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Additionally erectile dysfunction age 18 buy cialis super active paypal, the equations on the previous page were explained in order to l-arginine erectile dysfunction treatment order cialis super active online provide a logical approach to impotence pills cheap cialis super active online american express the calculation of the fluid deficit. If the logic is understood, the calculations can be derived without having to look them up. Both approaches (the derivations described and the formula below) will produce the correct answer for the water deficit. The development of hypernatremia is a two-step process: generation and maintenance. The brain normally compensates for this by increasing the concentration of intracellular solutes such as osmolytes. The next chapter, Polydipsia, Polyuria, will cover the mechanism, pathophysiology and diagnosis of diabetes insipidus. Hypervolemic / euvolemic Evaluate clinical situation and consider excess mineralocorticoid activity,! Topf 9 Polydipsia, Polyuria 9 Polydipsia, Polyuria 9 219 the Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Companion Introduction Polydipsia is defined as increased thirst. Fighting against hyperosmolality Ps Polydipsia og ych en ic ol y d i p si Polydipsia is increased thirst that triggers the ingestion of water. There are two reasons for a patient to be polydipsic and ingest water: Fighting hyperosmolality. Thirst and water ingestion are the appropriate responses to plasma hyperosmolality. Medical Greek:Polydipsiais a term which refers to excessive that is typically chronic. Topf 9 Polydipsia, Polyuria Introduction Polyuria, increased urine output, can cause or result from polydipsia. Polydipsia Polyuria Polydipsia and polyuria have an interesting relationship because either one can cause the other. Polyuria causing polydipsia occurs when large amounts of hypotonic fluid are lost in the urine. To compensate for water lost in the urine, the patient ingests large amounts of water to maintain normal plasma osmolality. Many patients complain of increased urination, often referring to urinary frequency or urgency such as that seen in urinary tract infection. Patients who are polydipsic secondary to hypovolemic hypernatremia are not polyuric. The battle against hyperosmolality is fought by and the ingestion of water. Psychogenic polydipsia is the voluntary ingestion of large quantities of water which causes. Psychogenic water consumption typically occurs in patients with underlying mental illness, typically schizophrenia. These patients, for unknown reasons, compulsively drink enormous quantities of water. This can overwhelm the excretory capacity of the kidney and result in symptomatic hyponatremia. If the problem is long-standing, the excessive tubular flow can wash out the concentrated medullary interstitium. Because these patients lose their concentrated medullary interstitium, they develop a partial nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Patients must be weaned from their excessive water consumption to prevent dehydration and hypernatremia. Institutionalized patients with psychogenic polydipsia are often on psychotropic medicine which can worsen the condition. Antipsychotic medications and tricyclic antidepressants have anticholinergic side effects which can cause dry mouth and stimulate thirst. Psychogenic polydipsia is explained in further detail in Chapter 6, Hyponatremia:The Pathophysiology. Ingestion of too much water can cause a partial diabetes insipidus due to washout of the interstitium. Topf 9 Polydipsia, Polyuria Polyuria causing polydipsia Loss of hypotonic urine can be due to osmotic diuresis or diabetes insipidus. These renal losses increase plasma which stimulates and the ingestion of water. Additional solutes in the collecting tubule reduce the amount of water that can be resorbed into the concentrated medullary interstitium. The details of the mechanism and causes of osmotic diureses are reviewed in Chapter 8, Hypernatremiapage 194. Osmotic diuresis can be due to hyper- and the administration of. Osmotic diuresis predisposes to hyperosmolality by increasing the loss of in the urine. Kidney with diabetes insipidus the kidney with diabetes insipidus is unable to concentrate urine and may require up to 18 liters of water to excrete the daily solute load. Diabetes insipidus is a disorder characterized by the inability to produce a concentrated urine. Because of the inability to concentrate urine, patients with diabetes insipidus need to produce large amounts of dilute urine in order to excrete the daily solute load. Patients who lose large amounts of dilute fluid in the urine must drink large amounts of water to maintain normal plasma osmolality. Following this, specific disorders causing central and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus are reviewed. Remember that with diabetes insipidus, as with all other conditions which hypergenerate natremia, patients become thirsty as plasma osmolality rises; the ingestion of water maintains a normal plasma sodium concentration. In diabetes insipidus, the kidney is unable to urine; therefore, it produces large amounts of urine in order to excrete the daily load. If the concentration of the medullary interstitium is greater than the concentration of the tubular fluid, water will flow into the medullary interstitium and be resorbed by the body. They conjectured that this was probably due to a stress hormone and began searching for this hormone. The theory of pre-made factor release can also explain the common finding of tachyphylaxis. These patients do not bleed spontaneously and typically are only treated following trauma or before undergoing surgery. Fluid retention can be a problem, and careful monitoring of urine output and plasma sodium should be done. The concentration of urine is a multistep process that depends on the coordinated action of the hypothalamus, collecting tubule and loop of Henle.
