutionary psychologists assume that animal and human psychology, like animal and human anatomy, evolved through natural selection and sexual selection. Natural selection is the process in which successful, inherited adaptations to environmental problems become more common over successive generations. The adaptation is selected by evolution, because it increases inclusive fitness, the reproductive success of those who have the adaptation, their offspring, and/or their kin. For example, the large human brain, with its particularly large cerebral cortex, presumably was selected by evolution because of the adaptations it enabled. Early humans with larger brains presumably were more likely to survive and pass their adaptive genes on to more offspring. Sexual selection improves inclusive fitness through increased access to mates and mating. Mating success can be increased by successful intrasexual competition, for example, a Mammals form strong bonds between infants and caregivers. Do humans compete for dominance, perhaps in more subtle ways than these stags compete The cartoon pokes fun at intersexual selection and perhaps suggests a new break up line. Anxious attachments can make children mistrustful, dependent, and/or rejecting in subsequent relationships, patterns that may continue into adult life. Attachment difficulties can be overcome (Rutter & Rutter, 1993), but as we discuss throughout the text, research shows that supportive relationships promote mental health throughout the life span. Dominance the development of attachments, or more gen- erally of affiliation with other members of the same species, is one of the two broad categories of social behaviors studied by ethologists. The second is dominance, the hierarchical ordering of a social group into more and less privileged members (Sloman, Gardner, & Price, 1989). Dominance hierarchies are easily observed in human as well as other animal social groups. From the perspective of evolutionary psychology, dominance competition is basic to sexual selection, and therefore a prime candidate on our short list of species-typical human qualities (Buss, 2009). Still, we are confident that attachment and dominance will rank high on the final list. Researchers generally agree that temperament consists of five dimensions (McAdams & Pals, 2006; Zuckerman, 1991). The "big five" are (1) openness to experience-imaginative and curious versus shallow and imperceptive; (2) conscientiousness-organized and reliable versus careless and negligent; (3) extraversion-active and talkative versus passive and reserved; (4) agreeableness-trusting this list can be pared further into two categories, positive emotions (the left column) and negative emotions (the right column). Of course, negative emotions are most relevant to abnormal psychology, but differentiating between negative emotions also is a key.
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During the First World War muscle relaxant gi tract purchase generic skelaxin, President Thomas Woodrow Wilson and his close associate Edward M spasms lower left abdomen cheap generic skelaxin uk. House wanted to spasms with broken ribs buy skelaxin 400mg without prescription lure German submarines into bombing the Lusitania, which was officially a passenger ship but carried three thousand tons of ammunition aimed for the British. Transporting ammunition to a country at war under cover of carrying civilian passengers was illegal. The German government issued warnings in all New York newspapers that anyone crossing the Atlantic on the Lusitania did so at his own risk, since the ship was carrying ammunition. The British Admiralty, in a secret memorandum of 10 February 1915, gave instructions on how to camouflage a ship carrying ammunition, making it look like a cargo ship. Commander Joseph Kenworth of the British Navy intelligence admitted: "It was a deliberate move to send the Lusitania, at very low speed and without escort, into an area known to harbour a submarine. The historian Colin Simpson claims in his book "Lusitania" that her cargo lists had been forged. After the re-election of President Woodrow Wilson had been secured, the Federal Reserve System initiated a propaganda campaign in favour of the "inevitable war". A well-directed "documentary" was screened, showing passengers from the Lusitania being rescued. Wilson, who was a high-ranking freemason, fully utilized the sinking of the Lusitania, letting Congress declare war on Germany on 6 April 1917. He gained the support of the American people through a brazen lie - that this was "the war to end all wars". In the 1950s, the British government bombed the area where Lusitania had gone down at a depth of 95 metres to destroy all evidence, in case any independent historian might begin to doubt the official information and undertake a search. This was revealed by George Morgenstern in his book "Pearl Harbor: the Story of the Secret War" (Costa Mesa, 1991). If Japan did not act, war would follow, the blame would be put on Japan and the result would be defeat and a second