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This clearly demonstrates that communication and language barriers are seen as the most important issue mentioned by seven respondents erectile dysfunction medication south africa purchase viagra plus american express. It is closely followed by cultural diversity (mentioned six times) erectile dysfunction protocol scam or not order 400 mg viagra plus with mastercard, the leadership style (mentioned four times) and quality standards (mentioned three times) erectile dysfunction treatment home remedies discount viagra plus on line. In particular, issues in executing due diligence highlights again the Chinese information lack to comply and conduct defined procedures. Figure 16: Final assessment of M&A transaction Seven respondents classify the M&A transaction as a win/win situation for both German and Chinese company. According to one company, the Sino-German business relationship is beneficial only for the Chinese company and simultaneously has no discernible effects for the German company. On the whole, Chinese investors have only positive effects on German companies or the effects can be described neither positive nor negative. Particularly, Chinese companies focus on industries such as the high-end manufacturing, the information technology, the environmental protection and the new energy sector. The research study includes participants of the machinery sector (38%), the machine tool industry (37%) and the automotive suppliers (25%). The analysis of the implications on the German company through the Chinese investment based on conducted semi-structured interviews lead to following key findings: the main reasons for the decision of the German company for a Chinese investor are the search for an external funding source and the growth strategy. The intensity of integration of the German company in the Chinese organisation is described as low. Hence, the German companies stay relatively independent which is consistent with the evaluation of the strategic influences on the German company which are mainly evaluated as moderate. Furthermore, the analysis shows that the corporate management stays exclusively in the German company. The technology and knowledge transfer predominately takes place from German to Chinese side but actually not vice versa. On the whole, the Sino-German collaboration is assessed as positive and even outweighs existent challenges which are mainly evaluated as big. The comparison of the economic situation at the M&A deal and the future forecast of the economic situation of the German company shows a positive development which can be traced back to the Chinese investment. The influence of M&A transactions on key figures clearly shows that only positive effects can be derived or the M&A has no discernible effects on examined figures. The Chinese investors are willing to give job and location guarantees which underlines the Chinese long-term orientation. The majority of participating companies realises synergy effects through the Sino-German business combination. Considering all other companies, the M&A transactions are evaluated as win/win situation a mutual benefit for both companies. Chinese companies swarm out to compete within stiff competition and consequently raising quality standards are required which are represented in those companies they invest. It cannot be neglected that the Chinese companies benefit from the German company especially by technological and know how transfer. The technological and know how transfer is not necessarily to the detriment of the German company. As most respondents highlight that high-end production and R&D stays or is focused in Germany the following statement is supported: the most important aspect is the ability to innovate which cannot be bought it is a process of learning. Hence, the implications on German companies by Chinese investors have to be considered in long-term. Chinese companies are not yet able to compete with "Made in Germany" but they are learning rapidly. As a result and summary of considered implications of Chinese investors on Germany, German companies should focus in building up technological know-how and focus on innovation the main aspect to remain and improve competitiveness. Moreover, by the Going Global Policy, Chinese government encourages and promotes companies financially to invest abroad. German Federal Bank (2014): Statistische Sonderverцffentlichung 10: Bestandserhebung ьber Direktinvestitionen Kapitalverflechtung mit dem Ausland. Very negative Negative Solid Positive Very positive 4) What reasons led to the decision for a Chinese investor? Very negative Negative Positive Very positive Not necessary If planning evaluated negatively: 11) Based on what aspects do you evaluate the planning of the Chinese investor as negative? Yes No If an integration planning took place: 14) How was the integration planning conducted? Very negative Negative Positive Very positive Not necessary 16) How strong do you evaluate the integration of the German company in the organisation of the Chinese investor? No integration Low integration Strong integration Very strong integration 17) How often does the Chinese investor visit the German location(s)? Permanently at the location(s) Monthly Quarterly One to three times a year Never 18) How huge are the differences from the