Purchase line malegra dxt plus
Genetic testing is now widely available and can be ordered directly by patients from home impotence marijuana facts discount 160mg malegra dxt plus fast delivery. Due to erectile dysfunction protocol program discount 160mg malegra dxt plus free shipping the potential implications of test results and the complexity of testing incidence of erectile dysfunction with age purchase cheapest malegra dxt plus, patients are advised to speak with their physician or genetic counselor prior to having testing performed. Pre-testing counseling will help patients select appropriate testing, understand the limitations of testing, potential out-of-pocket costs and the effect that positive test results may have on the patient and their family. Somatosensory evoked potentials from dermatomal stimulation as an indicator of L5 and S1 radiculopathy. The diagnostic value of dermatomal somatosensory evoked potentials in lumbrosacral disc herniations: a critical approach. Identification of cervical radiculopathies: optimizing the electromyographic screen. Practice Parameter: evaluation of distal symmetric polyneuropathy: role of laboratory and genetic testing (an evidence-based review). Report of the American Academy of Neurology, American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine, and American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. We are a nonprofit membership association dedicated to the advancement of neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, and electrodiagnostic medicine. Our nearly 4,500 members, neurologists and physiatrists and other allied health professionals and researchers, are working to improve the quality of medical care provided to patients with muscle and nerve disorders. Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question Do not obtain spinal imaging for patients with acute low-back pain during the six (6) weeks after onset in the absence of red flags. Red flags include history of cancer, fracture or suspected fracture based on clinical history, progressive neurologic symptoms and infection, as well as conditions that potentially preclude a dynamic thrust to the spine, such as osteopenia, osteoporosis, axial spondyloarthritis and tumors. Unnecessary imaging incurs monetary cost, exposes the patient to ionizing radiation, and can result in labeling patients with conditions that are not clinically meaningful, creating a false sense of vulnerability and disability. Indeed, several studies have shown that the routine use of radiographs in the care of low-back pain may result in worse outcomes than without their use. There is currently no data available to support a relationship between changes in alignment or other structural characteristics and patient improvement. This practice increases costs, exposes patients unnecessarily to ionizing radiation and may distract from more meaningful outcomes. Repeat imaging is appropriate only if strong clinical indications exist, such as a major change in diagnosis, documented worsening of symptoms or significant progression of disease. Avoid protracted use of passive or palliative physical therapeutic modalities for low-back pain disorders unless they support the goal(s) of an active treatment plan. These passive therapies can play an important role in facilitating patient participation in an active treatment program. However, the use of passive therapies untethered to the goal of increasing physical activity can be harmful, as it can lead to patient inactivity, prolonged recovery and increased costs. For any patient with a low-back pain disorder to achieve an optimal clinical outcome, an essential element is to restore, maintain or increase the level of physical activity. Do not provide long-term pain management without a psychosocial screening or assessment. The causal arrow between pain and these disorders can point in either direction and over time may form a positive feedback loop between these two elements. Screening tools are available that will aid in the detection of potential depression/anxiety, and, when indicated, a referral may be most appropriate for more extensive evaluation and treatment. While there may be limited benefit in the short term, the prolonged use of lumbar supports is not supported by the literature for the treatment or prevention of low-back pain. Numerous systematic reviews have found limited to no value for their use in this context. The literature clearly demonstrates that such passive therapies are contrary to the currently accepted central principle of low-back pain care, which is that the patient must engage in an active rehabilitative regimen to achieve the best outcomes. A literature search was conducted and the task force collaboratively identified a draft list of six recommendations based upon established Choosing Wisely criteria. Diagnostic imaging practice guidelines for musculoskeletal complaints in adults-an evidence-based approach-part 3: spinal disorders. The role of radiography in primary care patients with low back pain of at least 6 weeks duration: a randomised (unblinded) controlled trial. Prevalence of radiographic findings in individuals with chronic low back pain screened for a randomized controlled trial: secondary analysis and clinical implications. Systematic literature review of imaging features of spinal degeneration in asymptomatic populations. Tandem age-related lumbar and cervical intervertebral disc changes in asymptomatic subjects. Radiography of the lumbar spine in primary care patients with low back pain: randomised controlled trial. Diagnostic imaging practice guidelines for musculoskeletal complaints in adults-an evidence-based approach-part 3: spinal disorders. Factors affecting return to work after injury or illness: best evidence synthesis of systematic reviews. Catastrophizing-a prognostic factor for outcome in patients with low back pain: a systematic review. Incidence and risk factors for first-time incident low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fusion versus nonoperative care for chronic low back pain: do psychological factors affect outcomes Fear-avoidance beliefs as measured by the fear-avoidance beliefs questionnaire: change in fear-avoidance beliefs questionnaire is predictive of change in self-report of disability and pain intensity for patients with acute low back pain. Noninvasive Treatments for Acute, Subacute, and Chronic Low Back Pain: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians. Azadinia F, Ebrahimi E Takamjani, Kamyab M, Parnianpour M, Cholewicki J, Maroufi N. Chiropractors focus on disorders of the musculoskeletal system and the nervous system, and the effects of these disorders on general health and function. Chiropractic services are used most often to treat conditions such as back pain, neck pain, pain in the joints of the arms or legs, and headaches. Widely known for their expertise in spinal manipulation, chiropractors practice a hands-on, drugfree approach to health care that includes patient examination, diagnosis and treatment. Asymptomatic, low-risk patients account for up to 45 percent of unnecessary "screening. Performing stress cardiac imaging or advanced non-invasive imaging in patients without symptoms on a serial or scheduled pattern. Non-invasive testing is not useful for patients undergoing low-risk non-cardiac surgery. Patients with native valve disease usually have years without symptoms before the onset of deterioration. An echocardiogram is not recommended yearly unless there is a change in clinical status.
