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No association was found between arsenic exposure and risk of spontaneous abortion womens health 5 minute breakfast purchase raloxifene 60mg mastercard. Since cord blood was significantly lower than maternal blood in arsenic pregnancy headaches buy raloxifene 60 mg low cost, the investigators postulated that the placenta prevented part of the maternal arsenic from entering the fetal body menstrual blood color buy raloxifene with a visa. However, their data also suggested that the barrier function of the placenta may decrease with increasing maternal concentrations and that maternal exposure to environmental levels of arsenic may be associated with impaired fetal growth. Exposure to arsenic was calculated from information from an existing database of well-water arsenic concentrations. The study did not show an association between maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and adverse birth outcomes but did find a two-fold increased risk for neonatal death for arsenic above the Chinese drinking water standard of 50 µg/L. In Antofagasta, arsenic levels in groundwater ranged from 97 µg/L during the 1950s, then up to 860 µg/L during the period 1958 1970, then dropping to 110 µg/L by 1979 and finally to 40 µg/L by 1996. The results suggested that exposure to inorganic arsenic may be associated with an increase in infant mortality after adjustment for known confounders. All infant mortality endpoints (late fetal, neonatal, and postnatal) showed a dramatic decrease over time, with decreasing arsenic concentration in drinking water. About 400 infants were in each group (424 in the moderate group; 420 in the low group). Investigators found that, after adjusting for confounders, moderate arsenic exposures during pregnancy from drinking water were associated with a reduction in birth weight. Furthermore, arsenic exposure significantly negatively correlated with interleukin-7 and lactoferrin in breast milk. There is increasing evidence that early-life arsenic exposures affecting fetal and infant growth, mainly by epigenetic effects, may cause chronic disease later in life (Godfrey and Barker, 2000; Langley-Evans, 2006). Arsenic has been shown to both affect fetal growth and to cause epigenetic effects (Vahter, 2007; Vahter, 2008). In this study, maternal urine was measured at weeks 24 28 of gestation for inorganic arsenic content (Koestler et al. This suggests that low-level inorganic arsenic exposure has an impact on the epigenome as urinary inorganic arsenic ranged only from 0. A related study that quantified gene expression in placental tissue, but with maternal drinking water ranging from 0. The conclusions from this study were that there was a suggestion that even low inorganic arsenic exposure levels may affect birth weight. In a study of 229 women urine was sampled at a 6 month pre-natal visit along with a 3 day dietary record and a sample of tap water for arsenic testing (Gilbert-Diamond et al. Both rate of rice consumption and tap water arsenic were significantly correlated with both total urinary arsenic and with urinary inorganic arsenic. Additionally, brain growth in children is about 90% that of an adult by 6 year of age. Perturbation from exposure to exogenous chemicals assessment during this period of rapid development may lead to later adverse health effects. Infants appear to have lower exposure to arsenic during the breast-feeding period because the passage of arsenic through the mammary gland is limited. Intellectual function was measured using tests drawn from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Results were assessed by summing related items into Verbal, Performance, and Full-Scale raw scores. After adjustment for confounding factors, a dose-related inverse effect of arsenic exposure was seen on both Performance and Full-Scale subset scores; for both end points, exposure to 50 g/L resulted in statistically significant differences relative to the lowest exposure group (< 5. In this case, the children were categorized into the following quartiles based on water arsenic concentration: 0. After adjustment for water manganese (Mn), blood lead, and socio-demographic features known to contribute to intellectual function, water derived arsenic was significantly negatively associated with both Performance and Processing speed raw scores. Analyses of the doseresponse showed that compared to the first quartile, those in the second and third categories had significantly lower Performance raw scores. Those in the fourth category had marginally significantly lower Full-Scale and Processing Speed raw scores. The investigators assessed the effects of pre- and postnatal arsenic exposure on development of 2,112 children at 18 months of age. They found no significant effects of any arsenic exposures on any child development measurement at 18 months. Arsenic exposure was measured by arsenic urine concentrations and an assessment of lifetime exposure to arsenic in drinking water. The investigators found significant associations between current urinary arsenic concentrations and reductions in scores of tests of vocabulary, object assembly, and picture completion; the magnitude of the reductions varied between 12% and 21%. In this cohort, the average lifetime peak arsenic concentration in well water was 147 µg/L. A large population-based cohort study looked at the effects of in utero arsenic exposure via drinking water on infant development at 7 months of age. This study was conducted in an area with a high prevalence of arsenic-contaminated tube wells in rural Bangladesh (Tofail et al. However, it is possible that effects other than those measured occurred, or that effects may become apparent at a later age since most children were breast-fed and thus not exposed to high levels of arsenic-contaminated water. May 13, 2014 Arsenic in Rice and Rice Products Risk Assessment Report (Revised March 2016) 249 Appendix 9 In the Wang et al. Criteria for Causal Determination Descriptor Causal Determination Considerations Evidence is sufficient to conclude that there is a causal relationship with relevant pollutant exposures. That is, the pollutant has been shown to result in health effects in studies in which chance, bias, and confounding could be ruled Causal out with reasonable confidence. For example: a) controlled human exposure relationship studies that demonstrate consistent effects; or b) observational studies that cannot be explained by plausible alternatives or are supported by other lines of evidence. Evidence is sufficient to conclude that a causal relationship is likely to exist with relevant pollutant exposures, but important uncertainties remain. That is, the pollutant has been shown to result in health effects in studies in which chance and bias can be ruled out with reasonable confidence but potential issues remain. For Likely to be example: a) observational studies show an association, but copollutant exposures a causal are difficult to address and/or other lines of evidence (controlled human exposure, relationship animal, or mode of action information) are limited or inconsistent; or b) animal toxicological evidence from multiple studies from different laboratories that demonstrate effects, but limited or no human data are available. May 13, 2014 Arsenic in Rice and Rice Products Risk Assessment Report (Revised March 2016) 250 Appendix 9 Causal Determination Considerations Evidence is suggestive of a causal relationship with relevant pollutant exposures, but is limited. Inadequate Evidence is inadequate to determine that a causal relationship exists with relevant pollutant exposures. The available studies are of insufficient quanity, quality, to infer a consistency, or statistical power to permit a conclusion regarding the presence or causal relationship absence of an effect. Not likely Evidence is suggestive of no causal relationship with relevant pollutant exposures. Several adequate studies, covering the full range of levels of exposure to be a that human beings are known to encounter and considering at-risk populations, causal relationship are mutually consistent in not showing an effect at any level of exposure. Please note, this is not meant to be an exhaustive literature review of all papers published during this time period. The stopping rules are grounded in general principles regarding what constitutes both pivotal new evidence and a reasonable period of delay. The critical issue we sought to answer in conducting these literature review updates is whether the more recent publications described below fundamentally call into question the conclusion of our risk assessment.