reorganisation since the M&A transaction took place? No reorganisation Minimal differences Moderate differences Significant differences Complete reorganisation 19) Did a technology and knowledge transfer from the German side on the Chinese investor take place? Yes No 21) Does the Chinese investor exercise strategic influence on the German company? No influence Minimal influence Moderate influence Medium influence Strong influence Maximal influence If the Chinese investor exercises strategic influence: 22) On which areas does the Chinese investor exercise strategic influence in the German company? Very negative Negative No collaboration Positive Very positive the following questions consider implications on the German company. Very negative (reduction) Negative (reduction) No influence Positive (increase) Very positive (increase) If the M&A transaction influenced the development of market shares: 36) Where. China/Asia, Germany/Europe) did the market shares change and how (in %) did they change? Very negative (diminishment) Negative (diminishment) No influence Positive (enlargement) Very positive (enlargement) If the M&A transaction influenced the development of the distribution area: 40) Where. China/Asia, Germany/Europe) did the distribution area change and how (in %) did it change there? Very negative (reduction) Negative (reduction) No influence Positive (increase) Very positive (increase) If the M&A transaction influenced the development of revenue: 42) Why. Very negative (reduction) Negative (reduction) No influence Positive (increase) Very positive (increase) If the M&A transaction influenced the development of investments: 46) Where. Yes No 50) If Yes: How long does/did the security for the German location(s) last? Very negative Negative Solid Positive Very positive 58) How do you evaluate the M&A in general? Regarding this topic, mainstream studies in management literature focus more on large firms; however, in some countries such as Italy, small and medium firms play an important role. In particular, findings concern the use of management control tools and the analysis of management issues are conducted through both the main national and international literature and empirical evidences.
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Prosecution of prostitutes has been inconsistent erectile dysfunction when young viagra plus 400mg for sale, primarily because society has trouble making up its mind about prostitution erectile dysfunction medicine with no side effects cheap viagra plus 400 mg free shipping. The vast majority of Americans disapprove of prostitution-61 percent of males and 83 percent of females believe the practice is "always wrong" or "almost always wrong erectile dysfunction doctor philippines buy 400mg viagra plus overnight delivery. One conservative estimate says that, at any one time, 5 million American females are engaging in some form of prostitution. Still another is the bureaucratic nature of the criminal justice system, which is excessively time-consuming and expensive. Even if arrested, most prostitutes are poor and cannot afford legal representation, so the system has to cover the costs. Rather than attempting to arrest and prosecute prostitutes, some communities prefer to focus their efforts on ridding themselves of overt prostitution, usually by preventing prostitutes from loitering and soliciting in public. Some proponents argue that legalizing prostitution would save enforcement dollars, eliminate the need for pimps, bring in license fees and taxes, and keep prostitutes diseasefree through regular medical examinations. Others argue that decriminalization would allow people to have control over their work, as well as protect the privacy of prostitutes and their customers. Organized crime Organized crime refers to groups and organizations dedicated solely to criminal activity. Historically, leaders of organized crime, or "crime families," have come from different ethnic groups, such as the Italian-American sectors of large U. Organized crime activities are of three basic types: s Legal activities and businesses, such as restaurants. Illegal activities, such as importing and selling narcotics, gambling, and running prostitution rings. Current estimates place organized crime as one of the largest businesses in the United States, even ahead of the automobile industry. Although police and governmental officials continue to fight organized crime, most mobsters have tremendous amounts of money to fight back with high-powered attorneys. To deal with crime and deter criminals, American society makes use of formal social controls, particularly the criminal justice system. The likelihood of being arrested, convicted, and sentenced appears to be clearly related to finances and social status. The poor are more likely than the wealthy to be arrested for any category of crime. This means the poor are more visible to the police, as well as to other citizens who may complain to law officials. Biases in police training and experience may cause police officers to blindly blame crimes on certain groups, such as people of color and lower-class juveniles. Finally, the fear of political pressure and "hassles" may prompt law enforcement officers to avoid arresting more affluent and influential members of society. Moreover, when the time for the trial comes, defendants who are