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A precise role of osteoclasts in bone resorption is not clear impotence type 1 diabetes cheap cialis super active 20 mg mastercard, but those cells are responsible for secretion of collagenase erectile dysfunction and diabetes type 2 generic 20 mg cialis super active free shipping, acid & proteolytic enzymes erectile dysfunction 21 order 20 mg cialis super active with mastercard. Bone strength as a trait for assessing mineralization in swine: A critical review of techniques involved. A "flexure test" (or bending test): 1) 2) Considers the force, distance, inside & outside diameters, etc. Based on measurements, can calculate: Bending moment, stress (or strength), modulus of elasticity & other bone characteristics! Chiba Animal Nutrition Handbook Section 9: Bone Page 245 4) Increase formation of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. Calcitonin: the exact role is unknown, and does not seem to be involved in homeostasis of Ca, P or others. Estrogen & androgens - Anabolic (8 Ca & P in the body, and involved in formation of spongy bones). Thyroid hormones - Normal concentrations/activities are anabolic, whereas the excess may have negative effects. K the vitamin A deficiency can lead to disorganized bone growth & irritation of joints. Vitamin C: 1) 2) Important in collagen synthesis, thus involved in protein matrix formation. G Manganese (Mn): 1) 2) Required for enzymes involved in the synthesis of chondroitin sulfates (component of mucopolysaccharides in bones & cartilage). Involved in activation of alkaline phosphatase, which is involved in collagen synthesis & transfer of P-group to bone tissues. A component of collagenase, which is involved in collagen synthesis (^ in bone matrix formation & remodeling of the bone). About 99% of total body Ca and 75% (80-85% in bones & teeth) of total body P are found in the skeleton - the ratio of Ca & P in the bone is 2. Ca & P are readily mobilized when needed, which is especially important for laying hens & lactating sows! Involved in a normal blood coagulation - Responsible for the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, etc. Involved in regulation of nervous system: a) b) c) Ionic permeability of the membrane. Important buffer (acid-base) - A major intracellular buffer in regulation of urine pH, etc. Hardly any physiological function that does not involve P, directly or indirectly! Ca:P ratio - Excess Ca can form insoluble tricalcium phosphate, ^ 9 absorption of P. Excess Fe, Al, Mg can form insoluble phosphates, ^ 9 P (& others) absorption rate. Calcium: 1) 2) Almost 99% of Ca is reabsorbed by the kidneys, thus limited excretion via the urine. Laying hens - A poor quality shell & incubation quality, and 8 mobilization of Ca can lead to thin & brittle bones, thus easily fractured. Chiba Animal Nutrition Handbook Section 9: Bone Page 249 1) Calcium - Readily derived from water & adequate amounts in most fish diets: a) b) 0. Functions and metabolism of Ca & P: 1) Calcium: a) b) c) d) One of the most abundant cations in the fish body. Similar for both freshwater & marine water fish, and similar for all species regardless of bone types, i. Cellular bones must also play an important role in the Ca turnover in smooth skin fish (eels & catfish). Deficiency: 1) Calcium: a) b) c) 2) Not detected in carp & catfish, and Atlantic salmon. Rainbow trout, eel, red sea bream & tilapias require a low level for optimum growth. Deficiency may 9 growth (& feed efficiency) & ash content (under the conditions of Ca-free diet & Ca-free water). Phosphorus: a) b) Carp - Signs include cranial deformity, 9 growth, poor feed efficiency & low Ca & P content of vertebrae. Signs for other fish species include anorexia, poor growth & feed efficiency, skeletal abnormalities, and poor bone mineralization. Balance trial (Ca & P retention) - Difficult to interpret the results because of endogenous Ca & P. Chiba Animal Nutrition Handbook Section 9: Bone Page 251 3) 4) 5) Blood Ca & P - May not be useful because of the homeostatic mechanism (especially, Ca). Characteristics of the bone: a) For the general response patterns of animals to dietary Ca & P, see the figure. Chiba Animal Nutrition Handbook Section 9: Bone Page 252 Total remaining 12 18 17 17 Bone (metatarsal): Weight, g 33. Ca and P ratio in pigs: 1) 2) 3) Important in establishing the requirement because of interactions. Unacceptable ratio is $ 2:1, especially when P level is marginal or the diet is high in phytate P. Ca:P ratio in poultry: 1) 2) Effect of excess Ca & P on performance of chicks - Figure on the left (Adapted & redrawn from Wedekind & Baker, 1990. Ca:available P ratios on performance of chicks -Figure on the right (Adapted & redrawn from Wedekind & Baker, 1990. Calcium - Bioavailability is less critical because: 1) Ca in most feedstuffs is very low -. Chiba Animal Nutrition Handbook Section 9: Bone Page 253 2) Most of Ca sources/supplements (calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, oyster shell, marble dust, etc. Phosphorus: 1) 2) 3) the content in feedstuffs is variable, thus the amount of dietary inorganic P needed to meet the requirement. About b of total P in plant feedstuffs is phytate, which is a storage form of P in seeds. Phytase is present in some feeds (relatively high in wheat, barley & rye), and also produced by some microbes. Nonruminant species - Considerable variations in their ability to hydrolyze phytate. Determination of bioavailability: a) b) Often "slope-ratio assay" is used - See the figure. Bioavailability b (Test source) =)))))))))))))) b (Standard source) 5) 44444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444 Feedstuff Avg.
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When the more palatable grass and forbs are not available erectile dysfunction with diabetes buy cialis super active paypal, rabbits often turn to impotence young males cheap cialis super active 20mg fast delivery woody shrubs erectile dysfunction muse buy cialis super active 20mg fast delivery, eating the more tender parts at the tips. However, a decline in the availability of more nutrient-rich plants usually leads to a corresponding decline in health that ultimately results in an increase in mortality. Rabbits, with their high metabolism, need higher-quality forage than larger herbivores, and their health declines and mortality increases when forced to subsist on low-quality forage. In taste tests, rabbits have been found to respond positively to the sugars in starches, and they frequently choose high-starch plants to 9 eat. In one study it was found that acorns (a relatively high-starch food) were an important part of the diet of a wild rabbit population yearround. Another researcher commented on the number of studies that have shown many populations of wild rabbits consume high-carbohydrate foods and postulates that the development of a taste preference for the sugars in starches may be an evolutionary adaptation that helps ensure wild rabbits consume enough carbohydrates to meet their energy needs. This preferential selection of nutrient-dense foods (nutrient-rich lowfiber plants) when they are available may help rabbits fulfill nutritional requirements that high-fiber but less palatable foods do not meet. Animals that choose their foods for high nutrient content in this manner are called concentrate selectors. Perhaps we should instead ask ourselves "Does it matter what a wild rabbit eats and how closely the diet we feed our domestic rabbits mirrors that of a wild rabbit? They lead very different lives, in general lead longer lives, and have different energy needs. Moreover, they may need to consume a variety of foods to maintain optimal physical health. Wild rabbits usually eat diets high in fiber if for no other reason than that in many habitats the succulent low-fiber foods they may prefer are not always available, and the rabbit digestive tract has evolved to require a certain amount of fiber. Wild rabbits may consume-depending upon habitat and other variables-a relatively large amount of highcarbohydrate foods. This fact points to the possibility that domestic rabbits may also be able to consume some high-carbohydrate foods without undue negative effects. In the following chapters we will explore the mysteries of rabbit diet-how the rabbit digestive system functions, what nutrients rabbits require, how much of those nutrients they need, and what foods contain them. We will also look at what problems may arise if rabbits have deficiencies of those nutrients and how they can be corrected. It is my hope that after perusing this book readers will be able to make more informed decisions regarding the feeding of their rabbits. Seasonal variation in the diet of the European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the Andean region of Neuques, Argentina. Deferred seasonal increase in testes weight under poor nutritional conditions in a sub-Antarctic population of rabbits (Oryctolagus cunuiculus). Influence of habitat management on the abundance and diets of wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus) populations in Meditaerranean ecosystems. Importance of Mediterranean forest products as food resource of domestic herbivores: the case of oak acorn. Gustatory responsiveness to food-associated saccharides in European rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus. The diet of the European wild rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, in coastal habitats of Central Portugal. Seasonal variation in the diet of wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus in a semiarid Atlantic island (Alegranza, Canarian Archipelago). Seasonal changes in the diet of the European rabbit (Oryctolgaus suniculus) from three different Mediterranean habitats in south-western Australia. Seasonal and spatial variation in the diet of the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. The impact of sward height, forage quality and competitive conditions on forgaging behaviour of free-ranging rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. Because no mammals produce all the enzymes necessary to break down the structural material of plants. Some