Order malegra dxt plus 160mg with visa
While tactical media activism had often focused on media as both means and ends erectile dysfunction trick buy malegra dxt plus visa, free media and open source principles were increasingly used to erectile dysfunction and urologist purchase generic malegra dxt plus online address other free sample erectile dysfunction pills 160 mg malegra dxt plus otc, mainly green topics, such as energy, renewability, sustainability, and ecology, in the new millennium. The project took its inspiration from the Argentinian truque clubs that had formed after the Argentinian credit crisis in 2001. Argentinian citizens had issued coupons that allowed them to trade services and goods despite the crash of the currency. In 2002 Cheang and supporters drove around Manhattan for three days in a pickup, performing on location from Wall Street to Tompkins Square Park. It made people get involved in barter economies by the curb, as they dealt truque coupons for garlic bulbs, bandwidth for services, accessing landscapes and datascapes simultaneously. In an almost prophetic way, this project anticipated things to come, in particular the rising importance of the commons in the context of the crisis of capitalism. At some point in the 2000s, the framework of references changed, and discussions shifted from tactical media to the notion of the commons. This is not to say that these concepts are opposed to each other; they can exist side by side. Tactical media implied shortterm thinking, an immediacy of action, an intervention in the media to get a different message through. But it turned out that the revolution can take a while, so artistactivists started paying more attention to issues surrounding intellectual property in the meantime. There were several reasons for this shift in attention, one being that the importance of intellectual property in the knowledge economy was increasingly recognized by business leaders, and the industry started pushing for draconian legislation to protect copyright in the digital domain. In analogy to the commons as a shared natural resource, the notion of the commons as a shared digital resource emerged as a movement. The key principle of this movement has been formulated as "commonsbasedpeer production" by Yochai Benkler (2006), for whom it contained the new organizational logic of the network society. Over the past fifteen years artists have made many contributions to this growing tide of an art of the (digital) commons, often on an infrastructural level. The artistengineer Jaromil, alias Denis Rojo, has led an effort to create a special Linux distribution for creative and activist work, Dynebolic. By the mid2000s there was an "open everything" euphoria that culminated in events such as Open Congress at Tate, London, and Node. I myself was involved in Kingdom of Piracy (Shikata, Medosch, and Cheang 2003), which originally was a 374 armin medosch curatorial project about art and intellectual property and then increasingly turned toward commons research. The discourse on and activism for the commons found particularly strong support in nations such as India and Brazil. As Ricardo Rosas, one of the coorganizers, pointed out, Brazil is a country of extreme contrasts, where a thriving technological culture meets abject poverty. Rosas concluded that any interpretation of tactical media that took computers as its privileged entry point would fail to grasp the complexities of Brazilian society. The outcome of meetings with the activists was the shaping of a program to subsidize hundreds of Pontos de Culturos (points of culture) throughout the country, which would be fitted out with hardware and be given training in free software (Freire, Foina, and Fonseca 2007). As the program unfolded and hundreds of such places were registering for support, free culture activists went through the vast country on planes and coaches to teach people how to use Linux and other free software for writing and making videos and music (Brunet 2005). After Gil retired from politics and the new government came in, the program was discontinued. The free culture syndrome, however, keeps permeating Brazil and Latin America as the connection between free speech and free software is recognized. Groups such as Metareciclagem (metarecycling) and Estudio Livres in Brazil keep producing and distributing tools supporting a free culture ideal. Raqs/Sarai A decisive contribution to the artistic discourse on the commons has been made by Raqs Media Collective from New Delhi, founded in 1992 by Jeebesh Bagchi, Monica Narula, and Shuddhabrata Sengupta. Raqs was also cofounder of the Sarai program at the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies ( In s h o c k w av e s i n the n e w w o r l d o r d e r o f i n f o r m at i o n 375 2001 the online curatorial project Kingdom of Piracy commissioned twelve net artworks that addressed topics surrounding freedom of information and intellectual property. Raqs contributed Global Village Health Manual (2000), a work that "evokes a 19th century print culture" to "suggest the fragility of the body, especially the laboring body in cyberspace (Raqs Media Collective, Bagchi, Narula and Sengupta, n. In 2002 Raqs presented Open Commons, a web site for sharing tools and works, at Documenta X. These ideas have been further elaborated in the book series Sarai Reader (1 to 9). Raqs/Sarai developed a vision of the commons from the point of view of the Global South. As Sarai cofounder Ravi Sundaram argued, modernity often reached India through recycled goods and gray markets, and its instruments were pirated to construct alternate publics (Sundaram 2001). The conference "Contested Commons / Trespassing Publics"-organized by Sarai, Raqs, and the Alternative Law Forum, Bangalore, in New Delhi in 2005-addressed social and political issues connected with intellectual property across a wide terrain, from seeds to medicine and digital culture (Medosch 2005). The digital commons was a conscious attempt to create mechanisms for the de commodification of more and more aspects of culture and knowledge creation. The exchange value is neglected and the tendency toward objectification gets temporarily reversed through this gift economy where code is shared without ever becoming a commodity. The digital commons provided artists with an opportunity for horizontal collaborations and exchanges in a commodityfree zone. This ideal, however, is threatened by the precarious status of knowledge workers and the overall political economy. Free culture producers have to eat and pay rent within a capitalist economy while they create economies of abundance. This disparity gnaws away at the foundations of a liberal ideal of a possible knowledge society. In 2008 the financial system of the rich nations crashed, pushing them into a prolonged economic crisis. As austerity measures are plowing their ways through social systems, failure to act on climate change and a looming energy crisis create rising dissatisfaction with the current regimes and their inability to tackle questions of such fundamental importance. At this historical moment, many artistactivists are working out postcapitalist and ecological survival strategies. In these scenarios the commons occupies a central position as a potential new framework for a political economy not based on markets. The interest has shifted toward the conditions and rules that allow forms of commons to prosper. The forms of exchange in the commons may offer better possibilities for artists, as they can become part of a wider ecology. Yet there is also the danger that the commons can become recuperated, a tendency already visible in the world of software. The prophecy of twoway communications from the early 20th century seemed to have finally become realized on the scale of mass participation. Yet the egalitarian ideas of the emancipatory media paradigm were implemented only on the surface level.
