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Classification disposes of cases with a continuing or progressive impairment resulting in a disability impotence means order 30caps vimax with mastercard. The impairment may involve conditions of the head why smoking causes erectile dysfunction best buy for vimax, neck vasculogenic erectile dysfunction causes buy vimax 30 caps mastercard, spinal disc, heart, lungs, abdomen and all non-schedule conditions of the extremities. There must be residual impairments which are the basis for the conclusion of a permanent total or permanent partial disability. Some other factors considered for classification may be age, ability to work, mental attitudes and motivation. Examples of impairments of the extremities not amenable for scheduled evaluation and disposed as classification are: 1. Progressive and severe painful conditions of the major joints of the extremities such as the shoulders, elbows, hips and knees with: a. Objective findings of acute or chronic inflammation of one or more joints such as swelling, effusion, change of color or temperature, tenderness, painful range of motion, etc. Values for losses in all three joints are cumulative: A reduction to the sum of two major values may be in order. Loss involving the entire finger and any part of the ray (metacarpal) equals 100% loss of use of the finger and is loaded 100% and converted to a hand schedule. Schedules below 50% loss of use of three digits are loaded 25% and converted to a hand schedule. Schedules of 50% or more in two or more digits are loaded 50% and converted to a hand schedule. In cases where 100% was given for a member, additional schedules may be given under certain circumstances. In cases of loss of three fingers with less than 50% loss of use in each finger, a hand schedule is given with a 25% load. Amputation through the middle phalanges of two or more digits is loaded 50% and given a hand schedule. Amputation through the proximal phalanges of two or more digits is loaded 100% and given a hand schedule. The load is 50% when one digit has 100% loss of use and another digit has 50% loss of use. No load is given when one digit has 50% loss of use and another has less than 50% loss of use; instead a separate percentage is given for each finger. The load is 50% when there is a 100% bone loss in either the thumb or index finger and a second digit has less than 50% loss of use. The thumb deserves special consideration; it is the highest valued digit and the most important. The functional units of the thumb are the proximal and distal phalanges and the first metacarpal. An amputation involving the first metacarpal is loaded 100% and given a hand schedule. This is a major impairment of hand function with loss of pinch and reduced grasping power; furthermore, opportunity for reconstructive surgery is eliminated. The operative amputation is frequently performed at a higher level in order to obtain adequate closure or better function. If in doubt, new post operative X-rays are needed to determine the degree of bone loss and the final level of amputation. Loss of all fingers at proximal phalanges equals 100% schedule loss of use of the hand. Schedule loss of use should be limited to the accident or occupational disease of the folder. There is a 5% to 7 1/2% loss of use of the hand if impairment is found in one finger only. A larger schedule may be given if two or three fingers are involved and function of the hand is compromised, such as grasp Note: Hand schedules can be verified by the usual method of calculations. Ankylosis in a position of function (mild dorsiflexion) equals 60% schedule loss of use of the hand. In any other position, (palmar, marked dorsiflexion or lateral deviation) schedule increases to 70-90%. Radial-lateral motion (20 degrees) and ulnar motion (30 degrees): any defects in these motions are not made cumulative, but may be separately considered if other findings in the wrist are normal. Marked defects in all wrist motions should not receive a total of more than 55% since ankylosis is rated 60% loss of use of the hand. Complete wrist drop or radial nerve palsy equals 66 2/3% loss of use of the hand; less is given for partial wrist drop. Darrach procedure (resection distal ulna) equals 10% loss of use of the hand for bone loss and add for mobility defects. Resection "proximal row" carpal bones equals 20% loss of use of the hand for bone loss alone. Give a schedule loss of use of the hand if the X-rays provide evidence of clinical union (fibrous) and if the pain is not severe. If there is a residual defect of the wrist and the grip power of the hand is impaired, give a schedule loss of use of the hand. Percent Loss of Use of the Arm: Extension Defects of the Elbow Range of Motion 150 degree flexion to 45 degree extension 150 degree flexion to 90 degree extension 150 degree flexion to 125 degree extension % Loss of Use of the Arm 25% 50% 85% Ankylosis of the elbow in functional position equals 66 2/3% loss of use of the arm. Medial and lateral epicondylitis are usually given a schedule, but if it becomes chronic, severe and disabling, consider classification. Olecranon excision equals 10% loss of the use of the arm for bone loss and add for mobility defects. Do not add mild defects of internal and external rotation to avoid cumulative values. Percent Loss of Use of the Arm: Anterior Flexion Defects of the Shoulder Anterior Flexion to 135 degrees 90 degrees 45 degrees 25 degrees % Loss of Use of the Arm 20% 40% 60% 70% Special Considerations 1. Loss of head of the radius equals 10% loss of use of the arm and add for mobility defects. Laxity of the elbow with hyperextension defect equals 10 to 15% loss of use of the arm. Dislocation of the shoulder: Do not give a schedule award until no recurrence has occurred for one year. Pre-existent recurrent dislocation of the shoulder calls for an overall schedule and apportionment. Acromio-clavicular or sterno-clavicular separation equals 7 1/2 to 10% loss of use of the arm.