class status as well. Theobold wrote in his book "The Final Secret of Pearl Harbor" (Devin-Adair, 1954) that one person alone was responsible for this disaster - the President of the United States, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, a freemason of the 32 nd degree of the Scottish Rite. Roosevelt was initiated as a freemason on 11 October 1911 in the Holland Lodge No. He had long been a member of the Ancient Arabic Order of the Holy Shrine Lodge as well as the Architect Lodge No. He was further a grand master of the Grand Lodge Georgia in New York and in the lodge Tall Cedars of Lebanon of North America (Kurt Fervers, "Die Parolen der Hochgrade: Freimaurerpolitik um die beiden Weltkriege" / "The Passwords of the High Degrees", Berlin, 1942, p. Carrothers stated in the San Francisco Chronicle on 11 December 1981 that the United States had an excellent spy network in Japan, consisting of Koreans who despised the Japanese. Complete information about the intended attack was available to Roosevelt 48 hours in advance. Even the Soviet government warned the United States against the planned attack by Japan. Roosevelt was, among other lodges, a member of the Ancient Arabic Order of the Holy Shrine. President Roosevelt was not concerned that 2237 Americans were killed in connection with the Japanese attack. In 1942, more than 110 000 American citizens of Japanese origin were placed in ten concentration camps (among them Manzanar in California), where many of them died. On 15 February 1942, after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Winston Churchill spoke on the radio, where he said: "The plan worked to perfection, because public opinion reacted exactly as I had wished" (The New York Times, 16 February 1942). The British historian Paul Johnson did not understand anything, and thought it ill-considered (Paul Johnson, "Modern Times", New York, 1983). Six weeks before the Korean War, Tom Connally, freemason and chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, excluded Korea from the American sphere of interest. When MacArthur gave the order to bomb the bridges to prevent the Chinese troops getting across, Truman revoked the order (William T. Still, "New World Order: the Ancient Plan of Secret Societies", Lafayette, Louisiana, 1990, p. The Chinese units stormed across border on 26 November 1950 and managed to occupy Seoul. General MacArthur was far too successful in his eagerness to crush the communists. He was able to throw the communists out of South Korea, and intended also to overthrow the North Korean regime, and to bomb North Korean bases and the Chinese airfields. General MacArthur eventually managed to push the communists across the Yalu River back into China. Information must have been relayed to them, assuring that the Yalu bridges would continue to enjoy sanctuary and their bases would be left intact. They knew they could swarm across the Yalu River without having to worry about bombers hitting their Manchurian supply lines. When MacArthur began to threaten Chinese communism (his aim was to destroy Communist China using nuclear weapons), President Truman ordered him to return the communist territory in North Korea. MacArthur refused to obey this order, which he considered treason, although he was a freemason of the 32 nd degree (Manila Lodge No. The United States was always able to look after "its" interests, even if the communists disagreed. Stalin was not happy about Iran, when negotiating with Roosevelt in November-December 1943. Roosevelt then explained to him that the interests of Washington demanded that the Red Army withdraw from Iran six months after the end of the war. Stalin delayed this until the spring of 1946, when President Truman presented him with an ultimatum, threatening to use force if necessary. A similar ultimatum could well have been presented to the Kremlin concerning Eastern Europe and the Baltic States, but Wall Street wished otherwise. If the masonic interests demanded it, various states were "delivered" to the communists. When the anti-communist General George 484 Patton, against the will of the White House, pushed into Czechoslovakia, Truman was furious and demanded immediate withdrawal of American troops from that country. Large numbers of frightened Czech intellectuals watched the American troops as they withdrew before the onslaught of the Red Army. He was subsequently murdered in West Germany by an American special agent (Spotlight, 22 October 1979). The British Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery also acted against the will of Truman and Eisenhower by saving Denmark from the Red Army in the spring of 1945. The red resistance movement had already seized control of the coastal town of Bogense. With the tacit support of the Danes and Montgomery, the Germans quickly finished off the reds, and then surrendered to the British on 5 May 1945.