Generic malegra dxt plus 160mg line
A wide variety of near real-time information related to how is erectile dysfunction causes discount malegra dxt plus online master card oil and gas development considerations is generated and shared in a variety of these forums erectile dysfunction treatment wikipedia purchase malegra dxt plus 160mg online. The question is not if such information is being produced erectile dysfunction vacuum pump india buy malegra dxt plus 160 mg cheap, but rather what that information is and how it moves into the appropriate planning and decision processes of regulators and other vested parties. Finding: the level of information and the number of entities generating scientific and technical information on spill preparedness topics are increasing exponentially as enhanced attention is turned towards the Arctic in general, and resource development more specifically. Individually, sources are well structured, but they roll up to a complex information challenge. It is difficult to know which identified needs are being addressed fully or partially, what new issues or insights have emerged, or how one should weigh the importance of identified gaps. Recommendation: the coordinated organization of data for access and distribution by all parties of particular workshop findings and recommendations would improve the value of such forums to help guide science planning and funding decisions. A holistic and up-to-date analysis of recommendations and insights presented in these "real-time" symposia also would help clarify and bring more transparency to what new or continued science investments are needed. Potential approaches to consider are systems similar to the National Biological Information Infrastructure portal. However, it generally is accepted that effective Arctic technologies are the first step in overall oil-spill risk minimization. In addition to technologies, a sound understanding of bathymetry, ice scour, and shoreline erosion data and processes can improve infrastructure siting decisions. As part of their Technology Assessment and Research Program, engineering properties and forces of moving ice on structures and pipelines are being studied. The authors felt limited in their ability to consider this topic and supported the need for the compilation and collection of ice, meteorological, and oceanographic information to be used by all parties involved in infrastructure decisions. Practitioners are investigating approaches to address ice forces on offshore platforms; offshore structure design challenges from ice load, scour, and thaw strain; predictive advances for critical sea-ice characteristics; extreme ice events; and impacts of increased open-water summer storms. These and other international forums support rapid and efficient transfer of state-of-the-art information on advancing technological challenges and successes. Finding: Significant coordinated international effort by industry and governments is taking place to develop safe and effective infrastructure and technologies to access energy resources in ice-covered Arctic waters. Practitioners are investigating approaches to address offshore structure design challenges from forces, such as: ice load, scour, and thaw strain; and predictive advances for critical sea-ice characteristics, extreme ice events, and impacts of increased open-water summer storms. It was not evident to us how these efforts come together in a holistic analysis of full system risks to identify sensitive infrastructure components and the priority science and technology needed to enhance performance and safety. The types of physical threats to infrastructure related to ice (described above) generally are known but their distribution and the degree of the threat across the geography of potential leasing areas were not fully evident in our limited examination. However, many-faceted and different entities examine infrastructure needs and potential solutions and this is a highly technical discipline. Thus, communication of advances and discussion of remaining critical needs could be enhanced through a coordinated, transparent full-cycle risk model. While this would be valuable within the engineering and technical community, such an approach also could provide a more effective means for the non-engineering community to see, understand, and engage in discussions about development benefits and risks. Oil-Spill Risk, Response, and Impact 113 Assessing Risks and Potential Effects of Oil Spills Background Oil-spill risk analyses and their models and input data requirements used in Beaufort Sea and Chukchi Sea Planning Area decisions follow national protocols outlined in numerous documents (for example, Minerals Management Service, 2006 [appendix C], 2008a; Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement, 2010a). The major modeled components in these analyses include estimates of spill occurrence, spill trajectories, oil weathering patterns, and intersection probabilities with specific landscape units that are used to estimate fate and effect. Two key probability analyses are considered-the hazard-based Conditional Probability and the risk-based Combined Probability. The former assumes a spill has occurred and then estimates the percent chance that a large spill would reach coastal habitats or other critical assets (for example, archeological sites, harbors). The latter expresses the percent chance of one or more oil spills 1,000 barrels (bbl) occurring and that such oil contacts a certain environmental resource area or land segment. The chance of one or more large spills occurring is derived from the spill rate (obtained from a fault-tree analysis discussed below) and the assumed resource volume. If a large oil spill did contact this coastline, the oil probably would persist in a few of the tidal and subtidal sediments for a couple of decades, leading to a local but moderate effect on the few intertidal lower trophic-level organisms. Chukchi coastline increases to 6% within 30 days over the production life of Alternative I, demonstrating the advantages of requirements for rapid response capability. Arctic-unique effects are additive components whose quantifications are done in a "relatively cursory" way based on judgment (Minerals Management Service, 2006, appendix C). Typical fault tree for pipeline or large platform spill outlining key inputs including Arctic-specific factors, such as upheaval bucking, ice gouging, thaw settlement, scour and ice force, and facility temperature (Minerals Management Service, 2006, appendix C, figs. Example of platform fault-tree input rational for Arctic modifications and unique considerations from Gulf of Mexico base data. However, the approach depends on accurate adjustments of non-Arctic data to likely Arctic outcomes, which are admittedly done in a somewhat cursory manner. Climate change considerations also may alter the validity of spill frequency adjustments. For example, increases in storm severity and traffic patterns have already been observed and may increase in response to changing climate and ice conditions in the Arctic (see Chapter 4, Climate Change Considerations). Recommendation: Continued updating of spill data, re-examination of statistical approaches used in the application of non-Arctic analogs (see Eschenbach and others, 2010), and rigorous development and incorporation of climateinfluenced forecasts on factors such as storms, vessel traffic, or other fault-tree model adjustments would provide improved understanding of and confidence in spill risk estimates over the proposed project life. Chapter 5 116 An Evaluation of the Science Needs to Inform Decisions on Outer Continental Shelf Energy Development in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, Alaska Spilled-Oil Weathering and Persistence the weathering characteristics of spilled oil influence the range of drift and spreading considered within spill trajectory assessments and dictate the effectiveness of chemical dispersants, in-situ burning, or mechanical responses (Daling and others, 1997; Prenki and others, 2004; fig. Weathering is the combination of numerous physical, chemical, and biogeochemical processes acting to alter the phase and (or) composition of the oil. The processes affecting the weathering of oil spilled in open water, even in cold-water environments, generally are well understood (Fingas, 2008b). Many of the fundamental processes-such as evaporation, dissolution, spreading, and photodegradation-affecting oil weathering in the Arctic also occur elsewhere, but may occur at different rates given the specific meteorological conditions present in the Arctic. Yet, when compared with the current body of knowledge regarding oil weathering processes in open-water and temperate conditions, the body of knowledge regarding these processes in the context of Arctic oil spills is "very limited" (Brandvik and Faksness, 2009). Laboratory testing provides a view into the nominal response of various oil types to weathering under different environmental conditions. Simulations of spills in various ice conditions have been done (for example, Prentki and others, 2004), but with limited field testing. Efforts, such as those by Brandvik and others (2010a) to conduct mesoscale weathering experiments in both the laboratory and at smallscale field scales, provide data to improve the capacity of oil weathering models to better predict oil weathering in cold and ice scenarios.