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Pressure over the nerve may cause pain into the distribution of the posterior tibial nerve erectile dysfunction caused by neuropathy cheap vimax 30caps with visa. In severe cases erectile dysfunction medication shots purchase vimax with visa, the claimant may be crippled and demoralized (temporary total disability) erectile dysfunction tips cheap 30 caps vimax with mastercard. Trophic changes are common: red and glossy skin, excessive or diminished sweating, and osteoporosis. The mechanism of causalgia is unknown, although it most often occurs in partially injured nerves suggesting a transient demyelinization between the nerve fibers wherein the short circuiting sympathetic impulses activate pain fibers. Neurolysis at the site of the injury may help or a proximal sympathetic block may be effective. However, in long standing cases, even posterior root section or spinothalamic tractotomy may be ineffective. A delay in surgery is generally advisable in peripheral nerve and plexus injuries that are closed. As with most nerve lesions, claimant should be observed for at least a two year period. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy at times is considered a separate entity having more psychogenic factors than causalgia. The etiology is very uncertain and the disorder affects skin, muscles, tendons, blood vessels and bones. This may be seen after fractures and this can also occur after myocardial infarction. Cases of causalgia and reflex sympathetic dystrophy may require referral to a pain clinic. When modalities of treatment fail and symptoms persist, especially pain, then consider classification. If claimant has finished treatment, is completely asymptomatic and has no physical findings, one may be given no disability. Symptomatic disabling cases may be given permanent partial or total disability depending on severity of symptoms, clinical findings and functional impairment. It is important to review medical records, hospitalization and diagnostic tests. There must be a history of exposure to irritants and chemicals in the place of employment. The Medical Examiner must review medical records, dermatologist reports, diagnostic testing, response to medication and treatment. The examining physician must perform a thorough examination of affected areas and describe active and residual lesions. There are also court hearing testimonies of psychiatrists and psychologists on record. All hernias which remain symptomatic following repair or multiple repairs are considered partial disabilities for a period of one to two years. Hernias, recurrent or not, which are symptomatic and require wearing a truss, may after two years be classified permanent partial disability. Common disfigurements of the eye include corneal scarring; defects of the iris and in some instances total loss of the eye with use of a prosthesis. Common disfigurements of the lips include loss of soft tissue, enlargement, and alteration of normal contour of the lips. Common disfigurements of the ear include loss of tissue and alteration of normal contour of the ear. Permanent scars and disfigurement of the face and neck are usually evaluated one year post-injury and/or one year after the last surgical procedure was performed. Scars and disfigurement involving the neck are limited to the region above the clavicle. The scar and disfigurement should be described accurately, using such parameters as length, width, color, contour, and exact location. Review past history, pre-existing medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, as well as habits such as alcohol, tobacco, and drugs. Physical Examination: Note general appearance, weight, habitus, type of breathing, blood pressure, pulse rate, heart sounds, lung sounds, signs of heart failure, and edema. Assess and review functional capabilities, physical restriction, level of activity causing symptoms, and ability to perform activity of daily living. Permanency is considered if two or more years has elapsed since the reported date of accident or exposure. A claimant with respiratory and/or cardiovascular diseases may be determined to have no work-related disability or a work related disability in one of the following categories: the examining physician should be familiar with the pathophysiology of the respiratory and cardiovascular system. Review the case folder, medical records, emergency room reports, and reports of hospitalization, and cardiac care. Industrial dust, such as asbestos, silica, wood-working dust, amosite, procidolite, aluminum, and disatomaceous earths, etc. Dyspnea is a major criterion in the assessment of the severity of respiratory impairment. Mild - walking fast on level or slight hill Moderate - level ground Severe - level and at rest Cough and sputum production. Diagnostic Testing Diagnostic testing reports should be reviewed and should correlate with clinical manifestations and physical findings: Chest X-ray - no definitive correlation between ability to work and x-ray findings. Listed below are key parameters that should be considered in the review of medical records. The claimant is asymptomatic and stable, takes little or no medication and has complaints. The claimant is able to perform usual tasks and activities of daily living without dyspnea. The claimant has a causally related respiratory disorder and/or impairment with pulmonologist documentation and an appropriate diagnostic test. The claimant may have complaints and episodes of exacerbation of respiratory symptoms. The claimant has multiple complaints such as chronic cough, shortness of breath and frequent exacerbation of respiratory symptoms. Dyspnea occurs on minimal physical exertion such as usual housework and activities of daily living, walking one block on level ground and/or climbing one flight of stairs. The claimant has a causally related respiratory disorder and/or impairment with a pulmonologist documentation and an appropriate diagnostic test. The claimant is symptomatic, under active respiratory care, may be confined to a chair or bed, may be O2 dependent, has multiple complaints and needs medication to control symptoms. There are positive findings on physical examination such as cyanosis, clubbing of the digits and positive lung findings. Other cardiovascular diseases are seldom claimed to be work related and may be found to be preexisting conditions, i.
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Benzodiazepines may be helpful in managing anxiety or muscle spasms but are not useful for analgesia (Beaver et al impotence caused by medications generic vimax 30caps with mastercard. Short-term administration of high-dose corticosteroids can provide significant pain relief in patients with bony or neural structure involvement erectile dysfunction from diabetes purchase 30 caps vimax with visa. Dosage of steroids should be tapered as alternative means are implemented (Ettinger and Portenoy erectile dysfunction treatment photos order vimax online now, 1988; Bruera et al. Bisphosphonates should be considered for patients with refractory bone pain (Payne, 1989). Anticholinergic drugs like scopolamine should be considered for refractory pain from bowel obstruction. Neurostimulants such as methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine can be analgesic in low doses (Bruera et al. Physical medicine modalities for pain control can serve as an adjunct to cancer pain management (U. Heat modalities can be superficial or deep (usually ultrasound) and may increase circulation to the involved area. However, this method may increase the potential for metastatic spread, and application of ultrasound over malignant tissues is generally contraindicated. Conventional high-frequency settings are usually effective, but expertise in electrode placement may be required to attain pain relief. Nerve blocks, epidural injections, and ablative surgical procedures may also be useful for treating acute pain. Examples include shoulder support with a sling in patients with malignant brachial plexopathy or glenohumeral subluxation with brain tumor; or use of cervical, thoracic, and lumbosacral orthoses for patients with metastatic spinal involvement. Psychological approaches including hypnosis, relaxation training, and distraction techniques may be considered. Delirium and Dementia Alterations in consciousness may occur during the rehabilitation evaluation or treatment course and require accurate diagnoses and intervention to maximize functional outcome. Delirium (see Chapter 27) is a confusional state with an acute onset, manifesting as a global impairment of mental function. The causes of delirium include a variety of drugs, primary intracranial diseases, systemic diseases secondarily affecting the brain, withdrawal from alcohol or sedative-hypnotic medications, metabolic disorders such as hyponatremia and hypoglycemia, infections, and seizures. Determination of the causative agent or factor and removal or correction of the cause is the primary treatment. A brief trial of rehabilitation may still be justified in such situations to train caregivers and to clarify learning abilities. The incidence of dementia is higher in the cancer patient population for the following reasons: 1. Occurrence of leukoencephalopathy secondary to chemotherapy such as intrathecal chemotherapy, especially the combination of irradiation and methotrexate (Abrey et al. Radiation-related dementia characterized either by dementia alone or by dementia with gait abnormalities and incontinence. A small number of patients will also have hydrocephalus and benefit by ventricular-abdominal shunting (Asai et al. The biochemical pathology in this disorder is decreased dopaminergic neurotransmission in the basal ganglia. Severe bradykinesia prevents these patients from driving due to slowed foot movement between the accelerator and the brake pedal. Loss of postural reflexes leads to increased risk of falls and a high incidence of hip fractures in parkinsonian patients. Affected patients also have cognitive and behavioral signs such as decreased attention span, visuospatial impairment, and personality changes. They are often more fearful, indecisive, and passive, as well as depressed, than is normal (Dropcho, 1991). Patients may experience constipation, urinary retention, hypotension, and/or erectile dysfunction. Treatment is aimed at controlling symptoms through use of standard antiparkinsonian medications and rehabilitation interventions. Functional deficits often worsen disproportionately with periods of immobility; thus mobility should be preserved as much as possible despite intercurrent illnesses. Rehabilitation also involves treatment of dysphagia, management of bowel and bladder problems, and assistance with psychosocial difficulties caused by declining cognition. Psychological Issues Psychological symptoms can include reactive anxiety and depression, major depression, and organic brain disorder. The incidence of these disorders is generally greater with higher levels of disability and advanced illness (Breitbart et al. Symptoms are initially likely to be reactive to the diagnosis of a malignancy and then depressive as the functional deficits caused by neurologic impairments are manifested. Endicott (1984) suggested substitution criteria for making the diagnosis of depression, as somatic symptoms of depression might be unreliable and nonspecific in cancer patients. Recognition of anxiety can be challenging in the face of neurologic disease, use of corticosteroids, and other medications. Common signs and symptoms include restlessness, jitteriness, vigilance, insomnia, distractibility, dyspnea, numbness, apprehension, autonomic hyperactivity, and worry. Sexual Dysfunction Sexual dysfunction may be due to a malignancy or its related treatments. It can be affected by changes in nervous, vascular, endocrine, as well as psychological function. Endocrine changes may occur with pituitary involvement and with hormonal treatments for prostate cancer. Chemotherapy can cause changes in testosterone production, spermatogenesis, and premature menopause with associated symptoms. Problems include low sexual drive, dry orgasm, vaginal mucosal changes leading to dyspareunia, erectile dysfunction, and decreased pleasure with orgasm (Schover et al. Because psychological adjustment is an important determinant of sexual function, counseling should be provided. Patients should be encouraged to pursue intimacy and physical closeness, focusing on various aspects of an intimate relationship. Hormonal replacement therapy should be given for premature menopause when no contraindications are present, along with water-based lubricants. A peer-support system can also be of benefit (Gerber and Vargo, 1998; Garden and Gillis, 1996). Family Interaction Lack of an adequate support system can be a barrier to successful rehabilitation. Family interventions include counseling, education, and identifying additional support frameworks for the caregiver. Both education and counseling interventions significantly improve caregiver knowledge. Encouraging patients to perform any activity that he or she is capable of doing 3.