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The first scenario is also the scenario for classic artificial intelligence software breast cancer tattoo ideas proven raloxifene 60 mg. The right thing is frequently a monolithic piece of software menstruation timeline order raloxifene 60 mg without prescription, but for no reason other than that the right thing is often designed monolithically breast cancer uggs order raloxifene. The lesson to be learned from this is that it is often undesirable to go for the right thing first. It is better to get half of the right thing available so that it spreads like a virus. Once people are hooked on it, take the time to improve it to 90% of the right thing. E-2 National Science Board Science & Engineering Indicators 2018 F 1 Front Matter Table of Contents About Science and Engineering Indicators. F-13 National Science Board Science & Engineering Indicators 2018 F 2 Front Matter About Science and Engineering Indicators Science and Engineering Indicators (Indicators) is a congressionally mandated report that provides high-quality quantitative information on the U. The report employs a variety of presentation styles-such as narrative text, data tables and figures-to make the data accessible to readers with different information needs and different information-processing preferences. The indicators in this report are intended to contribute to an understanding of the current environment and to inform the development of future policies. It is used by readers for a variety of purposes, and they have different views about which indicators are the most significant for different purposes. Indicators includes detailed information about measurement to help readers understand what the reported measures mean, how the data were collected, and how to use the data appropriately. The data can be examined in various ways, and the report generally emphasizes neutral, factual description. The Methodology Appendix of the report provides detailed information on the methodological, statistical, and data-quality criteria used for the report. Indicators 2018 Parts Indicators 2018 includes an Overview and eight chapters that follow a generally consistent pattern. The chapter titles are as follows: · · · · · · · · Elementary and Secondary Mathematics and Science Education Higher Education in Science and Engineering Science and Engineering Labor Force Research and Development: U. Trends and International Comparisons Academic Research and Development Industry, Technology, and the Global Marketplace Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Understanding Invention, Knowledge Transfer, and Innovation In addition, Indicators 2018 includes an online data tool, State Indicators, which provides state-level data on science and technology (S&T); and a Digest, comprising a small selection of important indicators from the main report. The Digest the Science and Engineering Indicators 2018 Digest is a condensed version of the report comprising a small selection of important indicators. The Digest draws attention to important trends and data points and introduces readers to the data resources available in the main report and associated products. S&E Enterprise in a Global Context the Overview highlights information from Science and Engineering Indicators that offers insights into the global landscape and presents broadly comparable data to examine indicators across regions, countries, and economies. Like the Digest, the Overview is intended to serve readers with varying levels of expertise. Because the Overview relies heavily on figures, it is welladapted for use in developing presentations. Like the core chapters, the Overview strives for a descriptive synthesis and a balanced tone, and it does not take or suggest policy positions. The Eight Core Chapters Each chapter consists of highlights; introduction (chapter overview and chapter organization); a narrative synthesis of data and related contextual information; sidebars, data tables, and figures; conclusion; notes; glossary; and references. It situates the topic in the context of major concepts, terms, and developments relevant to the data reported. The introduction includes a brief narrative account of the logical flow of topics within the chapter. The chapter narrative is a descriptive synthesis that brings together significant findings. It is also a balanced presentation of contextual information that is useful for interpreting the findings. The narrative is designed to draw attention to major points and enable readers to readily comprehend a large amount of information. As a balanced presentation, the narrative aims to include appropriate caveats and context to convey appropriate uses of the data and provide contextual information within which the data may be interpreted by users with a range of science policy views. Figures provide visually compelling representations of major findings discussed in the text. Figures also enable readers to test narrative interpretations offered in the text by examining the data themselves. Sidebars discuss interesting recent developments in the field, more speculative information than is presented in the regular chapter narrative, or other special topics. An appendix of tabular data provides the most complete presentation of quantitative data, without contextual information or interpretive aids. It offers a perspective on important trends but stops short of definitive pronouncements about either likely future trends or policy implications. Conclusions avoid factual syntheses that suggest distinctive or controversial viewpoints. Information that augments points of discussion in the text is presented as endnotes. National Science Board Science & Engineering Indicators 2018 F 4 Front Matter Glossary. Indicators includes references to data sources cited in the text, emphasizing national or internationally comparable data. The report does not attempt to review the analytic literature on a topic or summarize the social science or policy perspectives that might be brought to bear on it. References to that literature are included where they help to explain the basis for statements in the text. State Indicators Data Tool this online tool provides data to assess trends in S&T-related activities in states that can be used by people involved in state-level policy making, journalists, and interested citizens. State-level indicators to call attention to state performance in S&T and foster consideration of state-level activities in this area. Data for the indicators are graphically displayed in tables that detail state data, in U. The Board submits this biennial report "on indicators of the state of science and engineering in the United States" as required by 42 U. The Indicators series provides a broad base of unbiased, quantitative information about the U. For the 2018 edition, the Board has introduced a new chapter on "Invention, Knowledge Transfer, and Innovation. The Board hopes that the Administration and Congress find the information and analysis in the report useful and timely for the planning of national priorities, policies, and programs in science and technology. Zuber Chair National Science Board National Science Board Science & Engineering Indicators 2018 F 6 Front Matter National Science Board Maria T. Zuber, Chair, Vice President for Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Diane L. Souvaine, Vice Chair, Senior Advisor to the Provost, Professor of Computer Science and Mathematics, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts John L.