Discount malegra dxt plus 160 mg on-line
In a review of these technologies and their general effectiveness in response statistics of erectile dysfunction in us proven malegra dxt plus 160mg, DeCola and others (2006) noted that "estimates vary regarding the impacts of sea ice on spill surveillance and tracking erectile dysfunction yeast infection purchase malegra dxt plus online from canada. Response experts often use 50 percent ice coverage as a rule-ofthumb for defining the extent to erectile dysfunction remedy order malegra dxt plus with a visa which open water detection and mapping may be applied. When ice coverage exceeds 50 percent, methods such as visual observation become much less reliable because of problems in detecting the presence of oil in ice leads; however, remote sensing technologies may still apply. For example, a critical gap identified in spill response is the lack of capability to accurately measure and map the thickness of oil on water and to rapidly send this information to response personnel in the command post (Mineral Management Service, 2008b). World Wildlife Fund (2009) noted that the combination of multi-spectral aerial imagery and infrared detection shows promise for mapping oil slick thickness, but that these tools need further refinement under Arctic conditions and with specific Arctic oil types in order to better demonstrate their feasibility as an operational tool in Arctic oil-spill response. Similarly, DeCola and others (2006) stated that the "latest generation of high resolution radar satellites could be used to map large spills in an open pack condition, but radar signatures of new ice, oil, and calm water can be very confusing. This timeframe covers approximately 70 percent of the nearshore fast ice season in most years. Airborne radar also was tested and found to detect oil on frozen ground under snow and oil encapsulated in or under fresh ice. The test also showed that radar can detect oil in and under first year ice with relatively even top and bottom surfaces. Detecting oil through multi-year ice or rafter/ridged first year ice is expected to be difficult because of the voids and jumbled blocks of rough ice which may scatter the radar signal in many different directions. The overall results from a Dickins and Bradford (2008) study of airborne radar system capabilities in selected Arctic spill scenarios indicate that currently available systems are capable of detecting and mapping oil in ice over a broad operational time window in the Beaufort Sea area. The most reliable months for detection are January and February with results in November, December, and March depending on the internal brine volume of the ice (combination of salinity and temperature). There are still challenges in detecting oil early in the winter with thin, high salinity ice sheets (October) and in the spring (May/June) with warm thick ice having a high volume of liquid brine. During these periods, higher powered radar systems and (or) a corresponding improvement in signal to noise ratios would need to be developed to cover the beginning and end phases of the ice cycle. Detection of trapped oil is not as critical during May and June, however, as the oil will naturally surface through the porous ice and provide a clear visual indication of the presence of residual trapped oil. Based on previous work, there are limited prospects for developing operational radar based systems to detect oil in sea ice that is floating, but not bottom fast ice. The optimum direction for future radar research and development needs to focus on systems that can evolve into practical operational devices, readily deployed and maintained in Arctic conditions. Future tests need to combine both laboratory and field trials with oil spilled under ice. A sole reliance on laboratory or tank tests will not provide an adequate basis for developing operational systems for future use. Satellite imagery also is an important component and can inform oil-spill response and other operations in the Arctic, although radar systems are the most practical because of their ability to be used during both the day and the night, and during most cloud cover conditions. Regular satellite surveillance minimizes the need for floating rigs to disconnect riser and drill string in response to advancing ice features and reduces spill risk. In addition, seismic surveys may be completed more efficiently by taking into account ice conditions. Chapter 5 144 An Evaluation of the Science Needs to Inform Decisions on Outer Continental Shelf Energy Development in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, Alaska the most effective solution may not be a single sensor, but rather could require the integration of several different technologies (Brown and Fingas, 2009). In a recent review of the state-of-knowledge regarding airborne remote sensing, Dickins and Andersen (2010) noted that multi-spectral remote sensing, when supplemented by visual observation from trained observers, is presently the most effective method for detecting and mapping the presence and spatial distribution of oil on water. There have been many recent studies to test a variety of sensors under different conditions. In their review, Jha and others (2008) stated that laser fluorosensors were the best available sensor for oil-spill surveillance, given the ability to detect oil against many backgrounds, including ice and the shoreline. However, the authors cautioned that no single sensor is capable of providing all requisite information needed to support an effective oil-spill surveillance operation. Advances in technology also may be needed to produce smaller, less energy-intensive systems that could be installed on smaller airframes that are more widely available and (or) affordable to oil-spill responders and government regulators (Brown and Fingas, 2009). Finding: There are numerous technologies available for use in detecting and tracking oil spills on open water and in or under sea ice, with varying levels of detection and spatial resolution. Improvements have been made to individual sensors over the past decade; these improvements are documented in a number of available syntheses. Of these, the laser fluorosensor is among the most highly regarded in terms of ability to detect oil in certain snow and ice conditions (Brown and Fingas, 2009). However, there is consensus in the scientific and response communities that no single sensor or approach is sufficient to address all the needs for effective Arctic oil-spill response, particularly given other challenges, such as long hours of darkness and the presence of sea ice. In this regard, high quality ice information and all-weather satellite coverage are viewed as essential by most Arctic operators (Arctic Council, 2009). Given the limitations for each individual type of sensor, packages of multi-sensor systems appear to hold the most promise for versatile and comprehensive remote sensing. Hence, there is growing emphasis on the development of multisensor systems that can be deployed from a variety of platforms. For spilled oil detection in and (or) under ice, two avenues stand out as the likely focus of future development: acoustics (including the potential use of ultrasound), and electromagnetic (primarily the wave domain systems commonly referred to as impulse radars or ground-penetrating radars). Continued development of practical operational systems for detecting oil in or under ice will be extremely challenging. It is recommended that the latest evolution of the acoustic system first tried in the 1980s be tested over a realistic mix of first year sea ice under field conditions. At the same time, it would be valuable to test the capabilities of the latest generation of ground-penetrating radars in areas of bottom-fast ice where the interface is ice to frozen sediment rather than ice to water. Of the sensors currently available, the laser fluorosensor appears to hold the most promise, given its potential to detect oil in the presence of ice and snow. However, to facilitate broader use of this sensor and its incorporation into multi-sensory packages that can be deployed from a variety of platforms, a reduction in the size and energy consumption-requiring advances in solid-state laser technology-of these systems is critical (Brown and Fingas, 2009). More work is needed on testing of multi-sensor systems to inform remote-sensing operations for spill response. In particular, expanded testing of unmanned aircraft systems is needed to augment observations from trained observers. Research is needed to enhance satellite remote sensing and surface validation capabilities, including development and (or) refinement of satellite-based oil detection algorithms for ice-covered areas. Assessing system performance under real-world conditions during a future offshore controlled spill exercise is seen as a critical need. Such an exercise would provide information essential to refining these capabilities from an operational standpoint. Oil-Spill Risk, Response, and Impact 145 Field Trials and International Coordination the National Research Council (1994) recommended "the design and completion of one or more experimental oil spills in the general area of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. We believe that experimental spills are essential because they can contribute to the scientific understanding of processes, and fill data gaps, about the interaction of ice and oil.