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Minimal enteral nutrition (also referred to natural erectile dysfunction pills reviews 30 caps vimax with amex as "gut priming" or "trophic feedings") may be described as the nonnutritive use of very small volumes of human milk or formula for the intended purpose of preservation of gut maturation rather than nutrient delivery erectile dysfunction natural cures purchase vimax 30 caps fast delivery. Definitive conclusions cannot be drawn as to erectile dysfunction hormonal causes buy vimax canada what constitutes the optimal volume for minimal enteral nutrition. Infants who are undergoing medical treatment for patent ductus arteriosus may receive gut priming, pending the discretion of the care term. Although there is no such gold standard for preterm infants, the use of human milk offers many nutritional and nonnutritional advantages for the premature infant. Therefore, the use of fortified human milk is considered the preferred feeding for preterm infants. Preterm human milk contains higher amounts of protein, sodium, chloride, and magnesium than term milk. However, the levels of these nutrients Fluid Electrolytes Nutrition, Gastrointestinal, and Renal Issues 249 remain below preterm recommendations, the differences only persist for approximately the first 21 days of lactation, and composition is known to vary. However, as vitamin content of the feeding is not appreciably increased with the use of this product, a multivitamin and iron supplement is typically administered daily. Small, frequent bolus feedings may result in improved nutrient delivery and absorption compared with continuous feedings. Our protocols for the collection and storage of human milk are outlined in Chapter 22. Whey-predominant, taurine-supplemented protein source, which is better tolerated and produces a more normal plasma amino acid profile than caseinpredominant protein b. Once feeding volume has reached approximately 80 mL/kg/day, infants weighing 1,250 g should be considered for feeding intervals of every 2 hours or every 3 hours, as opposed to every 4 hours. Once feeding volume has reached approximately 100 mL/kg/day, consider advancing to 22 kcal/oz or 24 kcal/oz for all infants weighing 1,500 g. Consider advancing feeding volume more rapidly than the prescribed guidelines once tolerance of 100 mL/kg/day is established, but do not exceed increments of 15 mL/kg every 12 hours in most infants weighing 1,500 g. When attempting to determine how best to advance a preterm infant to full enteral nutrition, there is very limited data to support any one method as optimal. Use full-strength, 20 kcal/oz human milk or preterm formula and advance feeding volume according to the guidelines in Table 21. Volume, at the new caloric density, is typically maintained for approximately 24 hours before the advancement schedule is resumed. In instances where high and low Fe formulations are available, the iron fortified value appears. Additional product information and nutrient composition data may be found at the following websites: Specialized formulas have been designed for a variety of congenital and neonatal disorders, including milk protein allergy, malabsorption syndromes, and several inborn errors of metabolism. Indications for the most commonly used of these specialized formulas are briefly reviewed in Table 21. However, it is important to note that these formulas were not designed to meet the special nutritional needs of preterm infants. Preterm infants who are fed these formulas require close nutritional assessment and monitoring for potential protein, mineral, and multivitamin supplementation. Many ill and preterm infants require increased energy/nutrient intakes in order to achieve optimal rates of growth. Adjustments should be made gradually with feeding tolerance assessed after each change. Powdered infant formula may be used, as there is not a sterile, liquid, nutritionally adequate supplement to retain the volume of human milk provided. However, fat mixed with the feeding is subject to adherence to the storage container over time. Formula-fed, fluid-restricted preterm infants may be switched to a 26 to 30 kcal/oz premature infant formula once they are tolerating appropriate volumes of 24 kcal/oz feedings. As with preterm infants, adjustments should be made gradually with feeding tolerance assessed after each change. For term infants receiving standard formula, the formula density may be increased as needed by the use of standard formula powder, and/or modulars, or formula concentrate diluted to a more calorically dense feeding. Growth patterns of infants receiving these supplements are monitored closely and the nutritional care plan is adjusted accordingly. These should be individualized based on gestational age, clinical condition, and feeding tolerance. Nasogastric tube feedings are utilized more frequently, as orogastric tubes tend to be more difficult to secure. Infants with impaired suck/swallow coordination due to conditions such as encephalopathy, hypotonia, and maxillofacial abnormalities. Studies may be found in support of either method and, in practice, both are utilized. If difficulties with feeding tolerance occur, the amount of time over which a feeding is given may be lengthened by delivery via a syringe pump for 30 to 120 minutes. Transpyloric feedings should be delivered continuously, as the small intestine does not have the same capacity for expansion as does the stomach. There is an increased risk of fat malabsorption, as lingual and gastric lipase secretions are bypassed. Infants with neurologic impairment and/or those who are unable to take sufficient volumes through breast/bottle feeding to maintain adequate growth/hydration status G. It has been suggested that greater than 2 mg/kg/day may be needed when adjusted for noncompensated phlebotomy losses and the number of days during which the infant does not receive iron due to feeding intolerance or illness. Vitamin E is an important antioxidant that acts to prevent fatty acid peroxidation in the cell membrane. Preterm infants are not initiated on iron supplements until they are tolerating full enteral volumes of 24 kcal/oz feedings, which provides vitamin E at the low to midrange of the recommendations. An additional vitamin E supplement would be required to meet the upper end of the recommendation. As with parenteral glutamine supplementation, there are presently no recommendations for enteral glutamine supplementation in preterm infants. Emesis can be associated during the introduction and advancement of enteral feeds in preterm infants. These episodes are most commonly related to intestinal dysmotility secondary to prematurity and will respond to modifications of the feeding regimen. Temporary reductions in the feeding volume, lengthening the duration of the feeding (sometimes to the point of using continuous feeding), removal of nutritional additives, and temporary cessation of enteral feeds are all possible strategies depending upon the clinical course of the infant. Rarely, specialized formulas are used when all other feeding modifications have been tried without improvement. In general, these formulas should only be used for short periods of time with close nutritional monitoring.