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Sometimes referred to breast cancer awareness quotes cheap 60mg raloxifene with mastercard as the "sub-baccalaureate menstruation not stopping buy raloxifene cheap online," "career and technical women's health center of grand rapids buy 60mg raloxifene with visa," or the "skilled technical" workforce (as used herein), these workers employ significant levels of S&E and technical knowledge in their jobs and are a considerable segment of the overall S&E workforce in the United States. About 13% of skilled technical workers in these occupations were black, 10% were Hispanic, 4% were Asian, and about 11% were foreign born. The corresponding shares among college-educated workers in S&E or S&E-related occupations were 7% black, 6% Hispanic, 17% Asian, and 24% foreign born. Skilled technical workers were employed in large numbers in computer occupations and health occupations. In comparison, 47% of the collegeeducated workers in S&E occupations held computer jobs; software developers represented the largest subset (41%) of these workers. Health occupations accounted for the largest subset of workers in S&E-related occupations (74%). For example, about 60% of health workers at the sub-baccalaureate degree level of educational attainment were employed as health technicians or technologists; only 13% of health workers with a college degree were employed in these occupations. Relative to other occupations, S&E and S&E-related occupations provide sound employment for workers at the subbaccalaureate degree level. In 2015, the median earnings of skilled technical workers in S&E ($60,000) or S&E-related ($45,000) occupations were significantly higher than the median earnings in other occupations ($29,000). The unemployment rate among these workers in S&E (4%) or S&E-related (3%) occupations was lower than the rate in other occupations (7%). Among skilled technical workers in S&E or S&E-related occupations, median salaries ranged from about $35,000 among health care technicians and technologists to $50,000 among S&E technicians, $51,000 among registered nurses, and $60,000 among computer workers. The unemployment rate ranged from 2% among registered nurses to 3% among health care technicians and 4% among computer workers and S&E technicians. The employment outcomes of recent graduates are an important indicator of current changes in labor market conditions. Compared with experienced S&E workers, recent S&E graduates more often bring new ideas and newly acquired skills to the labor market. General Labor Market Indicators for Recent Graduates Table 3-14 summarizes some basic labor market statistics in 2015 for recent recipients of S&E degrees. Recent here is defined as between 1 and 5 years since receiving the highest degree. A useful but more subjective indicator of labor market conditions for recent graduates is the proportion who report that their job is unrelated to their highest degree field because a job in their degree field was not available. When asked about the most important reason for working out of field, the reasons most frequently cited by recent S&E degree recipients were lack of a suitable job in their degree field (cited by 32% of those working out of field), followed by pay and promotion opportunities (18%) and change in career or professional interests (14%). The responses provided by all S&E highest degree holders working out of field (regardless of graduation year) were similar, but the factors were ranked differently: the most frequently cited reasons were pay and promotion opportunities (cited by 24% of all S&E highest degree holders working out of field), followed by change in career or professional interests (19%) and lack of a suitable job in their degree field (19%). No single standard measure satisfactorily reflects the state of the doctoral S&E labor market. Although a doctorate can expand career and salary opportunities, these opportunities may come at the price of many years of lost labor market earnings due to the number of years required to earn the degree. Data for 2001 and 2006 include graduates from 12 months to 36 months prior to the survey reference date; data for 2003, 2008, and 2010 include graduates from 15 months to 36 months prior to the survey reference date; data for 2013 and 2015 include graduates from 19 months to 36 months prior to the survey reference date. Although many science doctorate recipients aspire to tenure-track academic appointments (Sauermann and Roach 2012), most end up working in other types of positions and sectors. In the social sciences, for example, a relatively large percentage of individuals obtain a tenured or tenure-track position within 3 years of earning their doctorate, and the percentage associated with 35 years of labor market exposure remains similar; in others fields, such as physical sciences or engineering, this percentage increases. Data for 199399, 2001, and 2006 include graduates from 12 months to 60 months prior to the survey reference date; data for 2003, 2008, and 2010 include graduates from 15 months to 60 months prior to the survey reference date; data for 2013 and 2015 include graduates from 19 months to 60 months prior to the survey reference date. Science and Engineering Indicators 2018 Desirable nonacademic employment opportunities may provide an alternative career path to that of a tenured or tenuretrack appointment. Among recent doctorates in most S&E fields, median salaries are significantly higher in the business sector than in tenured or tenure-track academic positions (Table 3-17). One of the steepest declines occurred in computer sciences, particularly among individuals within 35 years of receiving their doctorates, despite the high demand for computer sciences faculty. By type of employment, salaries for recent doctorate recipients ranged from $47,000 for postdoctoral positions in 4-year institutions to $99,000 for those employed in the business sector (Table 3-17). The 2-year or precollege institutions include 2-year colleges and community colleges or technical institutes and also preschool, elementary, middle, or secondary schools. The 4-year institutions include 4-year colleges or universities, medical schools, and university-affiliated research institutes. Postdoc positions are defined as temporary, short-term positions, primarily for acquiring additional training in an academic, a government, an industry, or a nonprofit setting. Individuals in postdoc positions often perform cutting-edge research and receive valuable training. These positions, however, generally offer lower salaries than permanent positions. A factor that has received much attention in science policy is the growth seen over the last three decades in the number of postdocs in both traditional. Neither the reasons for this growth nor its effects on the state of scientific research are well understood. The majority of these postdoc positions were in 4-year academic institutions (72%), with the remainder in the business sector (19%) and government sector (9%). Within the business sector, nonprofit organizations accounted for most of the postdoc positions. Postdocs have historically been more common in life sciences and physical sciences than in other fields such as social sciences and engineering. Among new doctorate recipients in 2015, 63% in life sciences (including agricultural sciences and natural resources, biological and biomedical sciences, and health sciences) and 64% in physical sciences indicated they would take a postdoc appointment, compared to 38% in psychology and social sciences and 36% in engineering (Appendix Table 3-10). In engineering, the comparable proportion has risen overall between 1975 and 2015, despite periodic fluctuations within this 40-year period. Another indicator of the variation in postdoc appointments across S&E disciplines is the proportion of recent graduates who are currently employed as a postdoc (as opposed to those who plan to take a postdoc position after graduation). In 2015, over 40% of those who had received their doctorates in the previous 3 years in biological, agricultural, and environmental life sciences and nearly one-third in physical sciences (31%) were employed in postdoc positions, compared to only 5% of those who received doctorates in the social sciences (Figure 3-21). Note(s) Proportions are calculated on the basis of all doctorates working in all sectors of the economy. Data include graduates from 19 months to 60 months prior to the survey reference date (February 2013). Data for computer and information sciences doctorates are suppressed for reasons of confidentiality and/or reliability. Low compensation for postdocs is frequently raised as a concern by those who are worried about the effect of the increasing number of postdoc positions on the attractiveness of science careers. In 2015, among individuals who had received their doctorate within the past 5 years, the median salary for postdocs ($47,000) was just over half the median salary for individuals in other positions. The difference in median salary between postdocs and non-postdocs ranged from about half among individuals with doctorates in engineering (52%) and computer and information sciences (53%) to over two-thirds among those with doctorates in the biological, agricultural, and environmental life sciences (69%).