- Sheehan syndrome
- VATER association
- Arthrogryposis renal dysfunction cholestasis syndrome
- Dust-induced lung disease
- Leukemia, T-Cell, chronic
- Reactive arthritis
- Immunodeficiency with short limb dwarfism
Malegra dxt plus 160 mg without a prescription
Crary argues for an earlier moment of rupture-in the r8zos and r83os erectile dysfunction urologist 160mg malegra dxt plus for sale, before the invention of photography and before the stylistics of impressionism and cubism erectile dysfunction treatment hypnosis discount malegra dxt plus 160mg amex. They argue that Crary overstates the importance of the camera obscura in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries without discussing its precedents in perspectiva natura/is erectile dysfunction anxiety buy discount malegra dxt plus 160 mg on-line. Both of these recent works on problems of representation in the European tradition take extreme positions that appear very problematic. In our opinion, the epistemological discontinuities of vision must be acknowledged without disregarding a continuity in the history of European science and philosophy. Crary posits a radical rupture in genealogies that trace a continuous Western visual and philosophical tradition of an ideal, centered "observer" from Renaissance perspective onward to the birth of photography and the cinema. In the r8zos and 183os, as optical researchers studied human vision and produced optical devices that demonstrated the "physiological optics" of binocular parallax and persistence of vision, the "observer" was retooled, Crary asserts, as an active producer of optical experience. In his rush to fit optical devices into the epistemes of tidily contained centuries (the disembodied "camera obscura" of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries versus the "physiological optics" of the nineteenth), Crary elides the differences between nineteenthcentury devices that rely on binocular parallax-like the stereoscope-and those relying on persistence of vision-like the phenakistoscope-devices which produce quite different optical and hence subjective effects. Devices like the stereoscope and the phenakistoscope demonstrated these new optical principles; the visual effects produced by these devices occurred in the "body" of the observer. Mark Gosser, "Kircher and Lanterna Magica-A Reexamination," journal of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers 90 (October r98r): 972-978. The "magic lantern," Mannoni claims, was invented in r659 by Christiaan Huygens and was properly named in r668 by Italian mathematician Francesco Eschinardi (The Great Art, 3-73). Once light writes its image on a surface, the image out its window-its tiny aperture-is fixed as its two-dimensional virtual other. The flight of birds, the movement of trees in the wind, the gestures of humans were of great fascination to the viewers of the camera obscura, but the photograph could not record the movement in two dimensions. The size of the image was dependent on its distance from the aperture, but the shape of the projected image, as noted by commentators as early as Aristotle, was always circular. Roger Bacon tried a square aperture, but the image was still circular, leading him to conclude that it was a property of light. The recent facsimile reprint of a two-volume set of nineteenth-centuryprecinematic doc- 48 uments provides many texts and treatises as evidence of the vibrancy of the practice in the late nineteenth century. The editors of the feminist film journal Camera Obscura launched their first issue with an editorial that adopted the metaphor as a convergence of ideology and representation. See editorial, "Feminism and Film: Critical Approaches," Camera Obscura r (Fall 1976): 3-ro. This point is also made by Jean-Louis Comolli in a 1978 essay, "Machines of the Visible. Qyoted in Beaumont Newhall, the History ofPhotography (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1964), 13. Photo historian Helmut Gernsheim obtained the photograph for his own collection in the 1950s and then donated the piece to the university in 1963. In 1952, Gernsheim attempted to photograph the heliographic image for a copy print. The image of the original heliograph that is commonly reproduced was made in 1952 at the Eastman Kodak Research Laboratory in Harrow, England. See also Gernsheim and Gernsheim, the History ofPhotography: From the Camera Obscura to the Beginning ofthe Modern Era. Although both of these early essays share the assumption of a teleological impulse toward realism, the later essay is largely concerned with the technical delays in achieving the ideal of "total cinema. In his writing on animation, Alan Cholodenko argues that the fascination for spectators was with "the illusion oflife. Photography and cinema, on the other hand, are discoveries that satisfY once and for all and in its very essence, our obsession with realism. In this essay, Bazin attacks the montage-style of the Soviets Kuleshov and Eisenstein ("they did not give us the event, they alluded to it") and the mise-en -scene of the German school (which "did every kind of violence to the plastics of the image by way of sets and lighting"). Andrew also offers a biographical account of the influence of Bergson, Malraux, and Sartre on Bazin. Rosen finds the spatial realism of perspective to be of less importance to Bazin than issues of temporality. The translation "apparatus" elides the distinction between the dispositif as arrangement and the appareil as machine. Although Althusser is usually credited for the derivation of the term dispositijfor film theory, Joan Copjec asserts that apparatus theory borrowed that term from Bachelard, not Althusser. The earlier essay is more directly influenced by a post-May 1968 critique of the ideology of representation; the second essay is more fully in the force field of psychoanalytic theory. James, "Stan Brakhage: the Filmmaker as Poet," in Allegories ofCinema:American Film in the Sixties (Princeton: Princeton University Press, rg8g), 47, n. This special issue of Communications, entitled "Psychanalyse et cinema," contained pieces by Metz, 72 Baudry, Kristeva, Guattari, Barthes, Kuntze! The cover of the 1977 paperback has a nineteenth-century drawing of a projecting praxinoscope casting images onto a screen. This volume was translated as Christian Metz, the Imaginary Signifier: Psychoanalysis and Cinema, trans. Although Heath mentions the Latin istoria in parentheses here, he does not suggest how istoria-the Latin for "narrative" or "holy story"-is related to "framed, centred, 290 1 harmonious. Claus Grimm, the Book 79 80 81 of Picture Frames (New York: Abaris Books, 1992), 25. Grimm writes of these periods, "Certainly there were few pictures serving as movable furnishings for any and every private room. But in stately secular rooms there were already areas painted with illusionistic pictures, which were surrounded with ornamental bands and painted friezes; this is proved by the late classical wall painting. When in 1954 Frank Stella left the edge of the canvas visible and used thicker canvas supports, the material support of the painting was revealed. See also Piers and Caroline Fretham, the Art ofFraming (New York: Clarkson Potter, 1997); and Desmond MacNamara, Picture Framing: A Practical Guide from Basic to Baroque (London: David and Charles Publishers, 1986). Panel painting was not confined to altarpieces, but also transformed existing object types, including painted crosses, altar frontals, and monumental panels of the Virgin and Child, and brought on new surfaces for painting, lunette-shaped panels for architectural settings, small-scale panels for personal devotion, and painted chests for private homes. There are many questions about the history of the frame that I will not pursue here: the relation of the frame to its architectural surround, to the ornamentation found on adjacent doors and windows, the relation of framing motifs to book cover motifs, the difference between frames of text and frames of image, frames as architectonic structures separating the multipartite sequences in triptychs and polyptychs, the relation of the pictorial frame to the theatrical proscenium frame, etc. Baxandall, Painting and Experience in Fifteenth Century Italy: A Primer in the Social History ofPictorial Style (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1972), I. He maintains that this realization reveals the absent space outside of the frame and exposes the film as constructed/enunciated operation. See Vivian Sobchack, the Address ofthe Eye: Phenomenology and the Film Experience (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992).