not out on bail look guilty because they must enter the courtroom led by police-probably influencing judges and juries. Social research even indicates that defendants who pay their bail are more likely to be acquitted than those who do not. Even though the United States entitles all defendants to legal counsel, the quality of this assistance varies. These lawyers may rush the cases of poor defendants in the interest of time and effort. On the other hand, affluent defendants hire teams of skilled and resourceful lawyers who know how to "work the system. The race of the victims seems to play a role in the harshness of sentencing as well. Nonetheless, the criminal justice system and prison system serve society in several potentially useful ways: s By being placed in jail, convicted criminals receive "just rewards," or retribution, for their crimes. As the theory goes, prisons are supposed to keep released criminals from offending again and potential criminals from committing crimes. Prison seems to deter white-collar criminals, for example, but does nothing to deter sex offenders. The literature remains inconclusive with respect to the effects of deterrence on non-criminals. Prisons ideally serve to rehabilitate criminals into productive citizens who no longer commit crimes. Programs within prisons designed to rehabilitate prisoners include education, personal counseling, and vocational training to prepare them for eventual release and parole. Excessively brutal conditions cause prisoners to experience a wide variety of health problems, such as heart disease, hypertension, psychological disorders, and suicide. And although incarcerated populations continue to grow, the number of crimes committed in the United States also increases. Sociologists are quick to admit that they have no easy answers that explain the growth in prison populations and crimes, or easy solutions (for example, in-home detention, early parole) to change this situation. This stratification forms the basis of the divisions of society and categorizations of people. In the case of the latter, social classes of people develop, and moving from one stratum to another becomes difficult. The Basis of Stratification Normally property (wealth), power (influence), and prestige (status) occur together. That is, people who are wealthy tend also to be powerful and appear prestigious to others. Plumbers may make more money than do college professors, but holding a professorship is more prestigious than being a "blue collar worker. Property Karl Marx assigned industrial society two major and one minor classifications: the bourgeoisie (capitalist class), petite bourgeoisie (small capitalist class), and proletariat (worker class). Marx made these divisions based on whether the "means of production" such as factories, machines, and tools are owned, and whether workers are hired. Capitalists are those who own the methods of production and employ others to work for them. Workers are those who do not own the means of production, do not hire others, and thus are forced to work for the capitalists. Small capitalists are those who own the means of production but do not employ others. According to Marx, the small capitalists are only a transitional, minor class that is ultimately doomed to becoming members of the proletariat. Marx held that exploitation is the inevitable outcome of the two major classes attempting to coexist within the same society. In order to survive, workers are coerced into working long, hard hours under less-than-ideal circumstances to maximize the profits of the capitalists.
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Though erectile dysfunction beat filthy frank buy generic viagra plus line, some elements are practiced in the marketing of e- tailing but the fact is that the marketing practitioners are not able to erectile dysfunction and pregnancy buy cheapest viagra plus and viagra plus categories them as per their significant suitability erectile dysfunction vitamin order 400mg viagra plus free shipping. In Indian context of e- tailing the elements safety, site design, sum, service, sales talk and salmagundi play a vital role. In order to be successful in this domain of e- tailing, the companies should mix these elements properly to yield good results. Testing the Relationship among e- tailing Mix Elements and Consumer Motives the other prime objective of the present research was to ascertain the relationship among the elements of e- tailing mix and consumer motives for which the results are mentioned below; the following e-tailing mix elements have direct, significant and positive relation with consumer motives; Safety, Site Design, Service, Sales Talk, and Sum Whereas Salmagundi (The Product Related issues) does not has a direct, significant and positive relation with consumer motive. It is therefore concluded that consumers will be motivated to purchase on those websites only which will have good safety features, with very attractive site design, high, loud and noticeable sales talk, good pricing mechanism and of course that can provide very effective customer services. On the other side, Salmagundi (the product related issues) will not come in their way to purchase electronically. It is also important to report in the conclusion that in e- tailing environment the respondents surveyed do not believe in patronizing