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We provide an overview of the literature justifying the model erectile dysfunction pills thailand order vimax once a day, show how the resulting model can be employed to impotence quoad hoc buy cheap vimax on-line build algorithms for the recognition of facial expression of emotion erectile dysfunction injections videos order 30 caps vimax with mastercard, and propose research directions in machine learning and computer vision researchers to keep pushing the state of the art in these areas. We also discuss how the model can aid in studies of human perception, social interactions and disorders. Keywords: vision, face perception, emotions, computational modeling, categorical perception, face detection 1. Faces tell us the identity of the person we are looking at and provide information on gender, attractiveness and age, among many others. Of primary interest is the production and recognition of facial expressions of emotion. Emotions play a fundamental role in human cognition (Damasio, 1995) and are thus essential in studies of cognitive science, neuroscience and social psychology. And, sign languages use facial expressions to encode part of the grammar (Wilbur, 2011). It has also been speculated that expressions of emotion were relevant in human evolution (Darwin, 1872). Models of the perception of facial expressions of emotion are thus important for the advance of many scientific disciplines. A first reason machine learning and computer vision researchers are interested in creating computational models of the perception of facial expressions of emotion is to aid studies in the above sciences (Martinez, 2003). Yet, as much as we understand how facial expressions of emotion are produced, very little is known on how they are interpreted by the human visual system. In the last several years, we have defined a computational model consistent with the cognitive science and neuroscience literature. The present paper presents an overview of this research and a perspective of future areas of interest. We also discuss how machine learning and computer vision should proceed to successfully emulate this capacity in computers and how these models can aid in studies of visual perception, social interactions and disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. A configural feature is defined as a non-rotation invariant modeling of the distance between facial components; for example, the vertical distance between eyebrows and mouth. Under this model, the major difficulty for the design of computer vision and machine learning systems is that of precise detection of the features, rather than classification. Section 2 reviews relevant research on the perception of facial expressions of emotion by humans. Section 3 defines a computational model consistent with the results reported in the previous section. Section 4 illustrates the importance of configural and shape features for the recognition of emotions in face images. Section 5 argues that the real problem in machine learning and computer vision is a detection one and emphasizes the importance of research in this domain before we can move forward with improved algorithms of face recognition. Facial Expressions: From Production to Perception the human face is an engineering marvel. Underneath our skin, a large number of muscles allow us to produce many configurations. These face muscles are connected to the motor neurons in the cerebral cortex through the corticobulbar track. The top muscles are connected bilaterally, while the bottom ones are connected unilaterally to the opposite hemisphere. With proper training, one can learn to move most of the face muscles independently. There is debate on whether these predetermined configurations are innate or learned (nature vs. By universal, we mean that people from different cultures produce similar muscle movements when expressing some emotions. Facial expressions typically classified as universal are joy, surprise, anger, sadness, disgust and fear (Darwin, 1872; Ekman and Friesen, 1976). Universality of emotions is controversial, since it assumes facial expressions of emotion are innate (rather than culturally bound). That is, there is a finite set of predefined classes such as the six listed above. Each classifier is specifically designed to recognize a single emotion label, such as surprise. Several psychophysical experiments suggest the perception of emotions by humans is categorical (Ekman and Rosenberg, 2005). Studies in neuroscience further suggest that distinct regions (or pathways) in the brain are used to recognize different expressions of emotion (Calder et al. An alternative to the categorical model is the continuous model (Russell, 2003; Rolls, 1990). Here, each emotion is represented as a feature vector in a multidimensional space given by some characteristics common to all emotions. This model can justify the perception of many expressions, whereas the categorical model needs to define a class. Whereas the categorical model would need to add an additional computation to achieve this goal (Martinez, 2003), in the continuous model the intensity is intrinsically defined in its representation. Yet, morphs between expressions of emotions are generally classified to the closest class rather than to an intermediate category (Beale and Keil, 1995). Perhaps more interestingly, the continuous model better explains the caricature effect (Rhodes et al. This is because the farther the feature vector representing that expression is from the mean (or center of the face space), the easier it is to recognize it (Valentine, 1991). In neuroscience, the multidimensional (or continuous) view of emotions was best exploited under the limbic hypothesis (Calder et al. Under this model, there should be a neural mechanism responsible for the recognition of all facial expressions of emotion, which was assumed to take place in the limbic system. Recent results have however uncovered dissociated networks for the recognition of most emotions. This is not necessarily proof of a categorical model, but it strongly suggests that there are at least distinct groups of emotions, each following distinct interpretations. Furthermore, humans are only very good at recognizing a number of facial expressions of emotion. The reader should not have any problem recognizing the emotion in display even at the lowest of resolutions. However, humans are not as good at recognizing anger and sadness and are even worse at fear and disgust. One possibility is that expressions such as joy and surprise involve larger face transformations than the others.