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They have the same type of globular abdomen womens health care 01950 order raloxifene toronto, but it is always dull in color and not as eye catching women's health issues across the lifespan buy generic raloxifene from india. These quiet spiders hang in the web and wait for small insects to breast cancer young women statistics purchase 60 mg raloxifene otc wander into their snares. The problem with cobweb spiders inside buildings is that when they feed, they defecate drops of feces that dry and discolor anything they fall on. In historically significant buildings and museums, their presence should be called to the attention of building supervisors. When they come inside, they normally stay on the ground floor and are active in dim light. Spiders in Boathouses A unique but not uncommon spider habitat is the rafter areas of boathouses. Ballooning spiderlings trailing their silk threads are taken up by the wind and deposited on boathouse uprights and piers. When they crawl up into sheltered spaces, they find it is also a refuge for flying insects such as flies and gnats. When they feed, their feces fall on the painted roughened decks of pleasure boats. Like those from the droppings of the housebound cobweb spider, these spots are extremely difficult to remove. Flies and gnats do not rest in breezy areas, so fans activated at night may also help. Jumping Spiders Jumping spiders are active during the day and are common around windows, where they feed on insects attracted to natural light. They hold their front legs up in front of them when approached and move in quick rushes, jerks or jumps. They often enter buildings from shrubs near windows, or ride in on plant blossoms. General Pest Management 121 Section 3: Chapter 13 s Close up gaps under doors and around window screens. Their legs extend out from their sides causing them to scuttle back and forth in a crab-like fashion. Crab spiders, like jumping spiders, are often brought inside in cut flowers that they abandon when food becomes unavailable. Indoor treatment is usually effective only if the pesticide contacts the spider directly. They have two regions to their body-the front one is the cephalothorax, on which are located eyes, mouthparts, and four pairs of legs. The rear region is the abdomen, at the tip of which are located silk-spinning organs. For the most part, spiders are beneficial to humans, capturing and eating many insect pests. Control and Management of Wandering Spiders If called on to eliminate wandering or nomadic spiders, the best action is to locate specimens, identify them, assure clients that they are not poisonous, and tell clients how they got inside. Blister raised immediately after bite; surrounded by a red welt that turns dark within a day; bite area scars over in one to eight weeks. Which insect can be a biological control for spiders (paralyzes spiders and feeds them to its larvae)? Mud daubers Spider mites Eastern yellow jackets German yellow jackets Killer bees 14. It is difficult to control black widow spiders with pesticides because the pesticide must directly contact the spider. What would you advise a client to do after being bitten by a brown recluse spider? Which type of pesticide application would be the best method for controlling brown recluse and yellow house spiders? Residual crack and crevice Spot treatments of residuals Contact sprays Aerosols/fogs 21. To reduce spider populations in boathouses and on monuments, control their food source. Which pest control method would be most effective at controlling black widow spiders? Crack and crevice Eliminate harborage sites Residual sprays Aerosols/fogs Caulking and screening 19. It is important that pest control technicians understand the habits, life cycles, and disease-vectoring capabilities of biting pests so that clients receive the proper advice. For example, knowing when to advise a client to seek medical attention is crucial. Furthermore, fear of parasitism and/or unfavorable environmental conditions can lead to imaginary pest infestations. This chapter discusses how pest control technicians should approach these situations. A thorough investigation should be conducted to determine whether the pest infestation is real or imaginary. Unlike spiders, which have a combined head and thorax where the legs attach and an abdomen that is connected behind, mites and ticks have only a single (one part), oval body with legs attached to its sides. Ticks and mites have four stages in their life cycle: egg, larva, nymph and adult. All first-stage tick and mite larvae have only six legs; both later stages, nymphs and adults, have eight. An organism that lives in or on another organism and obtains nourishment during all or part of its life from it, without directly causing its death, is generally known as a parasite. The organism from which the food is obtained is known as the host of the parasite. Many of the biting pests discussed in this chapter will feed directly on humans or other warm-blooded animals. Some may carry disease-causing organisms such as bacteria or viruses from one host to another. In many of the pest situations discussed in this chapter, pesticide application will not be necessary. Ticks are larger and have recurved Section 3: Chapter 14 teeth or ridges on the central mouthparts (called the holdfast organ). Ticks also detect light and dark as well as shapes, shadows and vibrations-all stimuli that help them find their hosts. Soft ticks feed on hosts that return periodically to a nest, shelter, cave, coop, and so forth. In the United States, campers, hikers, and hunters are sometimes hosts for hard ticks.