Generic 160mg malegra dxt plus
Thus erectile dysfunction drugs in canada 160mg malegra dxt plus with amex, the question that must be answered is not whether a particular area is somehow private in the abstract erectile dysfunction treatment thailand buy malegra dxt plus 160 mg online, but whether one has a reasonable expectation of privacy therein erectile dysfunction doterra buy malegra dxt plus 160mg amex. Second, a privacy interest, in the constitutional sense, consists of a reasonable expectation that uninvited and unauthorized persons will not intrude into a particular area. Third, an expectation of privacy, strictly speaking, consists of a belief that uninvited people will not intrude in a particular way. The Exclusionary Rule is a judicially created remedy designed to deter law enforcement misconduct. Therefore, the application of the rule has been restricted to those areas where its remedial objectives are thought to be best served. However, merely because unlawful conduct has occurred does not mean that all later discovered evidence is the fruit of the illegality. While rejecting an all or nothing (but for the illegal police conduct) test, the Court articulated the question as follows: 4-124 the Fourth Amendment and the Exclusionary Rule [W]hether, granting establishment of the primary illegality, the evidence to which instant objection is made has been come at by exploitation of that illegality or instead by means sufficiently distinguishable to be purged of the primary taint. The Court has identified several factors to consider when applying the "fruit of the poisonous tree" doctrine articulated in Wong Sun. These factors include: (1) the purpose and flagrancy of the police misconduct; (2) the time lapse between the illegal police conduct and obtaining the evidence; and (3) and intervening circumstances. To invoke the Exclusionary Rule in warrant cases, defendants are required to demonstrate not only the unconstitutionality of the warrant, but also that the police lacked a reasonable good faith belief in the propriety of their actions. There are, however, five instances in which the good faith exception does not apply and suppression remains an appropriate remedy: (1) the affiant intentionally or recklessly misleads the magistrate with material misstatements or omissions, Franks v. For example, evidence of an illegal wire interception may be suppressed pursuant to 18 U. Statutes which purport to authorize searches and seizures without probable cause or search warrants may ultimately provide grounds for suppression of evidence. The Court has expanded on this reasoning and held that the Exclusionary Rule does not apply to evidence obtained by police officers who act in objectively reasonable reliance upon a statute authorizing warrantless administrative searches, even if the statute was eventually found to violate the Fourth Amendment. The Court reasoned that since police must obey statutes as written, excluding evidence would have no deterrent effect. The only exception would be if the legislature "wholly abandoned its responsibility to enact constitutional laws," or if the law is so clearly unconstitutional that "a reasonable officer" should have known "it was invalid. The Tenth Circuit has held that an element of the offense cannot be proven by illegally obtained evidence through the use of Rule 404(b). The rule announced in Calandra has served as a basis for strictly limiting the Exclusionary Rule to the criminal trial proper. In Scott, the Court reasoned that application of the exclusionary rule in the context of parole revocation would "both hinder the functioning of state parole systems and alter the traditionally flexible, administrative nature of parole revocation proceedings. However, the Exclusionary Rule might apply where the defendant can show that he or she is the victim of police harassment. The Ninth Circuit has interpreted Caceres to hold that the exclusionary rule will not be applied to enforce an agency regulation where the violation does not raise a constitutional question, and the defendant cannot claim that he reasonably relied on the regulation or that its breach affected his conduct. In 4-128 the Fourth Amendment and the Exclusionary Rule Ani, the defendant moved to suppress evidence on the ground that it was seized in violation of a regulation which required "reasonable cause" to search incoming international mail. Because border searches of incoming packages do not require any suspicion, the Ninth Circuit found that no constitutional violation had occurred. Since the primary purpose of the Exclusionary Rule is deterrence of illegal governmental actions, it is an inappropriate remedy for unofficial wrongdoing. If a private party conducts a search at the behest of the government, however, then the private party becomes in effect the instrument or agent of the state and the search falls within the scope of the exclusionary rule. To determine whether a private party has acted as an agent or instrument of the government, the Ninth Circuit has articulated a two part inquiry: (1) whether the government knew or acquiesced in the intrusive conduct; and (2) whether the party performing the search intended to assist law enforcement efforts or to further his or her own goals. The Court further stated that the Fourth Amendment was intended to protect people of the United States against arbitrary action by their own government, rather than to restrain actions of the federal government against aliens outside United States territory. If United States law enforcement officers participate in a foreign search, however, or if the search is the result of its coordination or an agency relationship between the United States agents and their foreign counterparts, the Fourth Amendment protections may be triggered. The issue of standing to challenge a search is not a concept which is separate and distinct from the merits of the underlying Fourth Amendment claim. The Court formulated a test in Rakas requiring a defendant to show that he could "legitimately expect privacy in the areas which were the subject of the search and seizure [he] sought to contest. Under the current case law, defendants charged with crimes of possession may only claim the benefits of the Exclusionary Rule if their own Fourth Amendment rights have in fact been violated. In Carter, a police officer peered through an apartment window through a gap in the closed blinds and observed the defendants bagging cocaine with the leaseholder. Supreme Court held that the defendants did not have a legitimate expectation of privacy in the apartment because the "purely commercial nature" of the their activities, the short period of time on the premises, and the absence of any other connection to the leaseholder indicated that they were merely present on the premises with the consent of the host. In Alderman, the Court held that co-conspirators and co-defendants have no special standing for suppression of evidence under the Fourth Amendment where their rights are not violated by the search itself. The Court further stated that while expectations of privacy in property interests govern the analysis of Fourth Amendment search and seizure claims, a conspiracy neither adds nor detracts from such privacy expectations or interests despite participation in a criminal conspiracy. This includes those who at the time of the search are tenants of a house or apartment. However, if there is no possessory interest in the place searched, there is no standing. In addition, those who are renting a room in a hotel, motel, or rooming house may have standing. The Court reasoned that "ownership of the drugs is undoubtedly one fact to be considered," but "arcane" concepts of property rights are not determinative in establishing the right to claim a Fourth Amendment violation. In addition, if the abandonment results from a Fourth Amendment violation then the abandonment is not voluntary, and will not defeat standing. The person who rents a boat on behalf of another person has no standing to complain about an illegal search. Nonseizures are defined as consensual encounters between law enforcement and private citizens. A consensual encounter is one in which a private citizen would feel free to disregard the police. The distinguishing factor between a nonseizure and a seizure is that there is no mandatory compliance in a nonseizure. Moreover, the fact that an officer identifies himself as a police officer, without more, does not convert the encounter into a seizure requiring some level of objective justification. In addition, routine police questioning does not convert an encounter into a seizure. The person, however, "may not be detained even momentarily without reasonable, objective grounds for doing so; the refusal to listen or answer does not, without more, furnish those grounds. In short, unsolicited interaction with law enforcement will not rise to the level of a seizure for Fourth Amendment purposes.