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Ranges from an epispadias to erectile dysfunction needle injection video buy generic vimax on-line complete extrusion of the bladder onto the abdominal wall stress and erectile dysfunction causes discount vimax 30 caps with mastercard. Use moist erectile dysfunction drugs bayer order vimax 30caps fast delivery, fine-mesh gauze or petroleum jelly-impregnated gauze to cover the exposed bladder. Surgical management of an extrophied bladder includes turn-in of the bladder to preserve bladder function. Understanding of the long-term psychological effects of this practice has made this decision extremely controversial, and no one approach is correct for all patients. Endocrine consultation is critical when deciding phenotypic gender assignment (see Chap. The baby excretes stool through a vesicointestinal fissure that is often partially obstructed. A series of complex operations is required in stages to achieve the most satisfactory results. The focus is first on separating the gastrointestinal from the genitourinary tract. Later stages focus on bladder reconstruction, often requiring augmentation using intestine or stomach. Subsequent procedures are designed to reduce the number of stomas and create genitalia, although this remains controversial. Although they are most commonly found in the sacrococcygeal area, they can arise anywhere, including the retroperitoneal area or the ovaries. Neuroblastoma is the most common malignant neonatal tumor, accounting for approximately 50%. On rare occasions, this tumor can cause hypertension or diarrhea by the release of tumor by-products, especially catecholamines or vasointestinal peptides. Of note, many neuroblastomas diagnosed prenatally resolve spontaneously before birth. Other tumors include hemangiomas, lymphangiomas, hepatoblastomas, hepatomas, hamartomas, and nephromas. Inguinal hernia repair is the most common operation performed on premature infants. In general, hernias in this patient population can be repaired shortly before discharge home if they are easily reducible and cause no other problems. For stable premature infants, repair is usually delayed until discharge is near, so that patients may leave the hospital without the risk of incarceration. An incarcerated hernia can usually be reduced with sedation, Surgery 825 steady firm pressure, and elevation of the feet. If a hernia has been incarcerated, it should be repaired as soon as the edema has resolved. The operation may be difficult and should be performed by an experienced pediatric surgeon. The use of spinal anesthesia has simplified the postoperative care of the infants with respiratory problems. As these infants often develop postoperative apnea, they should be monitored in hospital for at least 24 hours after surgery. Infants with significant pulmonary disease, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, are often best repaired at a later time when their respiratory status has improved. We have occasionally had well-instructed parents bring their babies home, and then have them readmitted later for repair. The risks and benefits of this option must be weighed carefully as there is a real risk of the hernia incarcerating at home. Approximately 70% of the cases of testicular torsion that are diagnosed in the newborn period actually occur prenatally. In the newborn, testicular torsion is generally extravaginal (the twist occurs outside the tunica vaginalis) and is caused by an incomplete attachment of the gubernaculum to the testis, allowing torsion and infarction. The testicle is generally nontender, firm, indurated, and swollen with a slightly bluish or dusky cast of the affected side of the scrotum. If the torsion is acute, rather than longstanding, it will be extremely tender to palpation. The overlying skin, limited to the scrotum itself, may be erythematous or edematous. Ultrasonography employing Doppler flow studies can be helpful if available, but testing should not delay referral for surgery if there is a possibility that the torsion is recent. In the vast majority of cases, the torsed testicle is already necrotic at birth; therefore, surgical intervention will not salvage the testicle. However, if there is any possibility that the torsion occurred recently, and the infant is otherwise healthy, emergency surgical exploration and detorsion should be performed within 4 to 6 hours. Because there have been reports of bilateral testicular torsion, surgical exploration should include contralateral orchiopexy. Even if emergency exploration is not indicated because of definitive evidence of chronicity of torsion, exploration should be performed on a nonemergent basis to rule out a tumor with clinical and imaging findings identical to testicular torsion. This is generally bilateral, and may present with hematocele, scrotal swelling, and ecchymoses. Resolution is usually spontaneous but severe cases may require surgical exploration, evacuation of the hematocele, and repair of the testes. Swelling is usually less marked and may present on palpation or as a blue dot on the scrotum. Distinguishable from torsion by the appearance of a small but distinct ecchymosis over the superficial inguinal ring. A left lateral decubitus or cross table lateral radiograph is obtained to ascertain the presence of free air in the abdomen. It may reveal microcolon in the infant with complete obstruction of the small intestine and may show a narrow segment in the sigmoid in the infant with meconium plug syndrome due to functional immaturity. A contrast enema may show malposition of the cecum but will not always rule out malrotation. Neonates with intestinal obstruction presumed secondary to malrotation require urgent surgery to relieve possible volvulus of the midgut. Ultrasonography is the preferred method of evaluating abdominal masses in the newborn. It is useful for defining the presence of masses, together with their size, shape, and consistency. Contrast enhancement can outline the intestine, blood vessels, kidneys, ureter, and bladder.
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A cryptosystem in which the cryptographic equivalents (usually called "code groups") erectile dysfunction treatment in sri lanka generic 30 caps vimax fast delivery, typically Source: U best erectile dysfunction doctor in india generic vimax 30caps. Code names and nicknames are always the second part of an operation erectile dysfunction drugs herbal best buy for vimax, plan or project title. As noted elsewhere, code words [and also codenames] are always classified; nicknames are always unclassified and consist of two separate words. The former can be viable for years, unless compromised, while the latter are ephemeral. Additionally, it should be noted that codenames are used in conjunction with military operations, operational or contingency plans, or concepts, whereas military projects are usually nonoperational intelligence, and counterintelligence usage may differ from military practice. Codewords can stand alone, and when used in codeword intelligence, they may or may not designate intelligence operations, but are otherwise used for access to the product of such operations. Its use of code names for operations grew out of the practice of color-coding war plans during the interwar period. Even before America entered the war, the War Department had executed Operation Gray and Black respectively. A unique name assigned to a project, program, or element of information for the purpose of safeguarding the true nature of the protected interest. Department of Energy, Office of Security and Safety Performance Assurance, Safeguards and 2. A single classified word assigned to represent a specific special access Security Glossary of Terms. Code words must not suggest the nature of their meaning or convey the nature of the protected activity. Department of Energy, Office of Security and Safety Performance Assurance, Safeguards and 3. Designed to provide special protection, beyond that provided by the federal classification Source: Central Intelligence Agency. A word that has been assigned a classification and a classified meaning to safeguard intentions and information regarding a classified plan or operation. Available code words individually will be unclassified until placed in the active category; (2) Active. Formerly active, but discontinued due to compromise, suspected compromise, cessation, or and remains canceled until returned to the active category. Arkin describes Collateral Information as: Nonsensitive noncompartmentalized information classified Confidential, Secret or Top Secret. The exploitation of sources by collection agencies, and the delivery of the information obtained to the appropriate processing unit for use in the production of intelligence. Also, obtaining information or intelligence information in any manner, including direct observations, liaison with official agencies, or foreign systems. Information shall be considered as "collected" only when it has been received for use by an employee of a DoD intelligence component in the course of his official duties. Thus, information volunteered to a DoD intelligence component by a cooperating source would be "collected" under this procedure when an employee of such component officially accepts, in some manner, such information for use within that component. Data acquired by electronic means is "collected" only when it has been processed into intelligible form. Collection of information includes any requirement or request for persons to obtain, maintain, retain, report, or publicly disclose information. As used in this Part, "collection of information' refers to the act of collecting or disclosing information, to the information to be collected or disclosed, to a plan and/or an instrument calling for the collection or disclosure of information, or any of these, as appropriate. A "collection of information' may implicitly or explicitly include related collection of information requirements. The response to such a query will include a list of all telephone numbers in the Collection Store that either called or were called by the seed. These telephone numbers are frequently referred to as representing the first "hop" away from the seed, because they include only telephone numbers with which the seed was in direct contact. All of the results that are returned from a query of the Collection Store are placed in a second database known as the "Corporate Store. The presidential plane took off for New York from Andrews Air Force in Maryland accompanied by two F16 jet fighters. The rapid proliferation of low-cost video sensors presents an opportunity to obtain the necessary reconnaissance and targeting information by deploying large numbers of video cameras. The key technical goal of Combat Zones That See is to produce the algorithms for automatically monitoring video feeds to provide the reconnaissance and targeting information needed 24/7 to support military operations in urban terrain. The volume of data involved precludes wireless transmission and manual observation of all sensor feeds. By co-locating processors with video cameras, the bandwidth required to effectively support military operations can be reduced to manageable levels. Combat zones That See intends to track all vehicles that move within an extended area of observation. Despite the decreasing cost of cameras, processors, and communications, the complete observation of an entire metropolitan area is not practical. Command and control warfare is an application of information operations in military operations. Government relating to national security and to ensure the authenticity of such communications. Compromising emanations consist of electrical or acoustical energy emitted from Source: U. Army Surveillance of Civilians: A Documentary Analysis by the staff of the Subcommittee on Printing Office, 1972, Y 4. Government See Classification Criminal intelligence reports not designated as sensitive; and Information obtained through intelligence unit channels that is not classified as sensitive and is for law enforcement use only. Documents that can be disclosed may be subject to confidentiality protection so as to completely thwart the purpose of disclosure. International Trade Commission allows businesses submitting certain business data to mark the data as confidential business information or business proprietary information. Both terms have the same definition, but there are some differences in how the Commission applies the terms in practice. The term ``confidential business information' includes ``proprietary information' within the meaning of section 777(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U. Citizen 90 A citizen of the United States who has undergone a background investigation by an authorized U. The classified books, available to Members and committee staff, include explanatory narrative and resource displays for all resources requested by the program. Also included are descriptions of base levels of efforts, ongoing initiatives and new initiatives with associated resource displays. Classified budget justification books, provided by the Administration to Congress, are the primary ways, in addition to oral testimony, by which Congress obtains information about intelligence programs.