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Many of them muscle relaxant name brands purchase skelaxin on line, who were apparently political enemies muscle relaxant ibuprofen cost of skelaxin, were in fact allies behind 308 the scenes spasms muscle twitching discount skelaxin online. They were all members of the masonic brotherhood Veliky Vostok (Grand Orient), which was founded in St. In 1916, the popular lawyer Alexander Kerensky was made chairman of the Supreme Council. When the British royal family wished to invite the tsar family to come to England, masonic forces headed by Jacob Schiff made sure that the threat of a general strike would keep the tsar family out of Britain. Large numbers of documents concerning the atrocities committed by freemasons were however removed from the archives and destroyed. Alexander Kerensky, who was a member of the provisional masonic government, ordered the destruction of all objectionable documents, including an edition of "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion". Kerensky also received money from Germany, another reason why the Provisional Government was unwilling to prosecute the bolsheviks. Kerensky had Trotsky temporarily incarcerated, to prevent him from talking too much. On 24 March 1917, the New York Times reported that the banker Jacob Schiff had paid tribute to Lev Trotsky: "He was the person we had been hoping and striving for through all these years. The Red Guards were subsequently made to wear a medallion around their necks, bearing the image of Trotsky (Grigori Bostunich, "Freemasonry and the French Revolution", Moscow 1995, p. International bankers from Great Britain, the United States, Russia, Germany and France met in Sweden in the summer of 1917. This money came from Jacob Schiff, as confirmed by the American Congressional documents of 2 September 1919. An alleged "Red Cross delegation" travelled to Russia in August 1917 with the intention of discussing with the bolshevik leaders the final details of a red assumption of power. Of the members of this delegation, seven were doctors, the others bankers from New York, among them John P. Thomson, the head of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, who handed over to the bolsheviks at least one million dollars (The Washington Post, 2 February 1918). The bankers were hiding behind this delegation their real intent, which included handing over large sums of money to the bolsheviks (Antony Sutton, "Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution", Morley, 1981, p. The International Masonic Congress held at Hotel du Grand Orient de France in Paris on 28-30 June 1917, emphasized that Russia constituted an obstacle to the masonic world government. This gave 310 the Grand Orient licence to destroy Russia with the help of communism. After the bolshevik assumption of power it became vital to bar criticism against the red bandits. Colonel Edward Mandel House, influential presidential adviser and high-ranking freemason, sent a cable to President Wilson on 28 November 1917, urging him to downplay any criticism of the bolsheviks: "It is of vital importance that this kind of criticism is silenced. Deliveries of arms to the enemies of the bolsheviks (the White Guards) were stopped, as engineered by the arms dealer Basil Zaharoff. In April 1919, the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office published a white book on Soviet Russia, which stated that the bolshevik seizure of power had been organized and financed by international bankers. It was pointed out that Chinese criminals were imported to co-operate with the chekists in terrorizing the Russian people. The white book was hastily withdrawn and replaced with a shortened version lacking this sensitive information (Dr Kitty Little, "Subversive Infiltrators into Westminster and Whitehall: Promotion of a Federal Europe", Jamai, 1995, p. Lenin was a member of the most malicious lodge of the Grand Orient, the Nine Sisters, in 1914 (Soviet Analyst, June, 2002, p. The French freemason Rozie of the Jean Georges lodge in Paris hailed his masonic brothers Lenin and Trotsky (La Libre Parole, 6 February 1918). At the Fourth Comintern Congress, Lev Trotsky announced that the comrades Zinoviev, Radek and Bukharin were freemasons (Viktor Brachev, "The Freemasons in Russia", St. Even before the seizure of power in October 1917 Zinoviev, Trotsky and Kamenev paid a visit to the lodge the Students of St. Petersburg (Yuri Begunov, "The Secret Powers in Russian History", Moscow, 2000, p. Until the late 1990s, a particularly dark secret concerning Lenin was kept well hidden, as is shown by the correspondence between Lenin and his party comrade and freemason brother Grigori Zinoviev (Radomyslsky). It is a wonderful place to live where we will be fine, and nothing will disturb our love. Perhaps this will enable us to understand why the freemasons are such willing advocates of homosexual liberation. Ilya Ulyanov married the Jewess Maria Blank, whose father Moisha Blank had been charged with a number of crimes, among them fraud and blackmail. Inbreeding probably played a very large part in making Vladimir Ulyanov-Lenin such a perverted man. He had an enormous, congenital aggressiveness and