a single website as may be the case in the marketing of retail, product or services. May be in near future some control variable be added to check the mediating effects on the model. The study was conducted only at ten most populated cities of India; it will be interesting to see whether there are some changes reported if the same study is undertaken at the national level. This study was a cross sectional study; there is every possibility of some change that may be cited if the same study is conducted in a longitudinal manner in near future. The scope will become wider if more consumer motives be added to the present study. In future more searches on literature may unfold some hidden agendas which may direct for future course of work. The researcher may adopt some other methodology to check the results whether they are the same. The University InformationTechnology Services Center for Statistical and Mathematical Computing, Indiana University. E-commerce marketing strategies: an integrated framework and case analysis, Logistics Information Management,14, (1/2), 14-23. Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two-step Approach. A multi-attribute analysis of preferences for online and offline shopping: Differences across Products, Consumers, and Shopping stages. On the road of Electronic Commerce: A Business Value Framework, Gaining Competitive Advantage and Some Research Issues Available at. Understanding Consumer Motivation and Behavior Related to Self-Scanning in Retailing: Implications for Strategy and Research on Technology- Based Self-Service. Understanding internet shoppers: an exploratory study, the Marketing Management Journal, 19 (2), 104-117. Consumer Relationship Marketing on the Internet: An Overview and Clarification of Concepts. Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Logistics Research Methods: Employing Structural Equation Modeling to Test for Construct Validity. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Innovative Marketing,(1) 1, 55 68. India Goes Digital: A Birdseye View of the Indian Digital Consumer Industry Iryna P. Relationship Between Marketing Mix Strategy And Consumer Motive: An Empirical Study In Major Tesco Stores. A typology of Korean discount shoppers: shopping motives, store attributes, and outcomes. Principles and practice of Structural Equation Modeling, New York: Guilford Press. Online Shopping Acceptance Model A Critical Survey of Consumer Factors in Online Shopping. Learning to Trust e-Tailers: Strategies Used by Consumers in a Distrustful Environment. Business Models for Internet based E-Commerce: An California Management Review, 42, (4), 1-32. First Monday Special Issue: Commercial Applications of the Internet, (6), 1-6 Mary K. An Application of an Ecological Model to Explain the Growth of Strategies of Internet Firms: the Cases of eBay and Amazon. Consumer direct fulfillment performance in Internet retailing: emergency transshipments and demand dispersion. An Empirical investigation into the impact of background colour of website in e retailing on buying behavior of Youths at Lonavala. A Literature Review of Online Trust in Business to Consumer E-Commerce Transitions. A Historical Review and Modern Assessment of the Marketing Mix Concept, 7th Marketing History Conference Proceedings, (7), 25-35. Choice of Transaction Channels: the Effects of Product Characteristics on Market Evolution. E-Tailing In India: Its Issues, Opportunities and Effective Strategies for Growth And Development. Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy, (11) 4, 310 321. Optimizing E- tailer Profits and Customer Savings: Pricing Multistage Customized Online Bundles, Marketing Science, (30) 4, 737 752. However, all those outcomes are predetermined by several or even several dozen factors. By using conventional performance assessment methods that reflect the general factor impact, the managers of companies find it difficult to assess the impact of each particular factor on the results and to take rational decisions. The activities of companies can be diverse; therefore, it is important to have a methodology for the objective assessment of the efficiency of the outcomes and the identification of the causes of ineffectiveness. The paper aims to develop a methodology for the company efficiency measurement by bringing out the activity-characterizing conditionsfactors (the input), and the performance outcomes - indicators (the output). The advantages of the methodology are especially obvious in the fields where the outputs of the activity do not have monetary expression (land use, hospitals, cooperatives, etc. The performance of 23 Lithuanian retail cooperatives were assessed by 5 assessment criteria and the reserves of the performance improvement were identified. It is not so simple to use the conventional techniques in the performance assessment. Such statistical models reflect merely internal activity trends in a production process; therefore, management finds it difficult to assess the impact of each input in the production of an individual product and to take rational decisions. Moreover rapidly changing market conditions cause these statistical models to age; therefore new and properly adapted models need to be developed and implemented. The aim of the paper is to develop methodology to assess the impact of individual inputs on the performance of retail cooperatives. Statistical data analysis, correlation and factor analysis, expert assessment methods, and the mathematical modelling method were applied by using data envelopment analysis.