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Cons/Econote: this small iris of fire-prone sandhills and woodlands in the southeast is menstruation 1 generic 60 mg raloxifene fast delivery, in Maryland breast cancer quote order raloxifene paypal, almost entirely restricted to lynn women's health center boca raton order raloxifene 60mg otc artificially maintained habitats under powerlines and along roadsides and ditches. Habitat: Rights-of-way under powerlines, roadsides and ditches in dry, sandy soils. Cons/Econote: the most commonly occurring quillwort in our region; however, many Maryland records are now historical and the identity of many specimens need confirmation. The State rank is currently under review and the Service requests additional data. Habitat: Intermittent stream beds with gravel bottoms, floodplain swales and oxbow sloughs (McAvoy 2007), ponds. Global Rank G5 State State Federal Rank Status Status S3 Isoлtes riparia Engelmann ex A. The taxonomic difficulties in the genus are driven by conserved morphology with substantial levels of allopolyploid speciation. Cons/Econote: the conservation status and distribution of this species needs substantial review. Habitat: Exposed intertidal shores of freshwater rivers and creeks; on gravel, sand and mud substrates (McAvoy 2007). Reed Aristolochiaceae (Birthwort Family) Syn: Aristolochia macrophylla Lamarck Cons/Econote: Restricted to linear riparian habitats. Populations of this widespread (in North America) but extremely localized species are largest in the previously glaciated northeastern range. The remaining southern populations are highly differentiated and genetically depauperate (see 100 Global State State Federal Scientific Name Common Name Rank Rank Status Status Stone et al. Historically known from Montgomery County and documented by a few collections 19281930 (Reed 1964, and Wright 1992 for historical details). The area around Chevy Chase, now heavily urbanized, was apparently wellknown to botanists during the 1920s and 1930s and so many locations were found in such a small area that Edgar Wherry (1885-1982), in a letter to Jenny Jones (28 July 1929), opined that "evidently it is not rare at all, but has been overlooked. Juglans cinerea Linnaeus Butternut G4 S2S3 Juglandaceae (Walnut Family) Cons/Econote: Butternut is experiencing a rapid rangewide decline due to the spread of butternut canker disease (NatureServe 2019). Additionally, extensive hybridization with the Japanese walnut (Juglans ailantifolia Carriиre) has been shown to occur throughout the natural range of J. Juncus articulatus Linnaeus Jointed Rush G5 S1 Juncaceae (Rush Family) Syn: Juncus articulatus Linnaeus var. Though seemingly an odd distribution this mostly montane species is known from coastal New Jersey and North Carolina. Global Rank G5 State State Federal Rank Status Status S2 Juncus caesariensis Coville New Jersey Rush G2G3 S1 E Juncaceae (Rush Family) Taxnote: Similar to the widespread J. The tuberous rhizomes often mentioned in keys as diagnostic are unreliable in our range as they are very rarely present in J. Cons/Econote: Though the global rank at NatureServe is G3Q, it is more appropriately G4/G5. The Montgomery County station is associated with other plants found predominantly on the Coastal Plain. More common on the Western Shore than the Eastern Shore, this species can be found in great abundance in good habitat. However, when compared to many other cryptic Juncus species, this species is fairly conspicuous. Juncus trifidus Linnaeus Highland Rush G5 S1 E Juncaceae (Rush Family) Cons/Econote: Known from a single location last observed in 1980 (Riefner & Hill 1983). Searched for many times since its discovery but the Service has failed to relocate the plants and the population is presumed extirpated. The species is rare throughout the southern Appalachian and Mid-Atlantic portion of its range but common in northern New England and adjacent Canada. Habitat: Scattered in exposed cliff crevices of Tuscarora sandstone at upper and mid-elevations. Cons/Econote: Collected from hills along the Susquehanna River and from serpentine outcrops by Reed (1986). Kalmia angustifolia Linnaeus Sheep Laurel G5 Ericaceae (Heath Family) Habitat: Inland sand dune and ridge forest and woodlands; sandy seeps and clearings. Most of the remaining populations occur in a highly urbanized landscape and are isolated and severely fragmented. Habitat: Exposed mineral soils derived from nutrient-rich (ultramafic) substrates and glauconitic sands. Lachnanthes caroliniana (Lamarck) Dandy Haemodoraceae (Bloodwort Family) Cons/Econote: Known from a single station. Red Root Carolina Redroot G4 S1 E Lactuca hirsuta Muhlenberg ex Nuttall Hairy Lettuce G5? Cons/Econote: Represented by a few pre-to-early 1900s collections mostly from the vicinity of Great Falls. The weedy nature of the genus and similar-looking species may have contributed to overlooking this species in the field. Common Name Global Rank State State Federal Rank Status Status Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Our concern regards those relictual occurrences in Garrett County peatlands that have long been noted by botanists. Lathyrus palustris Linnaeus Vetchling Peavine G5 Fabaceae (Legume Family) Cons/Econote: A circumboreal species near its southern range limits in Maryland at a single extant station. S1 E Lechea maritima Leggett ex Britton, Sterns, & Poggenburg Virginian Beach Pinweed G5 S3 Cistaceae (Rockrose Family) Taxnote: Maryland plants are var. Cons/Econote: A regional coastal endemic (Sorrie & Weakley 2007b); locally frequent on the barrier island (Assateague). Habitat: Xeric coastal dunes, coastal scrub woodlands with beach-heather (Hudsonia tomentosa). Lechea tenuifolia Michaux Slender Pinweed Cistaceae (Rockrose Family) Cons/Econote: Reported for stations in s. Known from single population that is recovering after controlling tree encroachment into the open-pond habitat. Common Name Global Rank State State Federal Rank Status Status Leersia lenticularis Michaux Catchfly Cutgrass G5 S1 E Poaceae (Grass Family) Cons/Econote: Endangered by habitat loss. Inventory of this species is made difficult due to the habit of the plant to float just underneath the water surface (J. Lespedeza frutescens (Linnaeus) Elliott Violet Lespedeza G5 S3 Fabaceae (Legume Family) Syn: L. Habitat: Dry, open woodland borders, occasionally rocky scour bars along large rivers. S3 Fabaceae (Legume Family) Cons/Econote: Fire suppression and loss of coastal-barrens habitat has relegated this species to small (and often linear) populations in clearings and along sandy trails/roadsides. Habitat: Inland Sand Dune and Ridge woodlands (generally restricted to trailsides and clearings with full sun); clearings and roadsides in dry sandy soils.