extensive brain damage, suffered a number of nervous breakdowns, and was bisexual. The freemason Leonid Krasin acted as an intermediary in procuring money for the Grand Orient in Paris. He managed to find suitable receivers, who bought up the gold and antiques the bolsheviks had expropriated from the tsar. He was in contact with the freemason Dmitri Rubinstein, who acted as grand receiver. The freemason Yuri Lomo313 nosov had previously acted as deputy minister of transport in the tsarist government. The Soviet freemasons wished to transform Comintern into a masonic organization in order to pose a more effective threat to the rest of the world. According to the Russian historian Vasili Ivanov, Russia was transformed, as early as the beginning of the 1930s, into a typically masonic nation, which clearly showed freemasonry and socialism to be branches on the same dark tree. Vasili Ivanov described the situation as follows: "In order for the masonic ideals to triumph, it was necessary to k i l l the soul of the Russian people, remove the people from its God, obliterate its national character, trample its mighty history in the dirt, dull the intellect of its young generation and raise a new kind of people without a God or a native country: two-legged wild creatures who, after being trained, would obediently place themselves in the masonic cage. In October 1920, Libre Parole published information about the Grand Orient council meeting of 20 December 1919, held at rue Cadet. Officially, the leadership of the lodge wished to keep a straight face and show an anti-bolshevist attitude. The magazine reported the lodge brother Millet admitting that the Grand Orient enthusiastically welcomed the bolshevik seizure of power, stating that thanks to the bolsheviks the Grand Orient was able to rebuild the temple, the lodge building in rue Cadet. Brother Giuarte stressed, without specifying, that the bolshevik movement, through critical periods, had done enormous service to the Grand Orient. The Portuguese Grand Master, Sebastiao Magalhaes de Limas, was equally friendly towards the bolshevik republic in Russia. Brother Lankin of Paris admitted there were bolsheviks among the members of the Grand Orient of France, and that the lodge aided the bolsheviks in their worldwide activities. The international freemasonry eagerly followed the bolshevik destruction of a flourishing country and its national culture. The Grand Orient helped spread lies about the situation in Russia before the bolsheviks came to power, claiming that the country was in a miserable state and that things were now constantly getting better in all respects.
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Community surveys will identify the children with diarrhoea muscle relaxant cephalon generic skelaxin 400mg without prescription, and the possible causes muscle relaxant drugs z buy skelaxin 400mg with amex. Data source Graphs Actions to muscle relaxant radiolab discount 400 mg skelaxin free shipping consider Other possible indicators Name Definition Calculation Lower Respiratory Tract infection rate (< 5 years) the proportion of children presenting who have a respiratory rate of over 50 per minute Numerator: Denominator: Children presenting with respiratory rate > 50 breaths per minute Headcount < 5 years Rationale Lower respiratory tract infection is a common killer of children and these deaths can be prevented if the child is given early and appropriate antibiotics. Clinic register Line graph (with other childhood diseases such as Diarrhoea, measles etc) High or rising rates of lower respiratory infection mean that there may be some environmental problem affecting the children in their homes. This may be smoke from fires, poor ventilation, rising damp from poor housing or just long, hard and wet winters. Check use of drugs -Number of cases receiving antibiotics for respiratory symptoms should only be these. In urban areas, the air pollution index may be linked to increased respiratory infection. Health District: Child Health: Incidence rate of Children with Diarrhoea and Acute Chest Infection 1999 1. Targets can be set that aim at reducing the summer peak to an incidence rate (new cases) of below 20 children per 1000 per month. Low repeat visits means that there may be problems with the acceptability of the services provided and the attitude of staff needs to be investigated. This depends largely on delivery infrastructure, access to transport and customs of the population. The percentage of deliveries from the catchment population taking place in this reporting health facility under supervision of trained personnel. Name Targets Definition Calculation Rationale Data source Common problems the proportion of deliveries done by the institution is an indicator of accessibility and acceptability of the health services. This causes double reporting for they are reported from the place where they actually deliver as well. As most deliveries occur in hospitals, this indicator is really only valid at the district level where all deliveries in all