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For instance erectile dysfunction smoking proven 400mg viagra plus, the researcher encountered a scenario where one participant disregarded all written ethical approval and wished to impotence male buy discount viagra plus 400 mg online speak to impotence 24-year-old cheap viagra plus 400 mg the gatekeeper over the telephone before commencing the interview. Participants tended to pay special attention to the benefits of the study for their organisation. If the benefit is considered to be weak, the less likely it is that participants would give an interview. Moreover, if the perceived benefits are too low, the more likely it is that participants would not provide in-depth answers to interview questions. Even though the research was authenticated by a gatekeeper, the trust between the researcher and the participants in the opening stages was weak. Without a high degree of trust, participants would have been reluctant to open up unless the interviewer had established a link with the group or familiar people affiliated with the participants (Su and Littlefield, 2001). Participants also expected mutual favours in exchange for providing information (Wong, 1998). Subsequently, the researcher had to take part in gift giving (Steidlmeier, 1999; Tynan et al. Case 3: Egypt Locating participants in the Middle East presented some ethical dilemmas due to political restraints, legal factors, a lack of contact and system information (organisational ignorance), cultural differences, technical assistance. Clark (2006) identified that political sensitivity and the restrictions on speaking freely hindered participant responses. Access to the participants was granted via a gatekeeper (graduate research director). The Egyptian University (research site) had originally requested monetary incentives. However, on arrival, the need for any incentive was considered an offence as participants wanted to take part voluntarily. Case 4: Libya Due to the ongoing political turmoil at the time of data collection, Skype interviews were conducted for Libyan participants. Access to the participants was achieved via a gatekeeper and further referrals were made by snowball sampling. The same rapport building steps used for Egypt were also used for Libyan participants. Intermittent internet disconnections distorted the rapport building to a certain extent. However, the less contravening nature of Skype interviewing placed the participants in a more comfortable and less intimidating position. To maintain ethical consistency, specifics of the study as well as a consent form were sent to online Libyan participants before starting each interview. An unavoidable ethical issue was the difficulty for the researcher in interpreting facial expressions and gestures, an issue which was less evident in the face to face interviews (Egypt). Unlike Egypt, the researcher was not seen as a status symbol, perhaps because of the physical distance between the researcher and the participant. For instance, whilst researching social enterprises in China, prospective participants disregarded written documents. In the case of Bangladesh, an equivalent term to describe forms of networking does not exist. Therefore, the shared cultural backgrounds between the researchers and the population being studied resulted in establishing better relationships and convenient data access. Third, in cases 3 and 4, the researcher was caught in a predicament and took responsibility for participants re-living their experiences of the revolutions, something which caused relived trauma and distress for some. Such predicaments had personal consequences for the researcher, became an issue of ethical integrity and could not be anticipated by institutional ethical processes in advance. Fourth, procedural ethics followed by the western institutions often fails to address such practical and relational issues, which subsequently create an ethical dilemma for novice researchers. The ethical challenges demonstrate the importance of reflexivity and highlight the problems with merely following institutional ethical approval guidelines. We recommend that ethical pluralism accompanied by relational ethics should be adopted in order to stand a greater chance of obtaining access to data. To further achieve this, we argue that reflexivity is important to the understanding of what happens during the different phases of fieldwork. Through the use of reflexivity, the following are understood: the role of the researcher in relation to the participants, the connections between them as well as the post fieldwork relationships that follow; a similar point echoed by Alvesson et al. Reflexivity opens up new perspectives of perceiving ethical dilemmas in a subjective manner and guides researchers for future research endeavours. The researchers are then in a greater position to be able to anticipate potential ethical dilemmas that may arise. To this end, our framework has provided a platform which can be used by researchers for conducting international business fieldwork. This aids them to remain informed and aware of potential ethical pitfalls