herbivores, such as sheep and cattle, have a specialized rumen which houses the microorganisms. Others, like rabbits, rats, and horses, have enlarged colons and cecums where the microorganisms live. Although rabbits, like horses, are hindgut fermenters and their digestive systems are often compared to equines, there are notable differences between them. In horses microbial fermentation occurs in the colon; in rabbits it occurs in the cecum. In rabbit digestive systems large-particle fiber is removed from the body rapidly and is not fermented; in horses large-particle fiber passes through the system more slowly than it does in rabbits, and is fermented. This means that the structural components of plants are more completely digested by horses: for example, the digestion of the structural components of alfalfa hay is about 14% in rabbits and is 41% in horses. As stated in the first chapter, rabbits are selective feeders and given a choice will often choose to consume low-fiber, succulent, nutrientdense, high-sugar foods. Selecting these foods enables rabbits to meet the energy requirements of their high metabolic rate. However, since these preferred foods are not always available, rabbits have evolved to extract some nutrition from more difficult-to-digest complex carbohydrates. The microorganisms are able to break down structural plant material that the enzymes in the rabbit gut are unable to digest well. This adaptation enables rabbits to take advantage of and utilize energy from a wide range of plants including grasses, twigs, bark, shrub leaves, herbaceous plants, fruits, and seeds. Rabbit teeth are different from human teeth in that they grow continuously and do not have a true anatomical root. Rabbit molars and premolars grow at a slower rate but must also be worn down through use. During the mastication process, the food is moistened with saliva from four pairs of salivary glands that secrete the enzyme amylase that begins the digestion of starch. Because plant structural material is so difficult for mammals to digest, most herbivores crush it thoroughly in their mouths to begin breaking the plant material down, and rabbits are no exception. At worst, these scenarios can potentially lead to 1 this explanation of digestion in the rabbit refers to that of adult rabbits. The specialized digestion of young rabbits will be discussed at the end of this chapter. The stomach has a welldeveloped cardiac sphincter at the entrance which prevents food from being regurgitated. In a special area of the stomach termed the fundus, there are specialized parietal cells which secrete acid, producing the conditions under which pepsin works best, and chief cells, which secrete the pepsinogen that breaks down protein. Once in the stomach, ingested food is mixed with the hydrochloric acid, pepsinogen, and water, resulting in what is termed chyme. The mucous lining of the stomach, which is viscous and has a neutral pH, protects the stomach from the strong acid. However, recent studies have shown that some bacteria do inhabit the upper intestine, possibly from digesting cecotrophs (soft, partially- digested fecal pellets).
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Effect of fibre level what causes erectile dysfunction generic cialis super active 20mg amex, particle size and adaptation period on digestibility and rate of passage as measured at the ileum and in the faeces in the adult rabbit erectile dysfunction 47 years old cialis super active 20 mg. Fibres in rabbit feed for digestive trouble prevention: respective role of low-digestible and digestible fibre erectile dysfunction doctors in san fernando valley generic cialis super active 20mg line. The effect of the quality of dietary lignocillulose on digestion, zootechnical performance and health of the growing rabbit. Use of digestible fibre in replacement to available carbohydrates: Effect on digestion, rate of passage and caecal fermentation pattern during the growth of the rabbit. A comprehensive approach of the rabbit digestion: consequences of a reduction in dietary supply. Starch hydrolysis in the small intestine, cell wall degradation and rate of passage measurements. Identification of some volatile compounds in the odor of fecal pellets of the rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus. Effect of levels of starch, fiber, and lactose on digestion and growth performance of early-weaned rabbits. Gustatory responsiveness to food-associated saccharides in European rabbits, Oryctolagusa cuniculus. Individual Sugars, Soluble, and Insoluble Dietary Fiber Contents of 70 High Consumption Foods. Degradation of dietary oligofructose and inulin in the gastro-intestinal tract of the rabbit and the effects of caecal pH and volatile fatty acids. Effect of a fructooligosaccharides mixture on some intestinal and plasmatic parameters in young rabbits. Effect of mannan oligosaccharides on the performance, intestinal morphology and cecal formation of fattening rabbits. Effect of the inclusion of soybean hulls in commercial feeds on rabbit digestion and performance at varying dietary lignin concentrations. Effects of fibre level and dietary mannanoligosaccharides on digestibility, caecal volatile fatty acids and performance of growing rabbits. Effect of dietary soluble fibre level and protein source on growth, digestion, caecal activity, and health of fattening rabbits. How Chicory Fructans Contribute to Zootechnical Performanace and Well-Being in Livestock and Companion Animals. Replacing starch by pectin and inulin in diet of early-weaned rabbits: effect on performance, health and nutrient digestibility. Digestible fibre to starch ratio and antibiotic treatment time in growing rabbits affected by epizootic rabbit enteropathy. Yet both fat and protein are necessary chemical compounds without which rabbits (and other mammals) cannot live, for they are needed for energy, growth, regeneration, and the structural integrity of the body and brain. There are many lipids, including monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, sterols, terpenes, fatty alcohols, and fatty acids, among others. Fatty acids are simple fats consisting of carbon chains of differing lengths with hydrogen bound to the carbon atoms of the chain. The carbon atoms constituting the chain are linked to each other either by single or double bonds. A fatty acid is saturated if all the bonds between carbons in the chain are single; monounsaturated if there is one double bond; and polyunsaturated if there are two or more double bonds. If the first double bond between carbons from the methyl end of the chain is at the third carbon, it is called an omega-3 fatty acid, and if at the sixth carbon it is called an omega-6 fatty acid. For example, if fatty acids attach to a single glycerol molecule a monoglyceride is formed, if two are attached it a diglyceride, and if to three a triglyceride results. Examples of unsaturated plant oils are canola, corn, cottonseed, safflower, soybean, and sunflower oil. However, tropical palm fatty acid (palmitrin) is an exception-it is saturated and contains sixteen carbons rather than the eighteen most plant fatty acids contain. Treating plant oils with heat and pressure in order to change their texture (as is done in making margarine) breaks the double bonds in the fatty acid and causes it to become saturated, producing what are termed trans fatty acids. Cholesterol is necessary for the production of bile as well as vital sex hormones and vitamin D, which are needed for proper brain and nerve function. When fat is consumed by a rabbit, the large fat molecules are emulsified to smaller ones by bile (primarily biliverdin in rabbits) from the gall bladder. The fats are then broken down to the component fatty acids and glycerol, which are used for energy by the rabbit. Fats are highly digestible by rabbits, especially unsaturated fatty acids from plant oils. Plant fats still bound in structural plant material are a little less digestible, and saturated fats from animal sources are least digestible. Studies on the effects of differing levels of dietary fat on the microflora of the cecum have yielded inconclusive results. A group of rabbits was given a diet with no added fat while two other groups were given diets with added olive or sunflower oil. The groups that received the extra fat had less lipid oxidation in muscles than the group that received no extra fat (oxidation of lipids creates free radicals that can damage cells). Giving rabbits compounds from olive oil was found to help reverse the effects of atherogenic diets, and in another study adding plant oils to the diet of rabbit kits reduced mortality. A higher fat content not only helps bind commercial rabbit pellets and reduces dustiness; it also makes higher-fiber pellets more palatable to rabbits. Palatability of food can be critical, especially when dealing with older, ill, or anorexic rabbits. Higher-fat foods acorns almonds peanuts pumpkin seeds soybeans sunflower seeds walnuts g/100g 23. Excessive dietary fat is not healthful for rabbits either, and can result in obesity, increase the risk of hepatic lipidosis (serious condition that occurs when stored fat is metabolized) if a rabbit becomes anorexic, and lead to atherosclerosis (deposition of fat in arteries), particularly in magnesium-deficient diets. Diets high in saturated fats may increase levels of blood cholesterol and its deposition in blood vessels, and cause hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and cellular damage to the heart. It should always be remembered that compounds do not act alone-there are many nutrient interactions. Long-haired, wool-producing rabbits such as American Fuzzy Lops, Jersey Woolies, and the angoras generally require higher levels of fat in their diets than shorter-haired rabbits. Rabbit does that are pregnant or lactating also require higher amounts of fat in their diet, as do rabbits that are very active. It is more healthful to consume unsaturated than saturated fats, both for humans and rabbits, although even unsaturated fats can be detrimental to health if eaten in excessive amounts. Omega-3 fatty acids are found in fresh green grass, walnuts, flax seed, and rice bran.