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Their continuing differences with whites reflect lower rates of high school completion pregnancy test eva cheap raloxifene 60 mg with amex, college enrollment pregnancy early signs order raloxifene 60mg free shipping, and college persistence and attainment menstrual cramps 5 weeks pregnant cheap 60mg raloxifene overnight delivery. Between 10% and 13% of all baccalaureate degrees were in the natural sciences, and 2% 5% were in in engineering. In contrast, Asians and Pacific Islanders were more likely than any of the other groups to earn degrees in the natural sciences (24%) and engineering fields (9%) (Appendix Table 2-22). Degrees in this field increased considerably through 200304, sharply declined through 200809, then started to increase again, with degrees earned by Hispanics and whites exceeding their previous 2004 highs (57% higher for Hispanics, 6% higher for whites). Among underrepresented minority groups, gender gaps in engineering and the natural sciences became more pronounced between 2000 and 2015, particularly among blacks. A recent graduate is a respondent who received his or her most recent degree between 1 July 2008 and 30 June 2013. Only 2% of the licenses and certifications are in S&E, specifically in computer sciences (Ewert and Kominski 2014). This section includes indicators related to S&E graduate enrollment and degree awards in the United States including participation by women, minorities, and international students in U. Graduate Enrollment by Field S&E graduate enrollment in the United States reached nearly 668,000 in 2015, an increase of about 35% since 2000 (Appendix Table 2-23). The highest enrollment growth was recorded in computer sciences, mathematics and statistics, medical sciences, and engineering. Enrollment in the social sciences grew from 83,000 in 2000 to 111,000 in 2011, then declined to 103,000 by 2015. Enrollment in computer sciences had increased gradually or remained stable through 2012, then accelerated from 52,000 to more than 86,000 in only 3 years. Along the same lines, the number of first-time, full-time graduate students in computer sciences, an indicator of developing trends, nearly doubled in the last 3 years (Appendix Table 2-24). In 2015, first-time, full-time graduate enrollees accounted for 24% of total S&E graduate enrollment. This indicator can be sensitive to economic conditions; for example, high unemployment tends to lead to an increase in firsttime, full-time graduate enrollment. Between 2000 and 2015, first-time, full-time graduate S&E enrollment has increased fairly steadily in most broad S&E fields while peaking in engineering, computer sciences, mathematics and statistics, agricultural, and biological sciences. In psychology and in the social sciences, the number of first-time, full-time graduate students had declined slightly in recent years but the numbers in these two broad fields increased in 2015 (Appendix Table 2-24). Although enrollment of international students in S&E fields has been on the rise, graduate enrollment of U. In 2015, about 240,000 international students on temporary visas were enrolled in S&E graduate programs, representing 36% of total U. The proportion of international enrollment was highest-47% or higher- in computer sciences, engineering (particularly high in electrical engineering), mathematics and statistics, and economics. Declines and subsequent increases in number were concentrated in engineering and computer sciences, the fields heavily favored by international students. Between 2000 and 2015, the proportion of first-time, full-time S&E international students increased, particularly in computer sciences and mathematics and statistics. Between fall 2016 and fall 2017, the number of international graduate students enrolled in S&E fields decreased most in computer sciences (from 70,600 to 61,500) and engineering (from 96,300 to 89,000). The number of international students enrolled in mathematics increased (from 15,800 to 18,100) and remained at fairly similar levels in other S&E fields. The top sending locations in 2017 continued to be India and China, accounting for 69% of the international S&E graduate students in the United States, followed by Iran, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, and Taiwan (Appendix Table 2-26). Compared to 2016, the number of graduate S&E students from India, Saudi Arabia, Iran, and South Korea declined in 2017 (by 19%, 11%, 1%, and 1% respectively) while the number from China and Taiwan increased (by 4% and 5% respectively). About 8 in 10 graduate students from India, Iran, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka and more than 6 in 10 of graduate students from China, Pakistan, and Nepal were enrolled in an S&E field. In the case of Iran, more than half of them were enrolled in engineering; in the case of Bangladesh, 42%. In contrast, more than 60% of the international students from Canada, South Korea, Brazil and Japan were enrolled in non-S&E fields. The proportion of Asian and Pacific Islander S&E recipients declined from 10% to 9% in this period. American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian or Pacific Islander, black or African American, and white refer to individuals who are not of Hispanic origin. Most of the drop during this period was accounted for by decreasing numbers of temporary visa holders in the computer sciences and engineering fields, but in both fields, numbers rebounded by more than 50% in the following years. S&E Doctoral Degrees Doctoral education in the United States generates new knowledge by closely linking specialized education and hands-on research experience. Decades-long participation of large and growing numbers of temporary visa holders attests to the attractiveness of U. Science and Engineering Indicators 2018 Time to Doctoral Degree Completion the time required to earn a doctoral degree and the success rates of those entering doctoral programs are important for those pursuing a degree, the universities awarding the degree, and the agencies and organizations funding doctoral study. Median time to degree (as measured by time from graduate school entry to doctorate receipt) increased through the mid-1990s but has since decreased in all S&E fields from 7. The physical sciences and mathematics had the shortest time to degree, whereas the social sciences and medical and other health sciences had the longest. Consequently, time to degree was shortest at research universities with very high research activity (6. The median time to degree varies by demographic groups, but these variations reflect differences among broad fields of study. In 2015, across all doctorate recipients, women had a longer time to degree than men (7. However, with few exceptions, these differences were very small when comparing men and women within broad S&E fields. In most natural sciences and engineering fields, time to degree was longer for temporary visa holders than for U. However, in the medical and other health sciences, as in computer sciences, temporary visa holders finished faster. During this period, women made gains in most major fields, among continuing disparities in other fields. In 2015, women earned half or more of doctorates in non-S&E fields, in most social and behavioral sciences except for economics, in the biological sciences, and in the medical and other health sciences. They earned less than one-third of the doctorates awarded in mathematics and statistics, computer sciences, and engineering (Appendix Table 2-29). Although low, the proportions of degrees earned by women in these fields and the physical sciences (particularly in physics) were higher than they were in 2000. S&E Doctoral Degrees by Disability Status In 2014, 7% of S&E doctorate recipients reported having a disability; they were fairly similar to those who did not report a disability in terms of broad field of study.