Purchase malegra dxt plus 160mg without a prescription
Relying on the account of the biographer Vasari a century after Alberti in 1570 erectile dysfunction blogs forums buy malegra dxt plus 160 mg overnight delivery, Kittler assumes that Alberti used a camera obscura as an instrument to erectile dysfunction remedies pump purchase 160 mg malegra dxt plus mastercard devise his mathematical formulas for linear perspective erectile dysfunction treatment nhs malegra dxt plus 160mg with mastercard. Paradoxically, printed editions of works of Euclid, Alhazen, and Pecham produced a revival of interest in perspective. For everything that matters is to be found in the card box of the researcher who wrote it, and the scholar studying it assimilates it into his own card index. Despite his intention to find a method for history writing commensurate with the optical metaphors of "telescoping [of] the past through the present" [n7a3] and "literary montage," his writerly method was bricolage, collecting a hodge-podge of things and themes-boredom, mirrors, conspiracies, exhibitions, advertising, the doll, the automaton, prostitution, a theory of progress. Walter Benjamin, "N [On the Theory of Knowledge: Theory of Progress]," in the Arcades Project, trans. Howard Eiland and Kevin McLaughlin (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999), 460, 471. See my extended discussion of the dialectical images (dialektische Bilder) and montage principle in Passagenwerk in Window Shopping, 47-53. The subjective consequences-for both writers and readers-of computer-assisted writing technologies remain a topic of much debate. Christina Haas, for example, has questioned the effects of computer technology on the "embodied process" of writing: "How is it that material tools can shape mental processes And what is the relationship of material tools to the culture in which they are embedded Haas outlines two inherent dangers-a Scylla and Charybdis-to answering these questions. On one hand, a "transparency myth" assumes that writing "is not changed in any substantive way by the transparent medium through which it passes" and erases the role of technology in the agency of writing; on the other hand, "postmodern theories of technology" assume that technology is overdeterminant. Theory and technology exist in a kind of circular relationship, which theory used to somehow legitimate modern technology, which itself is seen as underscoring the aptness of contemporary theory" (44). Here, I would agree with Haas that technologies have a materiality and that we need "to understand how material technologies both constrain and enable acts of mind, on the one hand, and how cultures produce, adapt and are affected by material technologies, on the other hand" (27). In the last decade, historical writing on cinematic "origins" has reached most deeply into history and most broadly in comparison to other visual practices. See Vanessa Schwarz, Spectacular Realities: Early Mass Culture in Fin-de-Siecle Paris (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), and Vanessa Schwarz and Leo Charney, Cinema and the Invention ofModern Life (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995). See Cecil Grayson, introduction to Leon Battista Alberti, On Painting and On Scuplture: the Latin Texts ofDe pictura and De statua, trans. Cecil Grayson (London: Phaidon, 1972); Erwin Panofsky, Perspective as Symbolic Form (1924-1925), trans. Pirenne, Optics, Painting and Photography (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 197o); Samuel Y. Edgerton, the Renaissance Rediscovery ofLinear Perspective (New York: Basic Books, 1975); Svetlana Alpers, the Art ofDescribing: Dutch Art in the Seventeenth Century (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983); Michael Kubovy, the Psychology of Perspective and Renaissance Art (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986); Martin Jay, "Scopic Regimes of Modernity," in Hal Foster, ed. Alberti (1404-1472) was the son of an exiled Florentine merchant banker; he received a doctorate in canon and civil law from the University of Bologna in 1428. In 1428-1430 he wrote On the Advantages and Disadvantages of Letters and Scholarship, a critique of the social position of the classical scholar, arguing that the scholar is unequipped for living. He wrote De pictura in 1435 in Latin, and then in 1436 he composed an Italian (Tuscan) version that he dedicated to the Florentine architect Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446). De pictura applied the optical laws of vision Alberti had learned as a classical scholar to the techniques of painterly representation. See Anthony Grafton, Leon Battista Alberti: Master Builder ofthe Italian Renaissance (New York: Hill and Wang, 2000). In a letter to Brunelleschi that precedes the 1436 ver1 sion, Alberti proclaims his admiration for the artistry of the Florentines: "But after I came back here to this most beautiful of cities from the long exile in which we Albertis have grown old, I recognized in many, but above all in you, Filippo, and in our great friend the sculptor Donatello and in the others, Nencio, Luca and Masaccio, a genius for every laudable enterprise in no way inferior to any of the ancients who gained fame in these arts" (On Painting, 33). The writings of Cecil Grayson, Martin Kemp, Samuel Edgerton, Erwin Panofsky, Hubert Damisch, and James Elkins provide detailed scholarship on Alberti and the defining origins of perspective. While many of these scholars take issue with each other, many also take issue with the "platitudinous discourse" (Damisch, the Origin quent reductive caricatures of "Renaissance perspective. Its 1435 text was a handwritten and handcopied manuscript and was not printed until 1540. As Carpo details, Alberti was keenly aware of the technologies of reproducibility available to him, and suggests: "there is a vast amount of evidence that Alberti was vividly aware of the conditions of reproducibility specific to all the different formats and media he used-languages, alphabets, ciphers, numeric notations, manuscripts, drawings, and, some years later, also print, and even three-dimensional objects. Rather than include a drawing, Alberti published a list of numbers or coordinates, and explained how to use these coordinates to draw a map. As in his formula for perspectival drawing, Alberti supplied the formula, not the image. In this way, Carpo suggests Alberti "invented" the digital image, transformed ekphrasis to algorithm. Alberti biographer Anthony Grafton finds it odd that Alberti did not include diagrams for De pictura, given that he did provide illustrations for his work on sculpture, De statua. His historical knowledge of the classical past allowed him to link antiquity with contemporary trends and practices. This truly difficult question, which is quite without value for our purposes, may here be set aside" (On Painting I. And he similarly evades whether "sight rests at the juncture of the inner nerve of the eye, or whether images are created on the surface of the eye, as it were in an animate mirror. I do not think it necessary to speak here of all the functions of the eye in relation to vision" (On Painting 1. His is the first deliberate and rational application of a theory of vision to the art and technique of painting. Jacques Aumont describes the "noteworthy metonymy" by which the geometric point of perspective becomes coextensive with the eye of the painter as a "point of view. Bryson writes: the centric ray constitutes a return of the gaze upon itself: the cone of lines emanating from the Albertian eye is redoubled in its opposite, a cone radiating towards it out of that point from which all the architectonic lines radiate. At the picture plane, the two cones intersect; which is to say that the single vanishing point marks the installation within the painting of a principle of radical alterity, since its gaze returns that of the viewer as its own object: something is looking at my looking: a gaze whose position I can never occupy, and whose vista I can imagine only by reversing my own, by inverting the perspective before me, and by imagining my own gaze as the new, palindromic point of disappearance on the horizon. Panofsky emphasizes this monocular "assumption" as an essential element of single-point perspective: "It forgets that we see not 16 with a single fixed eye but with two constantly moving eyes" (Perspective as Symbolic Form, 31). This is clear for instance with regard to the frame of the picture; and it is this largely which enables us to locate the position of the picture with its frame" (Optics, Painting and Photography, 77). Veltman, Linear Perspective and the Visual Dimensions of Science andArt: Studies on Leonardo da Vinci, vol. The earliest drawing in the Codex Atlanticus has no text but shows a rather cumbersome perspective frame. Architecture has six elements: region (regio), ground (area), organization (partitio), wall (paries), ceiling (tectum), and opening (apertio). Although there are no surviving paintings that can be attributed to him, Alberti received a number of architectural commissions 23 1 269 between I450 and I470.