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Absorption rates are higher: a) b) 3) When ruminal pH is reduced impotence treatments order 20 mg cialis super active mastercard, so that more compounds are present as "undissociated" acids erectile dysfunction stress cialis super active 20 mg on-line. As the chain length increases erectile dysfunction girlfriend effective 20 mg cialis super active, so that the rate of absorption is butyric acid > propionic acid > acetic acid. The portal venous lactate and the remainder of propionate are almost completely removed by the liver. Can be taken up by most body tissues to form acetyl Co-A for use in the citric acid cycle. In the mammary gland: (1) Used for the synthesis of the short- and medium-length fatty acids. Chiba Animal Nutrition Handbook Section 3: Rumen Microbiology & Fermentation Page 75 A. Normally, lactic acid is present transiently, and, therefore, only in low concentrations, as it is used by secondary bacteria to produce propionate. Gases - Production reaches a peak of up to 40 L/h in cattle 2 to 4 hours after a meal when the fermentation rate is at its maximum. Methane is a high-energy compound and its elimination as a waste product represents the loss of about 8 percent of the total digestible energy of the diet. Hydrogen sulfide - Arises from the reduction of sulfates and from sulfur-containing amino acids. Quickly used by the facultative anaerobic bacteria, so that ruminal concentrations are always low, which is essential because the majority of ruminal microbes are strict anaerobes. Chiba Animal Nutrition Handbook Section 3: Rumen Microbiology & Fermentation Page 76 A. Amino acids arising from fermentation are used by other microbes and are not immediately available to the ruminant. Microbes that pass out of the forestomach are digested in the gastrointestinal tract: 1) 2) 3) Lysis of bacteria is started in the abomasum by the action of a lysozyme in the abomasal secretions. Fatty acids: 1) 2) Long-chain fatty acids - Absorbed and taken up by the adipose tissue and by the lactating mammary gland. In the young ruminant, the development of gastric digestion can be considered to have four phases: 1) the newborn phase (0 to 24 hr), 2) the preruminant phase (1 d to 3 wk), 3) the transitional phase (3 to 8 wk), and 4) the preweaning and postweaning phase (8 wk to adulthood). Changes in the proportion of the ruminant stomach - See the figure (Wardrop and Combe, 1960. Forestomach at birth: 1) 2) Nonfunctional, and represents a small proportion the total stomach. Chiba Animal Nutrition Handbook Section 3: Rumen Microbiology & Fermentation Page 77 B. Also, the presence of trypsin inhibitors in the colostrum prevents the degradation of immunoglobulins in the intestine. Subsequently, colostral antibodies are absorbed intact through the intestinal mucosa by endocytosis/exocytosis. Lactose is readily digested in the intestine to provide potential energy substrates, glucose & galactose. Colostrum contains mammary gland microbes (mainly lactobacilli species), and they would gain access to the intestine with each sucking period. With no or insufficient colostral antibodies, the newborns would be susceptible to acute infections ("joint-ill" and "navel-ill") and then to diarrhea/scours. The principal food is milk during this phase, but the young ruminant may start trying to taste solid foods during the latter half of this phase. B Compared with drinking from a bucket, sucking from a teat can lead to a greater secretion of saliva, and the saliva contains an esterase (pregastric esterase) that can start the hydrolysis of the milk lipids. Milk passing through the pharynx: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Stimulates chemoreceptors with afferent pathways in the glossopharyngeal nerve (ninth cranial nerve). The efferent vagal nerve output can cause the closure of the reticular groove and to relaxation of the reticuloomasal orifice and omasal canal. Contraction of the spiral lips of the reticular groove causes their shortening and apposition to produce a temporary tube connecting the cardiac and reticuloomasal orifices. Milk can bypass the ruminoreticulum, and flow quickly through the relaxed rudimentary omasum, and end up in the abomasum. Chiba Animal Nutrition Handbook Section 3: Rumen Microbiology & Fermentation Page 78 b) the closure is not consistently affected by other factors such as head position and whether feeding involves sucking from a teat or drinking from a bucket. The act of sucking and the presence of milk in the abomasum can lead to abomasal secretions: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Rate? Butterfat can be hydrolyzed to fatty acids and glycerol by lipase in milk (mammary origin) and pregastric esterase from saliva. Precipitated Ca caseinate - Subjected to further proteolysis by rennin at an optimum pH of 3. Curd & whey proteins are subjected to complete proteolysis in the intestine, and lactose is hydrolyzed by lactase to glucose and galactose. The animal starts to ingest progressively larger amounts of roughage, which can stimulate the development of salivary gland & ruminoreticulum: 1) 2) Salivary glands (especially, parotid glands) increase the size and secretion volume, and the composition of secretion becomes alkaline. Ruminoreticulum - Starts acquiring microbes: a) b) "Early" microbes (at 1 wk after birth) are largely milk contaminants (lactobacilli), and give very low ruminoreticular pH values. Transitional ruminants - Acquires normal microbes from the ingestion of food and water contaminated with some ruminal microbes. Chiba Animal Nutrition Handbook Section 3: Rumen Microbiology & Fermentation Page 79 3) Bulk factor of the roughage - Responsible for the size & muscular development of the ruminoreticulum, onset of cyclic motility, and effective rumination. By the end of the period, the animal will have the ruminoreticulum with all the basic features. The total empty stomach mass:empty gastrointestinal mass - Would become a progressively greater the animal approaches adulthood. Water - 1) Required by animals in the largest amount, thus, 2) probably the most important nutrient, even though not enough attention is given! On the fat-free basis: 1) the proportion of body water, protein & ash stays relatively constant: a) Moulton (1923; J. Water Content (Fat-Free Basis) 4444444444444444444444 Species %)))))))))))))))))))))) Mice 73. Loss of body water: 1) 2) Water deficiency generally impairs growth/development of young animals & reduces feed intake of all animals, thus 9 productivity. Chiba Animal Nutrition Handbook Section 4: Water and Electrolytes Page 82 With a loss of 6-8%, disfunction of the central nervous system & metabolic disorders may be observed (due to 8 viscosity of blood). Fluid fractions of the body (% of body wt) Adapted & redrawn from Georgievskii et al.