institutions are added together and compared to all expected deliveries in the district population. Ambulance turnaround time shows how long it takes for a facility to be served by ambulance services and can be monitored and improved. Name Target Definition Calculation Low Birth Weight rate Less than 10% of all live births should be under 2,500 grams. This could be combined with other nutrition indicators eg % children < 3rd centile, children not gaining. High levels of low birth weight mean poor nutritional status of mothers, which needs comprehensive and integrated nutrition programmes and intensive education. It occurs in pockets around the country especially where mothers tend to deliver at home. The pockets of neonatal tetanus need to be identified, immunisation coverage increased and delivery practices researched and corrected. Fertile women are approximately 20% of total population Cumulative coverage graph of women years protected Graphs Name Actions to consider Couple (Women) Year protection rate Low coverage means that unwanted pregnancies will occur. Increasing availability of contraceptives to teenagers, working women and other high risk groups. Termination of pregnancy referral rate is an indicator of failed contraception leading to unwanted pregnancies. Acceptor rate is a useless indicator which is not much used as it does not measure protection of women. Some patients will have their cards issued at your clinic, and their partners will go elsewhere for treatment. A low rate (< 80%) means that clients have not had adequate health education about the need to get their partners treated. This needs clear messages to be taken into the community, particularly amongst the high risk groups. Numerator: Denominator: Rationale Data source Actions to consider Other possible indicators Number of clients who have mental health problems Total headcount this shows the proportion of mental health patients in the facility. Registers If this is high or low, the definition of "mental health patient" needs to be reviewed and health workers educated accordingly. Incidence of new cases shows the incidence Referral rates show how many clients are considered to be beyond the scope of the facility % Patients seen by specialist psychiatric services shows how much of the mental health services have been decentralised to local nurses. Percentage of clients attending the clinic for chronic conditions Definition Name Calculation Chronic care case load Numerator: Number of clients with chronic illnesses Denominator: Headcount > 5 years (chronic illness in young children is rare) Rationale this shows the proportion of chronic care patients in the facility. Low chronic care caseloads show that the facility is not providing comprehensive care. High case loads will need careful assessment of type of medicines used, as chronic care is very expensive, and costs can be reduced by rational prescribing. Incidence of new cases put on treatment shows the incidence of new clients coming for treatment Population rates for specific chronic diseases (eg Psychiatric illness, Diabetes, Hypertension, Epilepsy) will show the proportion of chronic diseases coming for treatment. Proportion of each chronic disease coming for treatment is clearly shown in a pie diagram. Proportion of facilities stocking chronic medicines will show where chronic diseases can (or can not) be treated. Referral rates show how many clients are considered to be beyond the scope of the facility. Numerator: Denominator: Rationale Data source Actions to consider Other possible indicators Number of referrals to doctor Total headcount To assess the proportion of cases seen by doctors. Tick registers, other registers or tally sheets A high referral rate means that nurses are not being used to their full potential, and this is very expensive. Name Definition Calculation Health Education session rate Proportion of population served by health education messages. Numerator: Denominator: Number of health education sessions Total population served Rationale Normal range Common problems this is a crude indicator of intensity of health education efforts. Health education sessions should = headcount plus community based health promotion. An individual patient interaction is not considered a health education session for this purpose.