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It underlies the health menstruation while nursing discount raloxifene 60 mg, vitality women's health center watertown wi order discount raloxifene online, and productivity of the people women's health issues today raloxifene 60mg sale, communities, and businesses that make up our national economy. But for the increasingly diverse communities that are quickly becoming the majority in America- communities that are also disproportionately low income-this foundation is often shaky. Streets are pitted with potholes, sidewalks are cracked and uneven, water mains are rusting, and park structures are dilapidated. We know, for example, that people of color own fewer cars than whites and are more likely to rely on buses and rail lines, yet a spotty public transit system leaves many people stranded. Bureau of Transportation statistics, Transportation statistics Annual Report, 2006). Aging water systems often fail to deliver clean water to neighborhood homes and schools. Under these conditions, the regular routine you likely carried out this morning becomes impossible. Infrastructure: Supporting Communities So All Can Thrive 55 Lanare lacks the basic necessities that most of us take for granted, such as clean drinking water, sewer systems, sidewalks, streetlights, and storm drains. Its water is contaminated with arsenic and bacteria, and smells of sulfide, yet the water treatment plant built in 2007 to fix the problem had to be shut down just six months after opening because of high operation costs. As a result, they shell out about 10 percent of their income for bottled water while struggling to pay for septic tank repairs and medical bills that stem from preventable health issues. I can assure you that plenty of people are drinking the contaminated water in this community. A New York Times investigation of water pollution found that the drinking water for 1 in 10 Americans contains dangerous chemicals or does not meet federal quality standards for a host of other reasons. Highways were rammed through dozens of African American communities like West Oakland in California; Overtown in Miami, Florida; North Nashville in Tennessee; and St. Decades later, many of these neighborhoods bear lasting scars to their urban landscapes that prevent them from fully realizing their potential as neighborhoods and economic centers. Among residents of these once-vibrant communities, the legacy of mistrust often runs deep. Among Native American households, 14 percent lack access to electricity and 12 percent lack complete indoor plumbing compared to 1 percent of households nationally. But this will only happen if infrastructure investments are targeted to these communities and carried out in a way that benefits their current residents. Paul illustrates many of the opportunities and challenges posed by infrastructure improvements in communities of color. A new $1 billion Central Corridor light-rail line is currently being constructed along St. The "Green Line," as it is known, cuts through some of the most diverse neighborhoods in the region, with a mix of Hmong, African American, Latino, college students, and working-class white residents. But when the first project plans were announced in mid-2006, the train was slated to completely bypass three of the lowest-income, most diverse, and most transit-reliant neighborhoods without stopping to pick up their residents. The residents of these communities reacted, organizing a "Stops for Us" campaign to ensure the new transit line provided them with service. After four years of concerted organizing and advocacy, the campaign was ultimately successful. Two major potential benefits are jobs and business contracts associated with the new construction. Connecting local workers to the 4,000 construction jobs being created through the project, and making sure that small local contractors have a fair shot at accessing the contracts for the work are community priorities. Building a new transit stop in a neighborhood can generate new economic, social, and cultural activity-attracting new residents and businesses and strengthening the housing market. This can be positive for existing residents, bringing in needed shops, services, and new neighbors. Paul community groups are working to make sure that existing affordable homes are preserved and new affordable homes are built along the line so that longtime residents are not pushed out as the neighborhood improves. Sound, well-planned infrastructure investments can transform struggling communities of color into healthy, thriving neighborhoods by linking them more firmly with their regional economies. Improving the infrastructure planning process To fully realize the promise of infrastructure investments for communities of color, infrastructure decisions need to be coordinated, representative, and inclusive. Despite the importance of infrastructure decisions for the health and well-being of people and communities, these decisions are often made in an uncoordinated, piecemeal fashion, and take place in boardrooms and committee meetings that are attended by few community members and receive little public scrutiny. There is no single place where decisions are made in a transparent manner about the various pieces of infrastructure that make up a community. Oftentimes, a dizzying patchwork of government agencies at the local, state, and federal level, special districts, and private service providers decide the particulars of infrastructure provision. Opened in 1907, Union Station, built in the grand Beaux-Arts style, is the transportation hub for city bus lines operated by two transportation companies, six regional bus services, two regional rail lines, the Washington Metro subway, and the Amtrak national passenger rail line-a total of 11 separate public, quasi-public, and private transportation providers all come together in this one terminal. On top of the jumble of local transportation operators that cobble together the transit infrastructure in any given place, regional and federal agencies play major roles in governing and funding transportation systems. Regional planning and Metrics matter: Federal policy and the case of the missing stops one of the main barriers to getting the three additional transit stops built in st. Paul was the formula used by the federal Transit Administration to determine eligibility for $477 million in federal funding. Beginning in 2005 the agency used a cost-effectiveness index that measured cost per travel time saved for commuters as a pass-fail test for whether a project was eligible for federal funds through the new starts program. Community advocates took the issue to the agency head, Peter Rogoff, who visited st. Paul in 2010 to learn more about the missing stops and that year changed the formula used to determine funding eligibility to assess a broader range of criteria to measure how a project will improve community livability, mobility, and economic development. And the federal government sets the rules for many transportation projects and often provides a critical piece of the funding. The Department of Transportation, for example, spends about $50 billion a year and determines how the money will be split between roads and transit and how projects proposed by state and local governments will be evaluated. A Brookings Institution analysis found that metropolitan planning organization boards underrepresented urban residents and residents of color compared to suburban and white residents. For example, while 39 percent of metro-area residents were people of color in 2000, only 12 percent of the board members of metropolitan planning organizations in 2004 were people of color. The Initiative for a Competitive Inner City, a nonprofit focused on urban economic development, calculates that deficient infrastructure in inner-city areas has cost these communities 2 percent to 3 percent of their total job base, or about 250,000 jobs in good-paying industries such as transportation, logistics, and professional services. Geographic and RacialEthnic Patterns of metropolitan Planning organization Boards" (washington: Brookings institution, 2006), available at. What is happening now on the Lakota Sioux Pine Ridge reservation in South Dakota exemplifies the promise that inclusive infrastructure planning processes hold for building strong regional economies. It is one of the 10 poorest census tracts in the nation, nearly half of its residents are unemployed, and life expectancy is nearly 30 years lower than the national average. Using the sustainable communities planning model, the Lakota people are building the infrastructure needed to get them there. One economic development strategy in the works is a community food processing facility, which will allow tribal members to process and distribute game. A new regional planning office will also support the construction of thousands of new, sorely needed quality homes.