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As long as a sufficiently high degree of internal correlation and causal coupling allows this island of dancing micro-events in your brain to erectile dysfunction doctor in columbus ohio cost of vimax emerge erectile dysfunction injection medication order cheapest vimax, you live in a single reality impotence grounds for divorce discount vimax american express. This emergence can happen during "offline states" as well: In dreams, however, the binding of contents does not work quite as well, which is why your dream reality is frequently so bizarre, why you have difficulty focusing your attention, why scenes follow each other so quickly. Nevertheless, there is still an overall situation, you are still present, and that is why phenomenal experience continues. But when you move into deep sleep and the island dissolves back into the sea, your world disappears as well. We humans have known this since Greek antiquity: Sleep is the little brother of death; it means letting go of the world. One of the intriguing characteristics of current research into consciousness is how old philosophical ideas reappear in the best of cutting-edge neuroscience-in new disguise, as it were. Aristotle and Franz Brentano alike pointed out that consciously perceiving must also mean being aware of the fact that one is consciously perceiving, right now, at this very moment. If this idea is true, the brain state creating your con- A Tour of the Tunnel 31 scious perception of the book in your hand right now must have two logical parts: one portraying the book and one continuously representing the state itself. Conscious states could be exactly those states that "metarepresent" themselves while representing something else. This classical idea has logical problems, but the insight itself can perhaps be preserved in an empirically plausible framework. In conscious visual processing, for example, high-level information is dynamically mapped back to low-level information, but it all refers to the same retinal image. Each time your eyes land on a scene (remember, your eye makes about three saccades per second), there is a feedforward-feedback cycle about the current image, and that cycle gives you the detailed conscious percept of that scene. You continuously make conscious snapshots of the world via these feedforward-feedback cycles. In a more general sense, the principle is that the almost continuous feedback-loops from higher to lower areas create an ongoing cycle, a circular nested flow of information, in which what happened a few milliseconds ago is dynamically mapped back to what is coming in right now. In this way, the immediate past continuously creates a context for the present-it filters what can be experienced right now. We see how an old philosophical idea is refined and spelled out by modern neuroscience on the nuts-and-bolts level. And this may be a deeper insight into the essence of the world-creating function of conscious experience: Conscious information seems to be integrated and unified precisely because the underlying physical process is mapped back onto itself and becomes its own context. Another fascinating scientific route into the One-World Problem is increasingly receiving attention. It has long been known that in deep meditation the experience of unity and holistic integration is particularly salient. Thus, if we want to know what consciousness is, why not consult those people who cultivate it in its purest form Or even better, why not use our modern neuroimaging techniques to look directly into their brains while they maximize the unity and holism of their minds Keck Laboratory for Functional Brain Imaging and Behavior at the University of Wisconsin studied Tibetan monks who had experienced at least ten thousand hours of meditation. The highamplitude gamma activity found in some of these meditators seems to be the strongest reported in the scientific literature. As Wolf Singer and his coworkers have shown, gamma-band oscillations, caused by groups of neurons firing away in synchrony about forty times per second, are one of our best current candidates for creating unity and wholeness (although their specific role in this respect is still very much debated). Many experiments have shown that synchronous firing may be exactly what differentiates an assembly of neurons that gains access to consciousness from one that also fires away but in an uncoordinated manner and thus does not. Synchrony is a powerful causal force: If a thousand soldiers walk over a bridge together, nothing happens; however, if they march across in lockstep, the bridge may well collapse. The synchrony of neural responses also plays a decisive role in figurebackground segregation-that is, the pop-out effect that lets us perceive an object against a background, allowing a new gestalt to emerge from A Tour of the Tunnel 33 the perceptual scene. He confronted me with an intriguing idea: Could deep meditation be the process, perhaps the only process, in which human beings can sometimes turn the global background into the gestalt, the dominating feature of consciousness itself This assumption would fit in nicely with an intuition held by many, among others Antoine Lutz, namely that the fundamental subject/object structure of experience can be transcended in states of this kind. Interestingly, this high-amplitude oscillatory activity in the brains of experienced meditators emerges over several dozens of seconds. Another interesting finding is that there are significant postmeditative changes to the baseline activity of the brain. Apparently, repeated meditative practice changes the deep structure of consciousness. If meditation is seen as a form of mental training, it turns out that oscillatory synchrony in the gamma range opens just the right time window that would be necessary to promote synaptic change efficiently. To sum up, it would seem that feature binding occurs when the widely distributed neurons that represent the reflection of light, the surface properties, and the weight of, say, this book start dancing together, firing at the same time. This rhythmic firing pattern creates a coherent cloud in your brain, a network of neurons representing a single object-the book-for you at a particular moment. It spans many levels of organization, it self-organizes over time, and it constantly seeks an optimal balance between the parts and the whole as they gradually unfold. But the next problem in formulating a complete theory of consciousness is more difficult. This experiential Now is the second big problem for a modern theory of consciousness. The biological consciousness tunnel is not a tunnel only in the simple sense of being an internal model of reality in your brain. Here we encounter a subtler form of inwardness-namely, an inwardness in the temporal domain, subjectively experienced. The empirical story will have to deal with short-term memory and working memory, with recurrent loops in neural networks, and with the binding of single events into larger temporal gestalts (often simply called the psychological moment). The truly vexing aspect of the Now Problem is conceptual: It is very hard to say what exactly the puzzle consists of. At this point, philosophers and scientists alike typically quote a passage from the fourteenth chapter of the eleventh book of St. It makes the world present for you by creating a new space in your mind-the space of temporal internality. You may disagree at first: Is it not true that my conscious, episodic memory of my last walk on the beach refers to something in the past Yes, this is true- but they are always embedded in a conscious model of the self as remembering the starfish on the beach right now, as planning a new route to the peak at this very moment. A major function of conscious experience consists, as the great British psychologist Richard Gregory has put it, in "flagging the dangerous present. This idea relates to a classic concept introduced by Bernard Baars of the Neurosciences Institute in San Diego, best known for his book A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness, in which he outlines his global-workspace theory as a model for consciousness. His fruitful metaphor of consciousness as the content of a global workspace of the mind implies that only the critical aspects are represented in consciousness. Conscious information is exactly that information that must be made available for every single one of your cognitive capacities at the same time.