that can impede data collection. Our framework is consistent with advancing the notion of reflexivity as it does not follow rigid ethical guidelines that conform to a functional approach. Rather, the contributory value of the framework is increased by enabling researchers to find contingency solutions to ethical dilemmas whilst in the field; something that falls short with the strict following of institutional ethical guidelines (Alvesson, 1996). However, we contend that with the application of a reflexive methodology, researchers are better able to navigate around ethical obstacles, particular in the absence or incompatibility of western institutional ethical guidelines. One implication of this study contends that by being reflexive, threats to validity are reduced. Furthermore, by being reflexive researchers can challenge questions pertaining to rigour and relevance of the research. A further implication of this study is that the conceptual ethical framework can be positioned and integrated within around institutional ethical approval processes. This will better inform institutions and also their researchers of not only how to gain ethical approval and uphold the basic ethical promises. Further work is required to examine how institutions can integrate reflexivity within their own ethical guidelines. The under-representation of women on boardrooms is a heavy discussed topic, not only in Italy. Based on a critical mass theory and with 628 observations taken from a sample of Italian listed companies, from 2011 to 2013, we evidence that a higher percentage of female members in boardrooms tends to have higher level of corporate giving (considered as a form of corporate philanthropy). Keywords: gender diversity, csr, corporate philanthropy, corporate giving, female directors, firm reputation, board structure, csr strategy. In the developed countries, it is expected by the society that multinational organizations should adopt the strategies which must contain a process of value addition for the societies and environment not just for gaining financial benefits (Asghar, 2013). The organizations adopt social responsibility approach for actively participation in the welfare programs and adding this approach to their long term strategies (Clemenger, 1998). So, being socially responsible means not only fulfilling legal expectations, but also going beyond compliance and investing more in human capital, environment and relations with stakeholders.
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Instead erectile dysfunction green tea discount viagra plus 400 mg without a prescription, the extreme exploitation of workers that Marx saw in the 1860s eventually eased erectile dysfunction drugs compared viagra plus 400mg on line, which resulted in the formation of a large and prosperous white collar population erectile dysfunction treatment michigan cheap viagra plus 400 mg line. Wealth refers to the assets and income-producing things that people own: real estate, savings accounts, stocks, bonds, and mutual funds. Income refers to the money that people receive over a certain period of time, including salaries and wages. Current social statistics indicate the poorest 20 percent of Americans earn less than 5 percent of the total national income, while the wealthiest 20 percent earn nearly 50 percent of the total. Further, the poorest 20 percent hold far less than 1 percent of the total national wealth, while the wealthiest 20 percent own over 75 percent of the total. Power the second basis of social stratification is power, or the capacity to influence people and events to obtain wealth and prestige. That is, having power is positively correlated with being rich, as evidenced by the domination of wealthy males in high-ranking governmental positions. Wealthier Americans are also more likely to be politically active as way of ensuring their continued power and wealth. In contrast, poorer Americans are less likely to be politically active, given their sense of powerlessness to influence the process. Elite theorists argue that a few hundred individuals hold all of the power in the United States. These power elite, who may come from similar backgrounds and have similar interests and values, hold key positions in the highest branches of the government, military, and business world. Conflict theorists hold that only a small number of Americans-the capitalists-hold the vast majority of power in the United States. They may not actually hold political office, but they nonetheless influence politics and governmental policies for their own benefit and to protect their interests. An example is the large corporation that tries to limit the amount of fees it must pay through political contributions that ultimately put certain people into office who then sway policy decisions. On the other hand, pluralist theorists hold that power is not in the hands of the elite or a few, but rather it is widely distributed among assorted competing and diverse groups. In other words, unlike elitists and Marxists, pluralists note little if any inequality in the distribution of power. For instance, citizens can influence political outcomes by voting candidates into or out of office. And the power of labor groups is balanced by the power of businesses, which is balanced by the power of the government. And while prestige is not as tangible