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Fabric luster erectile dysfunction doctors in lafayette la cialis super active 20mg lowest price, smoothness erectile dysfunction exam discount generic cialis super active uk, softness erectile dysfunction killing me order cheap cialis super active line, residual shrinkage and hand are examples of the properties that can be altered by mechanical finishing. Topics to be covered in this chapter are: Compacting (Shrinkproofing) Calendaring Raising (Napping, Sueding) Shearing Polishing Corduroy Cutting Decating I. For example, excessive shrinkage is undesirable for fabrics to be made into garments. Here, the residual shrinkage should be less than 2% otherwise the garment will not fit after it is laundered. Drapes cut to floor length will draw up from the floor and detract from their appearance unless the residual shrinkage is controlled. Before launching into the mechanical methods of reducing shrinkage, it will be instructive to discuss the causes of fabric shrinkage. Why Fabrics Shrink Woven and knitted goods a r e 3-dimensional arrays of crimped yarns. Fabric forming processes take straight lengths of yarns and force them into 2-dimensional crimped lengths. When fabric is completely relaxed, the crossing yarns will move around in relation to each other until a stable configuration is reached. This stable arrangement, the point where the relaxed fabric no longer shrinks in width and length, is also related to yarn sizes and fabric construction. When stretching tensions are applied to the fabric, the crimped amplitude decreases and the fabric grows i n the direction of the stress. Later when the tensions are relieved and the fabric allowed 219 to relax, the crimp amplitude returns to its stable configuration and the fabric shrinks. Many fabrics are stretched during wet processing as they are pulled from one operation to another. The process forces yarns closer together and the fabric becomes thicker and heavier. The term Sanforized, is their registered trademark and is used to market fabrics t h a t meet certain shrinkage specifications. The term Sanforized is now generally accepted to mean a fabric that has low residual shrinkage and the term Sanforizing is used to describe shrinkproofing processes. While the patents on the machinery have expired, the trademark is actively promoted by Cluett Peabody. The effect of Sanforizing can be seen i n figure 68 which shows t h a t open fabric structure has been closed up somewhat. The process, figure 69, consists of a range where the fabric is first moistened with steam, to make it more pliable, run through a short tenter frame (pup tenter) to straighten and smooth out wrinkles, through the compressive shrinkage head a n d then through a Palmer drying unit to set the fabric. If the winding tension are excessive, the fabric will be pulled out and the degree of 220 compaction lessened. Usually, a lubricant is added in preceding operations to assist in the realignment of the yarns a s the fabric runs through the compactor. Take-up 221 the key to any compactor is the head where force is applied to move parallel yarns closer together. A Sanforizer uses a thick rubber blanket running against a steam heated cylinder a s the compacting force. The thick rubber blanket first goes over a smaller diameter roll which stretches the convex surface of the blanket. Fabric is metered onto the stretched blanket and the fabric and blanket together come in contact with the steam heated cylinder. At this point, the stretched rubber surface contracts to its original length and then is forced to contract a n additional amount as it forms the concave configuration of the heated drum. Since the fabric is not elastic, a n extra length of fabric is thrust between the rubber blanket and the heated cylinder. Friction between the rubber blanket and steel drum force adjacent yarns to move closer together until the unit length of fabric become equal to the unit length of rubber blanket it rests on. If the fabric construction does not allow the yarns to move, the extra fabric will buckle developing creases and wrinkles. Figure 70 shows a schematic of the compactor head a n d how the fabric and blanket moves together. The blanket is cooled by spraying water on it after the fabric exits from the unit. Insets in figure 70 also show the length variations that occur as the blanket surface goes from convex to straight to concave. Sanforizer Head the degree of shrinkage can be controlled by the thickness of the blanket. A longer length of fabric will be fed into the compactor causing the degree of compacting t o be greater. Blanket thickness can be adjusted by means of a pinch roll compressing the rubber blanket. To be effective, the degree of compacting needed should be predetermined ahead of time. This is done by characterizing the shrinking behavior of the fabric by laundering. The degree of compacting should not exceed the degree of shrinking otherwise over-compacting will cause the fabric to "grow" when relaxed. Friction Calendar Compactors Another method of compacting fabrics is with calendar rolls. The fabric passes between two metal cylinders, one cylinder rotates faster t h a n the other. The fabric delivery cylinder rotates faster t h a n the take-off cylinder and the action is similar to stuffing a string into a straw. The friction causes filling yarns to move closer together and a loss of fabric length. Friction Compacting Principle 223 the degree of compacting can be controlled by the differential speeds of the two calendar rolls. Overfeed Pin Tentering A third method of pre-shrinking fabrics is by overfeeding wet cloth onto the pins of a pin tenter oven during drying or heatsetting. Certain tenter frames are equipped with a n auxiliary fabric feed drive t h a t is independent of the tenter chain drive. These devices deliver fabric a t a faster rate t h a n the linear speed of the pin chains. Drying forces causes the fabric to shrink so the fabric exits the oven in a pre-shrunken state. A calendar is a machine consisting of two or more massive rolls which are compressed by means of hydraulic cylinders applying pressure at the journals. One roll is considered the pattern roll and is responsible for the finished appearance of the fabric while the other roll is called a bowl and serves a s the pressure back-up for the pattern roll and also serves to transports the fabric through the machine. There are many types of calendars, each designed to impart specific effects to cloth. The composition of the rolls, number of passes, temperature controls, moisture control and pressure can vary to fit the desired effect. For example, the pattern roll can be 226 engraved and serve to emboss a three dimensional pattern into the fabric.