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Specific approaches to impotence meaning buy 30caps vimax mastercard respiratory support and mechanical ventilation vary among medical centers erectile dysfunction in 60 year old order vimax pills in toronto. The optimal strategy for this group of infants involves mechanical ventilation with rapid erectile dysfunction exercise 30 caps vimax free shipping, low-pressure, and short inspiratory time in an effort to minimize elevated intrathoracic pressure and modulate effects of ventilation on pulmonary venous return and cardiac output. The results of randomized clinical trials are awaited before this therapy can be recommended. Optimal cardiac output is necessary to maximize tissue oxygenation and mixed venous oxygen content. A limitation of current neonatal practice is the deficit of universally available technologies to assess cardiac output and end-organ perfusion. Although noninvasive means of assessing cardiac output are under development, at present, these are not widely available. In treating infants with evidence of marked capillary leak, we avoid the use of 5% albumin because, under these circumstances, albumin also leaks from capillaries and worsens interstitial edema. Dobutamine, a synthetic catecholamine with a chemical structure similar to that of isoproterenol, has an inotropic more than a chronotropic effect on the heart primarily via 1-adrenergic stimulation. Biochemical abnormalities might contribute to right-to-left shunting by impairing cardiac function. Consideration of associated and differential diagnoses and the known or hypothetical pathogenesis of the right-to-left hemodynamic shunt might prove helpful in selecting the best agent or combination of agents for a particular infant. Recent advances in the pathogenesis and treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Advances in the diagnosis and management of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Pulmonary hemorrhage is defined on pathologic examination as the presence of erythrocytes in the alveoli and/or lung interstitium, with those infants surviving longer than 24 hours showing a predominance of interstitial hemorrhage. Confluent hemorrhage involving at least two lobes of the lung is termed massive pulmonary hemorrhage. Commonly, pulmonary hemorrhage is defined as the presence of hemorrhagic fluid in the trachea accompanied by respiratory decompensation requiring increased respiratory support or intubation within 60 minutes of the appearance of fluid. Pulmonary hemorrhage likely results from heterogeneous conditions converging in a common final physiologic pathway. Pulmonary hemorrhage is believed to result from hemorrhagic pulmonary edema rather than direct bleeding into the lung, based on studies of lung effluent demonstrating relatively low erythrocyte concentration compared to whole blood. Acute left ventricular failure, caused by hypoxia and other conditions, may lead to increased pulmonary capillary pressure and injury to the capillary endothelium. This may result in increased transudation and leak into the interstitium, and ultimately, pulmonary airspace. Disorders of coagulation may worsen pulmonary hemorrhage, but are not thought to initiate the condition. Clinically apparent pulmonary hemorrhage occurs at a rate of 1 to 12 per 1,000 live births. Accurate incidence rates are difficult to ascertain as the clinical definition is not uniform and definitive diagnosis requires pathologic examination (which may be unavailable because the event was not fatal or permission for pathologic examination was not obtained). In high-risk groups such as premature and growth-restricted infants, the incidence increases to as many as 50 per 1,000 live births. Some studies report hemorrhage in up to 68% of autopsied neonates, with severe pulmonary hemorrhage occurring in 19% of infants dying in the first week of life. Risk factors include conditions predisposing the infant to increased left ventricular filling pressures, increased pulmonary blood flow, compromised pulmonary venous drainage, or poor cardiac contractility. Increased pulmonary blood flow and compromised ventricular function accompany decreasing pulmonary vascular resistance, leading to pulmonary microvascular injury and hemorrhagic pulmonary edema. Pulmonary hemorrhage appears to be a complication of surfactant therapy; however, the overall benefits of surfactant treatment outweigh the risks. A Cochrane meta-analysis of 11 surfactant trials using synthetic or animal-derived surfactants also demonstrated a significant increase in pulmonary hemorrhage. However, this finding was primarily the result of an increase in pulmonary hemorrhage in infants treated with prophylactic synthetic surfactant preparations. The risk of pulmonary hemorrhage was not increased in infants treated with natural or synthetic surfactant using a rescue strategy. Overwhelming sepsis appears to increase the risk of pulmonary hemorrhage, likely the result of increased pulmonary capillary permeability, and potentially exacerbated by the associated thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. The clinical diagnosis of pulmonary hemorrhage is made when sudden cardiorespiratory decompensation occurs in the setting of hemorrhagic fluid in the upper respiratory tract. Only a small percentage of pulmonary hemorrhages observed at autopsy are evident clinically. This is most likely due to the difficulty in diagnosing hemorrhage confined to the interstitial space without spread to the airways. In the absence of hemorrhagic secretions, respiratory deterioration is usually attributed to other causes. On physical examination, infants with pulmonary hemorrhage have pink or red frothy fluid in the airway and signs of respiratory decompensation. Isolated bleeding, in the absence of respiratory deterioration, may result from erosion or ulceration in the upper airway and not represent pulmonary hemorrhage. The clinical diagnosis of pulmonary hemorrhage may be facilitated by the radiographic changes that accompany it. Nonspecific changes on chest radiograph include diffuse fluffy infiltrates or opacification of one or both lungs with air bronchograms. The laboratory evaluation reflects the cardiopulmonary compromise with associated metabolic or mixed acidosis, a drop in hematocrit, and sometimes evidence of coagulopathy. In most cases, the coagulopathy is probably a result of the hemorrhage rather than a precipitating factor. Because the underlying pathogenesis remains unclear, treatment remains supportive. The general approach involves clearing the airways of hemorrhagic fluid and restoring adequate ventilation. Correct hemodynamic instability with volume resuscitation including packed red blood cell replacement, and consider the addition of vasoactive medications, as needed. Additional potential contributing factors such as sepsis and coagulopathy must be addressed. It is uncertain whether using high-frequency ventilation to provide high mean airway pressure while limiting tidal volume excursions is more effective than conventional ventilation to minimize further interstitial and alveolar fluid accumulation. Following pulmonary hemorrhage, hemoglobin, plasma proteins, and cell membrane lipids present in the airspace may inactivate surfactant. Exogenous surfactant replacement may reverse the inhibition, as demonstrated in the setting of meconium aspiration. Decreased lung compliance following a hemorrhage may prevent or attenuate further surfactant-associated changes in pulmonary perfusion that conferred an increased risk of pulmonary edema before the hemorrhage.