as money and influence, most Americans want to increase their status and honor as seen by others. In studies of occupational prestige, Americans tend to answer consistently- even across the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. For example, being a physician ranks among the highest on the scale, whereas being a shoe shiner ranks near the bottom. To become a physician requires much more extensive training than is required to become a cashier. Physicians also make a great deal more money than cashiers, ensuring their higher prestige ranking. Even though being a professor is highly ranked, also being a racial minority and a female may negatively affect prestige. As a result, individuals who experience such status inconsistency may suffer from significant anxiety, depression, and resentment. Types of Social Classes of People Social class refers to a group of people with similar levels of wealth, influence, and status. Sociologists typically use three methods to determine social class: s the objective method measures and analyzes "hard" facts. The lower class the lower class is typified by poverty, homelessness, and unemployment. The media often stigmatize the lower class as "the underclass," inaccurately characterizing poor people as welfare mothers who abuse the system by having more and more babies, welfare fathers who are able to work but do not, drug abusers, criminals, and societal "trash. Unskilled workers in the class-dishwashers, cashiers, maids, and waitresses-usually are underpaid and have no opportunity for career advancement. Skilled workers in this class-carpenters, plumbers, and electricians-are often called blue collar workers. They may make more money than workers in the middle class-secretaries, teachers, and computer technicians; however, their jobs are usually more physically taxing, and in some cases quite dangerous. These white collar workers have more money than those below them on the "social ladder," but less than those above them. The lower middle class is often made up of less educated people with lower incomes, such as managers, small business owners, teachers, and secretaries. The upper-upper class includes those aristocratic and "high-society" families with "old money" who have been rich for generations. Wherever their money comes from, both segments of the upper class are exceptionally rich. Both groups have more money than they could possibly spend, which leaves them with much leisure time for cultivating a variety of interests. They live in exclusive neighborhoods, gather at expensive social clubs, and send their children to the finest schools. As might be expected, they also exercise a great deal of influence and power both nationally and globally. In other words, is there some possibility of social mobility, or progression from one social level to another? Yes, but the degree to which this is possible varies considerably from society to society. On the one hand, in a closed society with a caste system, mobility can be difficult or impossible. Social position in a caste system is decided by assignment rather than attainment. An example of the rigid segregation of caste systems occurs today in India, where people born into the lowest caste (the "untouchables") and can never become members of a higher caste. The positions in this stratification system depend more on achieved status, like education, than on ascribed status, like gender. Patterns of social mobility Several patterns of social mobility are possible: s Horizontal mobility involves moving within the same status category. An example of this is a nurse who leaves one hospital to take a position as a nurse at another hospital. A promotion in rank in the Army is an example of upward mobility, while a demotion in rank is downward mobility. Intergenerational mobility refers to a change in social standing across generations, such as occurs when a person from a lower-class family graduates from medical school.
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However impotence emedicine discount 400mg viagra plus with amex, regardless of the collected data and obtained results erectile dysfunction treatment saudi arabia purchase genuine viagra plus on line, it is already possible to erectile dysfunction caused by hernia buy viagra plus 400 mg with amex say that, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study aimed at understanding the opinions of some practitioners concerning the usability of academic management research. In other important fields of knowledge such as medicine, clinical trials are fundamental means of evaluating the output of knowledge production, and extending this practice to management research could be useful: ours is a first step in this direction. So, this is not a paper aiming at filling a knowledge gap or at adding incremental theoretical knowledge strictu sensu, but it can all the same make a contribution, because it deals with the way management research is judged by managers. In a sense, one could say that this is a meta-theoretical paper, in the sense that it tries to reflect on the usage of management knowledge from its recipients, or at least from a part of them. Though managers should read academic articles (Stadler, 2015), as a matter of fact the way real world seems to go is rather different. In this paper our endeavour has been to rigorously