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Forward movement is minimal during mixing contractions and depends primarily on a unique colonic contraction known as mass movement erectile dysfunction doctor chicago generic cialis super active 20 mg with amex. A wave of contraction decreases the diameter of a segment of colon and sends a substantial bolus of material forward erectile dysfunction caffeine buy cheapest cialis super active. Mass movement is responsible for the sudden distension of the rectum that triggers defecation prostate cancer erectile dysfunction statistics order cialis super active us. Defecation resembles urination in that it is a spinal reflex triggered by distension of the organ wall. The movement of fecal material into the normally empty rectum triggers the reflex. Smooth muscle of the internal anal sphincter relaxes, and peristaltic contractions in the rectum push material toward the anus. At the same time, the external anal sphincter, which is under voluntary control, is consciously relaxed if the situation is appropriate. Defecation is often aided by conscious abdominal contractions and forced expiratory movements against a closed glottis (the Valsalva maneuver). Stress may increase intestinal motility and cause psychosomatic diarrhea in some individuals but may decrease motility and cause constipation in others. When feces are retained in the colon, either through consciously ignoring a defecation reflex or through decreased motility, continued water absorption creates hard, dry feces that are difficult to expel. One treatment for constipation is glycerin suppositories, small bullet-shaped wads that are inserted through the anus into the rectum. Colonic bacteria also produce significant amounts of absorbable vitamins, especially vitamin K. Intestinal gases, such as hydrogen sulfide, that escape from the gastrointestinal tract are a less useful product. Some starchy foods, such as beans, are notorious for their tendency to produce intestinal gas (flatus). Diarrhea Can Cause Dehydration Diarrhea is a pathological state in which intestinal secretion of fluid is not balanced by absorption, resulting in watery stools. Diarrhea occurs if normal intestinal water absorption mechanisms are disrupted or if there are unabsorbed osmotically active solutes that "hold" water in the lumen. Substances that cause osmotic diarrhea include undigested lactose and sorbitol, a sugar alcohol from plants. Sorbitol is used as an "artificial" sweetener in some chewing gums and in foods made for people with diabetes. Another unabsorbed solute that can cause osmotic diarrhea, intestinal cramping, and gas is Olestra, the "fake fat" made from vegetable oil and sugar. In clinical settings, patients who need to have their bowels cleaned out before surgery or other procedures are often given 4 liters of an isotonic solution of polyethylene glycol and electrolytes to drink. Secretory diarrheas occur when bacterial toxins, such as cholera toxin from Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli enterotoxin, Digestion and Absorption in the Large intestine According to the traditional view of the large intestine, no significant digestion of organic molecules takes place there. We now know that the numerous bacteria inhabiting the colon break down significant amounts of undigested complex carbohydrates and proteins through fermentation. The end products include lactate and short-chain fatty acids, such as butyric acid. The fatty acids, for example, are used by colonocytes as their preferred energy substrate. When excessive fluid secretion is coupled with increased motility, diarrhea results. Secretory diarrhea in response to intestinal infection can be viewed as adaptive because it helps flush pathogens out of the lumen. However, it also has the potential to cause dehydration if fluid loss is excessive. The World Health Organization estimates that in developing countries, 4 million people die from diarrhea each year. In the United States, diarrhea in children causes about 200,000 hospitalizations a year. Oral replacement fluids for treatment of diarrheal salt and water loss can prevent the morbidity (illness) and mortality (death) associated with diarrhea. Oral rehydration solutions usually contain glucose or sucrose as well as Na+, K+, and Cl- because the inclusion of a sugar enhances Na+ absorption. In secretory diarrhea, epithelial cells in the intestinal villi may be damaged or may slough off. In these cases, would it be better to use an oral rehydration solution containing glucose or one containing sucrose? If the antigens are substances that threaten the body, the immune cells swing into action. They secrete cytokines to attract additional immune cells that can attack the invaders and cytokines that trigger an inflammatory response. One apparently successful experimental therapy for these diseases involves blocking the action of cytokines released by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. How certain pathogenic bacteria cross the barrier created by the intestinal epithelium has puzzled scientists for years. It appears that some bacteria, such as Salmonella and Shigella, have evolved surface molecules that bind to M cell receptors. The M cells then obligingly transport the bacteria across the epithelial barrier and deposit them inside the body, where the immune system immediately reacts. The first lines of defense are the enzymes and immunoglobulins in saliva and the highly acidic environment of the stomach. However, excessive or prolonged vomiting, with its loss of gastric acid, can cause metabolic alkalosis [p. The reflex begins with stimulation of sensory receptors and is often (but not always) accompanied by nausea. They include chemicals in the blood, such as cytokines and certain drugs; pain; disturbed equilibrium, such as occurs in a moving car or rocking boat, and emotional stress. Efferent signals from the vomiting center initiate a wave of reverse peristalsis that begins in the small intestine and moves upward. The motility wave is aided by abdominal contraction that increases intra-abdominal pressure. The stomach relaxes so that the increased pressure forces gastric and intestinal contents back into the esophagus and out of the mouth. The epiglottis and soft palate close off the trachea and nasopharynx to prevent the vomitus from being inhaled (aspirated). Should acid or small food particles get into the airways, they could damage the respiratory system and cause aspiration pneumonia. The microvilli of M cells are fewer in number and more widely spaced than in the typical intestinal cell. If you plan to travel to Haiti or any place with a declared cholera epidemic, visit Now check your understanding of this running problem by comparing your answers to the information in the following summary table.
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When the distillation fraction is chilled impotence what does it mean buy generic cialis super active on line, the straight chain hydrocarbons solidify and can be filtered from the oil erectile dysfunction at age 33 20 mg cialis super active fast delivery. The branched isomers can be separated from the solid by a process called Sweating erectile dysfunction zinc quality 20 mg cialis super active. Blocks of wax are placed in a n oven where the temperature is increased very slowly. The oil will migrate to the surface of the block and form beads of sweat which drain away by gravity. The procedure can be repeated several times to produce different grades of paraffin, based on melting point. Paraffin waxes produced this way form large, hard white crystals melting between 120 t o 1400 F. Microcrystalline Wax Microcrystalline waxes are higher melting (1500 F), have higher melt viscosity and are soft microcrystals obtained by subjecting the wax distillation residue to a solvent crystallization process. The residue is dissolved in a mixture of benzene an methylethyl ketone and then allowed to crystallize. Synthetic Wax There are a number of synthetic materials that possess wax-like properties. Polyethylene Glycols: Higher molecular weight polyoxyethylene analog are wax- like. Although not widely used as a fabric preparation step, it is a n important way of removing certain difficult to remove impurities, where a small amount of residuals can cause downstream problems. For fabrics t h a t do not have to be desized, solvent scouring is a n effective way of removing fiber producer finishes, coning and knitting oils. Knitted fabrics made from nylon, polyester, acetate and acrylics, are particularly amenable to this method of preparation. Solvent Extractions a r e particularly useful in the laboratory for determining the amount of processing oils added to man-made fibers and the residual amounts of oils and waxes left by aqueous scouring. The entire range is enclosed so the vapors are contained a n d not allowed to escape into the atmosphere. Also a solvent distillation unit is needed to reconstitute the pure solvent a n d separate the removed contaminants. Schematic of a Continuous Solvent Scouring Range 39 the term solvent scouring is also used to describe processes where amounts of organic solvents are added to aqueous scouring formulations to assist in the removal of oils and waxes. This technique is widely used and a more in-depth discussion will be found elsewere. Organic solvents have a number of advantages that make them particularly useful for wax removal. They have low liquid surface tensions and quickly and easily wet out