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Advanced film production techniques including sync-sound erectile dysfunction band trusted vimax 30 caps, lighting erectile dysfunction questionnaire buy generic vimax line, lab postproduction and film business erectile dysfunction cleveland clinic buy vimax master card. Advanced Projects in Directing and/or Theatre Management and/or Stage Management (1-3 cr, max 9) Ind. Masters Thesis (6-10 cr) Prereq: Admission to masters degree program and permission of major adviser 940. Problems and theories of scenery, costume, and lighting design for ballet, opera, musicals, and legitimate plays. Internship Prereq: Permission only Practical projects related to a professional theatre organization. Doctoral Dissertation (1-24 cr, max 55) (1-6 cr) Prereq: Admission to doctoral degree program and permission of supervisory committee chair Description Johnny Carson School of Theatre and Film For a brief description of the program, application requirements and contact information, view the graduate program summary. Graduate Committee: Professors Grange (chair), Miller; Associate Professors Brown, Endacott, H. Stauffer, Teo; Assistant Professor Parker the Johnny Carson School of Theatre and Film offers graduate courses leading to the degree of master of fine arts. The requirements for the degree are as follows: 1) candidates must hold a bachelors degree with an undergraduate major in theatre from an accredited college or as approved by Graduate Committee; 2) at the time of application, the student must clearly state his/her degree objective, the curriculum in which he/she will work, and the area of specialization. Students applying in design and technical theatre should submit a portfolio of designs, production books, sketches, working drawings, and photographs. Introduction to general pathology emphasizing etiology, pathogenesis, morphologic features, and fundamental alterations associated with the fundamental changes of disease. Microscopic anatomy of the tissues and organs of major vertebrate species, including humans. Normal cellular arrangements of tissues and organs as related to their macroscopic anatomy and function, with reference to sub-cellular cellular arrangements of tissues and organs as related to their macroscopic anatomy and function, with reference to sub-cellular characteristics and biochemical processes. Functional relationships among cells, tissues, organs and organ systems, contributory to organismal well being. Introduction to concepts of epidemiology including definition and uses of epidemiology. Introduction to the molecular, genetic and cellular aspects of microbial pathogenesis in humans and animals. Molecular approaches to the study of prokaryotic cell structure and physiology, including growth, cell division, metabolism, and alternative microbial life styles. Case studies used, in the laboratory setting, to explore and test fundamentals of transmission, epidemiology and to disease pathogenesis of selected infectious agents and to relate these to disease signs, treatments and epidemiology and to disease pathogenesis of selected infectious agents and to relate these to disease signs, treatments and methods of control. Theoretical basis for emerging cellular, molecular and reproductive technologies, and their potential applications and impacts in the practice of food animal veterinary medicine. Concepts of virus replication strategies, virus-host interactions and virus pathogenesis. Diagnostic Techniques (1-10 cr) Application of the principles of pathology to current problems in the diagnostic laboratory. Subject areas: Scientific Methodologies; Antigen Presentation; T Cell Receptor and Coreceptor; Thymic Structure and Self/Nonself Discrimination; T Cell Regulation; Allergy and Autoimmune Diseases; and T-Cell-Mediated Inflammation and Cytokine Network. Basic mechanisms regulating gene expression in eukaryotes during various physiological states. Measurements of disease and production, the basic tenants of epidemiology, taught in detail including incidence density, risk rates, morbidity, mortality, cause specific rates, and life tables. Design, implementation, and analysis of cross-sectional, cohort, and case-control studies and field trials. Analyses includes chi-square tests, Cochrane Chi-square tests, and epidemiologic measures of strength of association, effect, and total effect. Advanced Food Animal Production Medicine Prereq: Permission (2 cr) Lec/disc & lab. Integrates aspects of veterinary medicine, animal science, and agricultural economics. Prereq: Permission; organic chemistry; biochemistry; immunology and/or concepts in virology and virolopathogenesis Pathogenic microbiology recommended. Description of virus and immune system interactions, with emphasis on mouse and human models. Mechanism of antigen presentation of viral proteins and relationship to health and disease. Analysis of the hosts immune response to selected viral infections of the major systems: neural, respiratory, gastrointestinal and immune. Current topics in molecular virology relevant to the natural history and pathogenesis of viral diseases of humans and animals. Special Topics in Veterinary Science Prereq: Permission (1-10 cr) (2-10 cr) the subject will be dependent on student demand and availability of staff. The Department administers the interdepartmental doctoral program in Integrative Biomedical Sciences through which it offers the PhD degree. All candidates for advanced degrees must engage in disciplinary training and research as a part of their program. Applicants are encouraged to send a letter to the chair of the Graduate Committee describing their background, experience, and personal and academic goals in pursuing graduate study. This innovative program, whose inaugural class of 25 Nebraska residents entered the fall semester of 2007, is the first of its kind in the United States. Though every professional veterinary program must provide a core curriculum, the unique opportunities provided by this program allow students to have more hands-on experience and a broader range of opportunities than some of their counterparts. The student must be formally registered in one of the departments with approval to offer the option as a minor or specialization. The recommended masters degree option is I (thesis) but other options may be approved. Departments with Approval to Offer Option as a Minor or Specialization: Agricultural Economics, Agronomy/Horticulture, Animal Science, Biological Sciences, Biological Systems Engineering, Civil Engineering, Community and Regional Planning, Geography, Geosciences, Industrial and Management Systems Engineering, Mathematics, Political Science, School of Natural Resources, and Sociology. A Water Resources Advisory Committee coordinates the interdisciplinary aspects of the minor/specialization. The Director of the Nebraska Water Center/Environmental Programs in the School of Natural Resource Sciences serves as chair with one member from each participating department. Examples of courses in water resources to comprise the 9-hour minor or specialization are listed below according to departments. Students may take courses cross listed in an outside department to meet minor or specialization requirements. Turbulent Transfer in the Atmospheric Surface Layer Offered in the Department of Civil Engineering 821. Groundwater Modeling Offered in the Department of Community and Regional Planning 870. Soil Physics Satellite Meteorology Water Quality Strategy+ Groundwater Geology+ Hydrogeology Seminar in Meteorology & Climatology Seminar in Climatic Change Seminar in Hydrogeology Offered in the School of Natural Resources 808. Continuation of work with refugee and/or immigrant and/or minority K-12 student or adult to assist them in educational process and/or culture transition. Gender as a correlate of biology, language, economic systems, social and political structures, and belief systems. Theories and research findings about the social and psychological effects of clothing and appearance in relation to the self and others.