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Physiological reactivity and the stability of physiological response systems vary from person to muscle relaxant erectile dysfunction buy skelaxin 400 mg otc person spasms right side of back buy discount skelaxin 400 mg online. Some are person variables muscle relaxant vocal cord purchase 400mg skelaxin, such as age and medication, as well as psychological factors, such as being self-conscious or fearing loss of control. Other important considerations are situational variables, such as extraneous noise and electrical activity. Biological Assessment Procedures 99 Getting Help Only one in five people who needs treatment actually gets it. You will get care more promptly and make better treatment choices if you understand your problems. One consideration is the extent to which your experiences resemble the formal diagnostic terms used by mental health professionals. This primer for consumers of mental health services covers many types of adult and childhood disorders. Each chapter includes a concise, readable description of the typical symptoms and course of the disorder, followed by a discussion designed to help you decide whether your problems warrant professional help ("Am I okay Finally, the authors review treatment options and where to go for help for each of the problems. Even after they recognize the presence of a serious problem, some people are reluctant to seek help; they fear there is a stigma attached to "mental problems" despite the fact that seeking therapy is now commonplace. We hope that you will not allow these distorted views to delay or interfere with efforts to improve your life. If you have concerns about this issue, it may help to read about stigma and mental health, a problem that has been addressed by Rosalynn Carter, a leading advocate on behalf of people with mental disorders and wife of former president Jimmy Carter. Her book, Helping Someone with Mental Illness, contains an excellent discussion of these issues. The Carter Center is actively involved in issues that affect public policies regarding mental disorders. It also contains information relevant to the struggle to correct biased and inaccurate views of people with mental disorders. We can all help eliminate discrimination against those who suffer from (or have recovered from) mental disorders. This site includes, for example, a sample letter that can be mailed to legislators as well as instructions that encourage people to report media events that depict mental disorders in an unfair light. People will find it easier to seek help when they no longer need to worry about the potential effects of distorted, negative views of their problems. It is based on a categorical approach to classification and typically employs specific inclusion and exclusion criteria to define each disorder. Interviews, observations, and tests are among the most frequently used assessment procedures. In fact, most features of mental disorders, such as anxiety and depressed mood, are dimensional in nature. Research studies have found relatively little evidence to support the validity of projective tests, and their continued use is controversial. Biological assessment procedures do not yet have diagnostic value in clinical situations, except for the purpose of ruling out certain conditions, such as brain tumors and vascular disease. The fact that two people agree on assigning a specific diagnosis does not necessarily imply that it is meaningful. No unique patterns of brain structure or function have been found that consistently and accurately identify people with specific mental disorders. In this chapter we will consider emotional disorders that involve prolonged periods of severe depression. Beyond relatively short-lived feelings of grief and sorrow, prolonged sadness can grow into something much more debilitating. Overview If one measures disability in terms of years lived with severe impairments, major depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide (Moussavi et al. Younger generations are experiencing higher rates of depression than their predecessors, and those who become depressed are doing so at an earlier age. Psychopathologists use several terms to describe problems that are associated with emotional response systems. This language can become confusing because most of us already use these words in our everyday vocabulary. Thus, we must define these terms as they are used in psychopathology so that our discussion will be clear. Emotion refers to a state of arousal that is defined by subjective states of feeling, such as sadness, anger, and disgust. Emotions are often accompanied by physiological changes, such as changes in heart rate and respiration rate. Affect refers to the pattern of observable behaviors, such as facial expression, that are associated with these subjective feelings. People also express affect through the pitch of their voices and with their hand and body movements. The disorders discussed in this chapter are primarily associated with two specific moods: depression and elation. Depression can refer either to a mood or to a clinical syndrome, a combination of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms. The feelings associated with a depressed mood often include disappointment and despair. No one has been able to identify the exact point at which "feeling down or blue" crosses a line and becomes depression. The transition has been described by Andrew Solomon (2001) in the Noonday Demon, an eloquent book in which he documents his own struggles with depression: Depression starts out insipid, fogs the days into a dull color, weakens ordinary actions until their clear shapes are obscured by the effort they require, leaves you tired and bored and self-obsessed-but you get through all that. In