Malegra dxt plus 160 mg amex
I use play and game fundamentals in projects that range from software art erectile dysfunction medicine list buy malegra dxt plus 160mg mastercard, drawings erectile dysfunction and pump purchase malegra dxt plus 160mg without prescription, and installation erectile dysfunction 16 years old order malegra dxt plus overnight, to sculpture (some of them specifically gamerelated), and are shown in more traditional art venues. I also run an experimental game design lab, Tiltfactor, which fosters the design of games for social impact. Important threads play out in any art, no matter what the form, and critical play is an idea that can help extend the definition of the "avantgarde" to game design. Like alternative theories of narrative texts, poetry, and film, critical play points to the ways in which some games ask much more of the viewer than others in terms of a critical dialogue and reflection. These are the games that engage with "radical" game design and involve players in new ways. Computer games are often seen as a new medium not necessarily aligned with older forms of play, but this is an oversight. Critical play readily manifests in older and current games designed by artists who intend their work to offer political or social critique in order to propose ways of understanding larger cultural issues. They take on the role of the worker starting their day in bed, waking up and getting dressed, kissing the spouse goodbye, getting in the car, driving to work, confronting the boss about their lateness, and going home. This pattern can be played repeatedly; every day is nearly the same "dream" from beginning to end. Whenever a player chooses a slightly different option in the routine, a new "dream" day begins. This is what one of the few characters in the game-the lady in the elevator-suggests. Or is it a representation of the logic of capitalism that has created the most complex form of alienation, alienation of people from their work and from each other Other characters include a homeless man, who takes players to a quiet spot, and a cow encountered in a field. The game is in many ways the antithesis of the Sims, the popular "dollhouse" game released in 2000. The work process within the game is an exploration of the bleakness and alienation of daily life in a world with empty, unconnected labor and long days. Artists frequently strip games of their potential agency, their gamespecific elements: no rules, no player actions, no risks, no rewards, no bonuses or deaths. A key feature of games is that they are bound by their own rule sets, and therefore invite regulation, supervision, and of course, subversion. To scholars such as Brian SuttonSmith (1997), play is culturally associated, at least in part, with transgressive and subversive actions. Thus play itself could be seen as a type of subversion, one that looks at expectations and weaves in a social critique inherent to critical play. Unplayable games provide rule frameworks for thinking or, as Felix Guattari might say, "devices for producing subjectivity" (Guattari 1995). Songdo is designed to be perfect: plans call for the elimination of social ills, carefree living, and happiness for all citizens-in fact, plans in the form of 3D building models were input into Google Earth before the city was even built. In my project I first explored this "virtual" city and then modeled what this "perfect city" might be like for people inhabiting it. To do this I took the models for the city, translated them into buildings in the popular computer game the Sims 2, and then populated this city with virtual inhabitants with their own personalities and characteristics. During the construction of the actual Songdo city atop a giant landfill south of Seoul, ubiquitous technology was considered a "feature" of the planned infrastructure. Since then, concerns about an allknowing, "Big Brother style" technological infrastructure have increasingly been raised. One side of the screen alternates between liveaction footage of the artist recreating the design process of the city, scrubbing backwards and forwards through time, mixed with a timelapse recording of the planning and construction of the virtual city. This video component mimics a documentarystyle look at "the making of" New Songdo. The opposite screen shows the slow motion city in action as developed in the Sims 2. The people inhabiting the environment are a population wandering aimlessly to and from virtual jobs, or sitting on park benches, C r I T I C a l P l ay 453 purposeless. This future city is unattached to history, and the somnambulistic attributes of the pedestrians point to the weary, stale, and unprofitable experience of technoutopianism. The featureless city streets depicted call into question the all too brief period and limited input from noncorporate entities devoted to planning the city. These experiences are interdependent, symbiotic, and create meaning in a mutual fashion. While these cycles are complex, the work deliberately minimizes the aesthetics of the video; I hack the city together from the banal position of my desk. The resulting video created from the process reveals the ambiguity of bleakness and beauty; this happens on the programming side, through the construction of boring behaviors, and in the image, derived from the real 3D models upon which such "utopia" was built. Artists have been using play in subversive and disturbing ways, making impossible and grotesque objects or nonsensical game kits whose rules are enticingly unresolvable in the conventional sense of traditional games, where winners, losers, player roles, and game goals are clearly articulated. Koresh became notorious not only for his cult activities but for the 51day standoff with federal authorities at his compound in Waco, Texas, in 1993. The standoff culminated in a massive shootout, and left seventysix people dead in a great fire. While engaging with the game, players wear the "head" of Koresh, a headset and mask of his face that has a voiceactivated control mechanism and builtin speakers blasting messages of government agents, religious readings, and much battle noise to provide an immersive, chaotic experience for players (Figure 20. By wearing the "head" of Koresh, players adopt his appearance and his subjective point of view. In the game, each player appears as Koresh-each character being identical but surrounded by a differently colored "aura. Players can also energize themselves by accessing one of the different types of Bibles falling from the sky; each contains a specific phrase that will provide special power. The Koresh who collects the most converts until the time of death wins the game (Stern 2003). It is significant that Waco: Resurrection was created on the 10th anniversary of the reallife events in Texas and functions as an intentional commentary on "holy wars. The game is networked in the sense that multiple players in one 454 m a ry f l a n aga n Figure 20. Although the game might look as if it glamorizes aggression, violence and narcissism in the game are treated very knowingly and critically. It is coincidental that it prophetically anticipates behavior, such as the gathering of "followers," that would become common practice on social networks a decade later. Each of these critical games presents players with problematic, impossible, or unusual endings and thus helps them to not only reconsider each of the game situations presented but to also reflect on the meaning and strategies of games themselves. With the increasing accessibility of mobile technology (such as smartphones and tablets), these numbers only continue to rise.