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Thus women's health issues in japan buy raloxifene with visa, P(A B) > P(A) (B suggests A) if and only if P(A) > P(A B c) (B c does not suggest A) pregnancy 4 weeks 5 days buy generic raloxifene 60 mg online. Using the total probability theorem women's health center wooster ohio order raloxifene 60mg line, we have P(B) = P(Ac)P(B Ac) + P(A)P(B A) = (1 - p) + (1 -), Problems so P(A B) = P(A B) 1- 1- = = > 1 - = P(A). One day, on the trail of some animal, the hunter comes to a place where the road diverges into two paths. He knows that each dog, independently of the other, will choose the correct path with probability p. The hunter decides to let each dog choose a path, and if they agree, take that one, and if they disagree, to randomly pick a path. A binary (0 or 1) symbol transmitted through a noisy communication channel is received incorrectly with probability 0 and 1, respectively (see. What is the probability that all the symbols in the string are received correctly? In other words, a 0 (or 1) is transmitted as 000 (or 111, respectively), and it is decoded at the receiver as a 0 (or 1) if and only if the received three-symbol string contains at least two 0s (or 1s, respectively). What is the probability that a 0 was transmitted given that the received string is 101? Assume that every birth results in a boy with probability 60 Sample Space and Probability Chap. Be careful to state any additional assumptions you have to make in order to arrive at an answer. Alice and Bob want to choose between the opera and the movies by tossing a fair coin. Unfortunately, the only available coin is biased (though the bias is not known exactly). How can they use the biased coin to make a decision so that either option (opera or the movies) is equally likely to be chosen? An electrical system consists of identical components that are operational with probability p, independently of other components. The system is operational if there is a path that starts at point A, ends at point B, and consists of operational components. What are the probabilities that the three subsystems, as well as the entire system, are operational? A system consists of n identical components that are operational with probability p, independently of other components. A cellular phone system services a population of n1 "voice users" (those that occasionally need a voice connection) and n2 "data users" (those that occasionally need a data connection). We estimate that at a given time, each user will need to be connected to the system with probability p1 (for voice users) or p2 (for data users), Problems 61 independently of other users. Telis and Wendy play a round of golf (18 holes) for a $10 stake, and their probabilities of winning on any one hole are p and 1 - p, respectively, independently of their results in other holes. At the end of 10 holes, with the score 4 to 6 in favor of Wendy, Telis receives an urgent call and has to report back to work. They decide to split the stake in proportion to their probabilities of winning had they completed the round, as follows. If pT and pW are the conditional probabilities that Telis and Wendy, respectively, are ahead in the score after 18 holes given the 4-6 score after 10 holes, then Telis should get a fraction pT /(pT + pW) of the stake, and Wendy should get the remaining pW /(pT + pW). Pascal worked out some special cases and through a correspondence with Fermat, stimulated much thinking and several probability-related investigations. The annoyed professor decides that she will not lecture unless at least k of the n students enrolled in the class are present. Each student will independently show up with probability pg if the weather is good, and with probability pb if the weather is bad. Given the probability of bad weather on a given day, calculate the probability that the professor will teach her class on that day. Consider a coin that comes up heads with probability p and tails with probability 1 - p. Let qn be the probability that after n independent tosses, there have been an even number of heads. Derive a recursion that relates qn to qn-1, and solve this recursion to establish the formula qn = 1 + (1 - 2p)n /2. Let us denote by A the event that he ends up with $n, and by F the event that he wins the first bet. We apply the total probability theorem to obtain wk = P(A F)P(F) + P(A F c)P(F c) = pP(A F) + qP(A F c), 0 < k < n, where q = 1 - p. By the independence of past and future bets, having won the first bet is the same as if he were just starting now but with $(k+1), so that P(A F) = wk+1 and similarly P(A F c) = wk-1. Thus, we have wk = pwk+1 + qwk-1, which can be written as wk+1 - wk = r(wk - wk-1), 0 < k < n, 62 Sample Space and Probability Chap. We will solve for wk in terms of p and q using iteration, and the boundary values w0 = 0 and wn = 1. We have wk+1 - wk = rk (w1 - w0), and since w0 = 0, wk+1 = wk + rk w1 = wk-1 + rk-1 w1 + rk w1 = w1 + rw1 + · · · + rk w1. The sum in the right-hand side can be calculated separately for the two cases where r = 1 (or p = q) and r = 1 (or p = q). Since wn = 1, we can solve for w1 and therefore for wk: 1-r n 1 - r, if p = q, n 1, if p = q, w1 = so that wk = k 1 - r, if p = q, n k, n 1-r if p = q. Use the definition of independence to prove the following: (a) the events A and B c are independent. Using the additivity axiom and the independence of A and B, we obtain P(A) = P(A B) + P(A B c) = P(A)P(B) + P(A B c). It follows that P(A B c) = P(A) 1 - P(B) = P(A)P(B c), so A and B c are independent. We have P(A B C) = = P(A B C) P(C) P(A)P(B)P(C) P(C) = P(A)P(B) = P(A C)P(B C), Problems 63 so A and B are conditionally independent given C. In the preceding calculation, the first equality uses the definition of conditional probabilities; the second uses the assumed independence; the fourth uses the independence of A from C, and of B from C. P(A3 A4) P(A3)P(A4) We similarly obtain P(A2 A3 A4) = P(A2) and P(A1 A2 A3 A4) = P(A1 A2), and finally, P(A1 A2 A3 A4) = P(A1 A3 A4) + P(A2 A3 A4) - P(A1 A2 A3 A4) = P(A1) + P(A2) - P(A1 A2) = P(A1 A2). We choose a box at random (all boxes are equally likely) and then choose a ball at random from that box, n successive times (the ball drawn is replaced each time, and a new ball is selected independently). We want to find the conditional probability P(E Rn), where E is the event of a red ball drawn at time n + 1, and Rn is the event of a red ball drawn each of the n preceding times. Intuitively, the consistent draw of a red ball indicates that a box with a high percentage of red balls was chosen, so we expect that P(E Rn) is closer to 1 than to 0. In fact, Laplace used this example to calculate the probability that the sun will rise tomorrow given that it has risen for the preceding 5,000 years. Each term n in the triangular array on the left is computed k and placed in the triangular array on the right by adding its two neighbors in the row above it (except for the boundary terms with k = 0 or k = n, which are equal to 1).