the syndrome of depression, which is also called clinical depression, a depressed mood is accompanied by several other symptoms, such as fatigue, loss of energy, difficulty in sleeping, and changes in appetite. Clinical depression also involves a variety of changes in thinking and overt behavior. The person may experience cognitive symptoms, such as extreme guilt, feelings of worthlessness, concentration problems, and thoughts of suicide. Throughout the rest of this chapter, we will use the term depression to refer to the clinical syndrome rather than the mood. Mania, the flip side of depression, also involves a disturbance in mood that is accompanied by additional symptoms. Mania is, therefore, a syndrome in the same sense that clinical depression is a syndrome. The following case studies illustrate the way that numerous symptoms combine to form syndromes that are used to define mood disorders. They also provide examples of the two primary types of mood disorders: (1) those in which the person experiences only episodes of depression, known as unipolar mood disorder; and (2) those in which the person experiences episodes of mania as well as depression, known as bipolar mood disorder. A small number of patients have only manic episodes with no evidence of depression; they are included in the bipolar category. Inspiteofherapparent success, she was plagued by doubts aboutherownabilitiesandwasconvinced that she was unworthy of her promotion.
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The results of this section indicated that teachers felt that principals were generally supportive of new teachers (M = 3 yawning spasms purchase 400 mg skelaxin with visa. These motivators include challenges spasms perineum purchase skelaxin uk, rewards spasms in right side of abdomen skelaxin 400mg fast delivery, and monetary incentives that may or may not motivate a teacher. Descriptive statistics on this last section of quantitative data indicated that teachers felt rewarded from within for teaching their students (M = 4. The question that yielded the lowest mean was a reversed question in polarity (M = 3. Table 9 Descriptive Statistics of Mean Sub-scores (N=212) Area Principal Leadership Teacher Job Satisfaction Teacher Mentoring Mean 3. Research Question 2 stated: Is there a difference in the levels of teacher job satisfaction between teachers of state-measured subject areas and teachers of non-state- measured subject areas An independent t-test was calculated comparing the mean scores of teacher job satisfaction for state-measured subject area teachers and non-state- measured subject area teachers. Based upon the results displayed in Table 10, there is not a significant difference between the two groups of teachers in terms of job satisfaction t (210) = 1. Table 10 State-measured and Non-state-measured Teacher Job Satisfaction Factor Teacher Job Satisfaction Teacher Group Non-statemeasured Statemeasured 79 3. A significant regression equation was found as indicated in the regression table, F (2, 209) = 8. The results indicate that the intent to remain in the field is predicted by teacher mentoring and teacher job satisfaction. Teacher job satisfaction was a positive predictor, and teacher mentoring was a negative predictor. Table 11 Regression Coefficients for Predicting Intent to Remain Unstandardized Coefficients Model (Constant) Teacher Job Satisfaction Teacher Mentoring -. Self-reported factors were analyzed based upon results obtained from the qualitative portion of the survey instrument. Teachers who participated in this study were employed in public schools in a southern state serving students in grades K-12. Major Findings Based on the analysis of descriptive statistics, teacher perceptions indicated that administrators place more pressure on state-measured subject area teachers than non statemeasured subject area teachers. Although the response to this question was not overwhelming, over half of teacher responses indicated that they felt administrators placed more pressure on teachers of state-measured subject areas. This finding was particularly interesting since the majority of teachers who participated in the study were non-state-measured subject area teachers. This indicated that all teachers who participated in the study were aware of the demands placed on those teachers who are responsible for teaching subjects where standardized tests are attached. Upon examining teacher intention, most teachers indicated that they plan to remain in the teaching profession for the coming school year. Again, this could be due to the fact that the majority of those surveyed were non-state-measured subject area teachers. Another interesting finding was that when looking at teacher job satisfaction, most teachers agreed that the pressure of high-stakes testing lends itself to burnout in this profession. Kohn (2000) noted that many teachers are leaving the teaching profession because of test pressures and accountability placed on teachers. Upon analyzing teacher mentoring factors, it was determined that