a n d penetrate fabrics with waxes. On the negative side hydrocarbon solvents are flammable and present explosion hazards. Most chlorinated solvents a r e proven or suspect carcinogens and some a r e known to contribute to atmospheric ozone depletion. Chlorinated hydrocarbons thermally decompose to form phosgene and hydrochloric acids. These decomposition by-products are corrosive to metals and also damage cellulosic fibers. Solvents are expensive so they must be recovered a n d purified by distillation requiring special equipment. Solvents do not aid in the removal of motes, metal ions, starch and other solvent. Common Solvents Listed below are some of the more common solvents used commercially. However they must be handled with care because the chlorinated ones are on the suspect carcinogen list of regulated chemicals. Solvent Properties Boiling Point: Temperature at which solvent is converted from liquid to a gas. Specific Heat: the amount of energy needed to raise one gram of solvent one degree centigrade (Calories/gram/ 0C). Latent Heat of Evaporation: the amount of energy needed to vaporize one gram of solvent (Calories/gram). When preparing woven goods, the scouring step follows desizing and wet fabric proceed to the scouring range without drying in between. For example strong alkali can be used for scouring cotton, but wool and rayon are damaged by it. Cotton 41 the characteristic speckled look of cotton greige fabrics is caused by cotton motes t h a t were not removed during the yarn making process. Another objective of scouring is to remove minerals, waxes and pectines and to improve absorbency. Wool Wool scouring differs from cotton i n two essential respects; raw wool contains a large amount of wool grease i n comparison with 0. Sodium hydroxide is never used, instead, sodium or ammonium carbonate are preferred. This is accomplished in a machine which consists of a long trough provided with rakes, a false bottom and a n exit wringer as seen i n figure 17. The trough is filled with scouring liquor containing soap and sodium carbonate at a temperature of 35 to 400 C. The rakes reciprocate pulling the stock from one end of the trough to the other. As the wool leaves the trough, the excess liquor is squeezed back into the trough. Solid matter (dirt) falls through the perforations in the false bottom and the wool grease is suspended in the scouring solution a s a n emulsion. Since all of the contaminates a r e not removed in the first pass, additional troughs (called bowls) a r e arranged in sequence. Each bowl contains either additional scouring chemicals (soap and soda ash) or plain water to effect rinsing. Fresh chemicals or water are added t o the exit bowls where the wool is the cleanest. This assures that the wool exits from the cleanest solution a n d the partially clean solution is reused until it becomes heavily contaminated. The spent liquor is sent to a wool grease recovery unit before it is dumped into the sewer. Mechanical agitation in the presence of soap and water will cause wool fabrics to felt. Felting occurs because wool fibers have scales on the surface and the fibers can slip past each other in one direction but not in the other - the scales latch together preventing moving i n one direction. Felting causes the fabric to becomes thicker a s it shrinks in width a n d length.
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Think about that uncle in your family who is a "Jack-of-alltrades losartan causes erectile dysfunction buy cialis super active 20mg on-line," who is always called on whenever there is a challenge or a need erectile dysfunction vyvanse purchase cialis super active master card. Every baseball team has a utility player who can fill in at any position when he is needed erectile dysfunction treatment in allopathy buy 20 mg cialis super active amex. In the molecular world of the cell, who is the biological molecule that can do nearly everything? If you are guessing that it is the proteins, you are correct (of course the heading for this section may have tipped you off). Of the four classes of biological molecules, the proteins are the most diverse in their functions. Table 1 lists some if the major functions of proteins, but this list is not exhaustive, in fact it is hard to think of any function in the body in which proteins are not an integral part. In this unit we will learn about the molecular structure of proteins and discuss some of their important functions. Although there are 20 different amino acids that make up the proteins in humans, all have the same basic structure. Attached to the central carbon is an amine group (green) and a carboxyl group (red). In the case of the amino acids, there are 20 different R groups, hence, 20 diffrerent amino acids. It is the different R groups that confer the different properties to the amino acids. The central carbon (black) has 4 groups attached to it, an amine group (green), a carboxyl group (red), a hydrogen (blue), and one of 20 different R groups. Of an amino acid, "R" can be a variety of things, and in this image, it simply represents some type of organic group. In this class you will not need to learn the names and structures of the individual amino acids, however, if you are interested in learning more about their structures and characteristics check out the following links. Like all of the polymers we have discussed so far, amino acids are linked together via dehydration (condensation) synthesis reactions. The generic term polypeptide is used to designate many amino acids linked together. The terms polypeptide and protein are often used interchangeably and there is no set rule for when each should be used. Some authorities suggest an amino acid cut off of 50 amino acids, anything less than 50 is called a polypeptide and anything over 50, a protein. Others use a molecular weight cut off with 10,000 being the division between polypeptides and proteins. Whether we call them proteins or polypeptides, it is of no real importance; they will still do their job no matter what we call them. Notice that the end amino acids in the polypeptide will have either an unbonded amine group or an unbonded carboxyl group. These ends are designated the amino- or N-Terminus and the carboxyl- or C-Terminus, respectively. The image above represents a dehydration synthesis reaction between 2 amino acids to form a peptide bond. Peptide bonds form between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amine group of another. As mentioned above, almost all living things (except for a few rebellious strains of bacteria) contain proteins made from 20 amino acids. If you were given 20 packages of these blocks, each package containing a different color, you could start producing Lego proteins. Some of your proteins may contain only a few Legos while 71 others may contain thousands. This is the potential that our cells have at their fingertips to produce the molecules to carry out the many functions of proteins. Protein Structure By now you should be starting to realize the importance of proteins to the proper functioning of the various systems in our bodies. What is it about proteins that allows them to perform all of these different tasks? The answer to this question can be summed up in three words: shape, shape, and shape. As you can imagine from the many functions of proteins, they have very complex shapes. If we think of proteins as cars, we all quickly understand that having the wheels on the bottom of the car and a steering wheel to guide the car are pretty important standard equipment. In studying the shape of proteins, biochemists have dissected and broken them down into 4 levels of complexity or structure. As we move from the 1st to the 4th level of structure, the preceding level adds to the next. Primary structure: the primary structure of the protein is the sequence of the amino acids in its polypeptide chain. If proteins were popcorn stringers made to decorate a Christmas tree, the primary structure of a protein is the sequence in which various shapes and varieties of popped corn are strung together. The primary structure of a protein is maintained by covalent, peptide bonds connecting the amino acids together. The figure below shows the primary structure of insulin, the first protein to be sequenced. Notice on the right side of the figure the position of each amino acid is numbered. By convention, biochemists always number the amino acids beginning at the amino-terminus of the polypeptide chain. As you might expect, the sequence of the amino acids in the polypeptide chain is crucial for the proper functioning of the protein. All of the known genetic diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, albinism, etc, are due to mutations that result in alterations in the primary structures of proteins, which then in turn, cause alterations in the secondary, tertiary and possibly quarternary structure. Whereas the primary structure of a protein is pretty much 2-dimensional, the secondary structure of proteins begins the very important 3-dimensional configuration of proteins. The secondary structure of proteins is a result of the sequence of amino acids in the primary structure and is maintained by hydrogen bonds. Some proteins, like collagen, are almost entirely alpha helix, while others, like silk, are mostly pleated sheet. Other proteins can have short segments of alpha helix and/or pleated sheet in their structure. There are other chemical interactions that can help define the 3 dimensional tertiary structure.