principals were generally supportive of new teachers. This was an interesting finding because previous research contended that novice teachers often cited lack of administrative support as their primary reason for leaving the teaching profession (Robertson, Hancock, & Allen, 2006). In determining which factors teachers felt strongly about when responding to intrinsic motivators, teachers specified that teaching at their current grade level was rewarding to them. Ryan and Deci (2000) indicated that in order for a person to be intrinsically motivated, that person must be motivated by challenges or the excitement of doing something, not simply based on external rewards. According to the data obtained in this study, teachers appeared to be more motivated by the desire to accomplish goals than they were to receive rewards. This finding indicated that principal leadership plays a critical role in the retention of teachers, and it suggests that administrators should be aware of how their leadership style and behaviors impact the teachers that they lead. T-test data were used to test Hypothesis 2 with regard to Research Question 2, which asked if there was a difference in the levels of teacher job satisfaction between teachers of state-measured subject areas and teachers of non-state-measured subject areas. Upon examining the Independent Samples Test, it was determined that there was no statistically significant difference between statemeasured and non-state-measured teachers when examining teacher job satisfaction. This finding indicated that both non- state-measured teachers and state-measured subject area teachers expressed similar perceptions with regard to teacher job satisfaction and their intent to remain in the profession. Consistent with previous literature on teacher retention, when the combination of factors such as mentoring and induction programs were employed in schools, teachers became more satisfied with the profession, and retention improved (Ingersoll, 2012). The qualitative component of the survey instrument provided additional insight into teacher perceptions. The five open-ended questions asked teachers which factors contributed greatest to teacher retention and attrition, had they ever left the teaching profession, their primary reason for becoming a teacher, and which factors bothered them most during a typical school day. With almost all participants responding to these questions, responses indicated that teachers were passionate about answering this section of the survey. Most teachers stated they remained in education because of student success, enjoyment of their subject area, and the art of teaching. Teachers in this study indicated that they remained in this profession because they were motivated to teach children. This finding suggested that teachers rely heavily on administrative support in providing an environment where teachers experience high levels of job satisfaction. When asked whether they had ever left the teaching profession, 21% of teachers surveyed reported that they had left and returned to the teaching profession. Most of the teachers reported leaving for personal reasons and lack of job satisfaction. Upon examining job satisfaction, they stated that teachers were required to perform many extra duties in addition to their primary role of teaching students. Responses revealed a strong indication that teachers felt overwhelmed in fulfilling their daily responsibilities to the extent that they were willing to leave the teaching profession altogether. As stated in previous research, the emphasis on better classroom practices may be a current focus in education, but this will only be beneficial to schools if they are able to recruit and retain strong teachers (Cochran-Smith, Cannady, McFachern, Piazza, Power, & Ryan, 2011). When teachers were asked about the primary reason for becoming a teacher, most indicated that they were in this profession for the love of students and teaching, strongly confirming previous research in this area. Curtis (2012) found that 71% of teachers entered the profession for the enjoyment of teaching, 70% enjoyed the subject, and 66% enjoyed working with children. Several of the respondents commented on their love for teaching, enjoyment of their particular subject area, and working with students. When teachers feel connected to their teaching responsibilities and passionate about what they are doing, they may form a channel that improves retention rates among educators, especially those who teach math (Curtis, 2012). When asked what bothered them most about the teaching profession, teachers reported: student discipline, paperwork, and pressures of state-testing as the three most significant factors. Teachers felt that student discipline limited the effectiveness of their teaching due to the many behavioral issues that they often encountered. Teachers also believed that if they could just focus on teaching and less on paperwork, they would be more effective. The pressure of state-testing was frequently noted as a factor that bothered teachers.