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Selenium (Se) Selenium helps regulate the thyroid erectile dysfunction treatment in bangalore purchase 20 mg cialis super active otc, is involved in antibody production erectile dysfunction drugs pictures discount cialis super active 20mg on-line, may help prevent some tumors erectile dysfunction vacuum pump india generic cialis super active 20 mg amex, and is a constituent of many important (and several selenium-dependent) enzymes. One researcher concluded that selenium has the ability to retard the onset of progressive aortic disease in rabbits after they had been fed a high-fat diet. According to some sources, selenium does not have a role in the dispersal of peroxides (that is, it does not act as an antioxidant) in rabbits as it does in humans, but the results from some studies (see previous entry on vitamin E) can be interpreted as indicating such effects. In other mammals a deficiency of selenium can cause sterility, increase the incidence of infections, and result in exhaustion. Excesses of this mineral are toxic and accumulate in the liver, kidneys, and heart. Silicon (Si) Silicon is one of the most abundant elements on earth, but it does not occur in its pure form in nature. Plants take monosilicic acid up from the soil and mammals consume silicon in the plant form of orthosilicic acid. The amount in plants will vary depending upon the type of soil in which they were grown; clays have higher amounts of 77 silicates than sands. In mammals, silicon is necessary for the formation of collagen in bone and the connective tissues in blood vessels, skin, cartilage, and hair. It also stimulates the immune system, has been found to counteract the effects of aluminum in the body, and has been found to help prevent osteoporosis in humans. In one study the blood vessels of rabbits given silicon were more elastic, and in another a silicon supplement given to rabbits protected against atherogenic plaques in blood vessels. Silicon has yet another benefit to rabbits, since it helps wear teeth down properly. Interestingly, in nature the silica content of grasses-which gives them their abrasiveness-is actually a defense against being eaten by rabbits and other herbivores. In several studies it has been found that rabbits and other herbivores avoid higher-silica content grasses, and that grasses even increase their silica content in response to grazing by herbivores. In one study, a small increase in the amount of silica reduced consumption by rabbits over 50 percent. Silica content of grasses is also highly variable, depending upon the species and the soil in which the grass is growing. For example, in one analysis of grasses from the same area, prairie cordgrass had a content of 1. Alfalfa, almonds, apples, beets, bell peppers, raw cabbage, carrots, cucumber, cherries, honey, oranges, peanuts, pumpkin, soybeans, and whole grains contain high amounts of silica. However, the refining process may remove up to 99% of the silica content in grain products, so only the whole grain will retain much silica. No recommended amount of dietary silicon for rabbits has been set at the time of this writing. Deficiencies can lead to bone problems; there have been reports of kidney stone formation in sheep consuming large amounts of highsilica plants. Sodium (Na) and Chlorine(Cl) Sodium regulates cellular pH, including blood pH, and water balance, including osmotic pressure and the concentrations of fluids outside cells. In one study on rabbit diets differing only in the NaCl content, researchers found that decreasing NaCl content from 0. Actual nutrient contents of foods may vary considerably from listed values due to varying growing and storage conditions, among other factors. Excess sodium consumed from the salt sodium chloride (NaCl) may stunt growth in young rabbits. Zinc (Zn) Zinc is yet another mineral that is involved in many enzymatic reactions. It is involved in the regulation of glands and the immune system; it helps protect the liver, is involved in the formation of collagen and the growth of reproductive organs, and helps wounds heal faster, including burns. In one study on rabbits it was found that supplemental zinc (1 g/kg) could potentially slow the development of atherosclerosis, although it did not significantly alter the total plasma cholesterol levels. Deficiency of zinc in rabbit diets may result in reduced feed consumption, stunted growth, weight loss, graying of dark hair, loss of hair, dermatitis, sores around the mouth, wet matted hair on the jaw, frequent Pasteurella infections, smaller testes in bucks and a failure to ovulate in does. Zinc is found in alfalfa and other legumes, chickweed, dandelion, parsley, pumpkin, sunflower seeds, and whole grains. Recommended dietary zinc for rabbits: 20-50 ppm for growing rabbits; 70-120 ppm for pregnant, lactating, and adult rabbits. But are you aware that most drugs we take (or give our animals) also rob the body of one or more essential nutrients? In fact, nutrient depletion may be the underlying explanation for many drug side effects. They may stimulate or inhibit enzymes, interfering with how these enzymes would normally activate nutrients, transport them around the body, and/or transform them into usable substances. Some medications require the presence of specific nutrients to work properly and/or to avoid toxicity while others become less effective when taken with certain minerals. In addition to Drug Muggers, there are several great online resources (listed below) on the subject of drugs and nutrient depletion. In the remainder of this section, I will list some of the medications I have personally given rabbits over the years and possible nutritional depletions that might be caused by them, based on these resources. While my list is derived from the resources listed below, it will not exactly match the information from any single resource. I do not recommend giving supplements to a rabbit already taking medication(s) unless specifically instructed to do so by your veterinarian. Proper dosing would be difficult to determine and the added stress of giving more medicine would probably outweigh any benefits, even if dosing were perfect. What I do suggest is that if you are giving medications, check this section for possible nutritional deficiencies, offer a selection of foods rich in these nutrients, and see if your rabbit willingly eats them. Antibiotics All antibiotics may deplete thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), biotin (B7), cyanocobalamine (B12), and vitamin K. Fluoroquinolones (all drugs whose generic name ends with "floxacin," including enrofloxacin, better known as Baytril) may also deplete calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc. Levaquin and Cipro, potent human fluoroquinolones, have also been shown to deplete folate (B9), potassium, Vitamins C and D. Tetracyclines (generic names ending in "cycline") may also deplete calcium and magnesium. Some drugs in this class also deplete folate (B9), iron, potassium, Vitamins C and D, and CoQ10. In addition, humans are cautioned against taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements within an hour of taking tetracyclines as these minerals may bind to the drug, reducing its effectiveness. To be on the safe side, if your bunny is on a 82 tetracycline antibiotic, avoid offering foods rich in these minerals within the one-hour window of giving your bunny his medicine. Trimethoprim-containing antibiotics, including the trimethoprim sulfa often prescribed for bunnies, may also deplete folate (B9). Some sulfa drugs also deplete calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, Vitamins C and D, and CoQ10. Penicillins (generic names ending in "cillin;" only injectable forms are safe for bunnies) may also deplete potassium.