build a framework, systematic enough but at the same time easy to be implemented, able to measure or assess the impact of scientific management research and of the journals where is published. The practical implications of this study are not immediately obvious but, if it helps to encourage an increase in the relevance of the research strategies of academics and the editorial policies of journals, it will have made a real contribution. First of all, there are the quantitative limitations related to the number of practitioners in the sample, the number of journal considered, and the number of articles assessed: it is clear that a larger number of interviewees, journals and articles would be very beneficial. The first is that the interviewees may simply not be interested in the subjects of the papers they receive to read. Although every effort has been made to identify practitioners at the highest levels of company management, and select journals with the broadest possible scope, considerable caution is necessary when making generalisations about the relevance of scientific output. Furthermore, our study essentially concentrates on supply insofar as we have tried to construct a protocol that provides a representative compendium of scientific managerial production; little is known about the demand side or the attitude of managers to scientific research. In addition to studies aimed at overcoming or reducing the effects of the above limitations, it would be very interesting to extend the research internationally in order to see whether there are differences between countries and, if so, why. It may also be useful to compare the findings with those relating to other, similar disciplines. Depending on the degree of usability revealed by the survey, it would certainly be very interesting to examine in greater detail how practitioners use scientific knowledge in their everyday activities. One final research line could be to examine the production/distribution/consumption pipeline as a whole in order to understand how to avoid the risk of self-referencing inside the community of scholars, and how to integrate the production and use of knowledge further, which would clearly benefit not only the people directly involved, but also the entire economic system. Ideas for More Imaginative and Innovative Research", Journal of Management Studies, Vol. Different Forms of Practical Relevance in Management Science", Organization Studies, Vol. In particular, the paper aims to explore two factors: one related to the external environment, and one dependent on firms. The first is the institutional context, intended as the whole of formal and informal rules of the country target. The second is the market commitment, intended as a construct of three factors: a) the resources committed in a particular market area, b) market knowledge meant as the result of the experience firms get in foreign market, c) and a general attitude of the decision makers to maintain the international presence for a long period of time. The results show that the kind of institutional context (hostile vs welcome) strongly impacts on the amount of resources involved in the internationalization process, while the level of market commitment (low vs high) impacts more on the complexity and intensity - of the process. This field of research owes its origins to three main backgrounds: the economic theories, the theories of foreign direct investment, and the internalization theories. However, the recent trend has been to adopt a more eclectic approach, and to involve strategic and behavioural variables. While the traditional contributions given on entry mode focus on the Transaction Costs Theory (Williamson, 1985, 1991), recent contributions refer to the resource-based perspective, and focus on firms ability to move and to strengthen both internal and external resources and capabilities, which are rare and difficult to imitate or substitute (Barney, 1991, 2002). According to the authors, entry choices are often driven by a combination of transaction costs variables, institutional and cultural characteristics. All operations outside domestic boundaries involve the interaction between different systems of cultural and social values; moreover, including cultural variables in International Business studies implies that cultural differences between countries increase the costs of firms entry in host country and inhibit the ability of companies to transfer knowledge and skills (Palich et Gomez Mejia, 1999). This study wants to contribute to this debate, by analysing the effects of some external and internal factors on entry choices. We consider: a) the market commitment, intended as the incremental and sequential commitment of a firm to foreign markets (Millington and Bayliss, 1990; Luostarinen and Welch, 1990) and, b) the institutional context, distinguishing welcome and hostile host markets. The internal pressures drive companies to adopt structures and practices that have proved successful in previous experiences, and which can facilitate the transfer of funds and resources between subsidiaries. The external pressures are represented by local rules, both formal and informal, and by the unwritten rules that define what is "right" and "wrong. Firms tend to conform to the rules and regulations at the local level based, in most cases, on the social expectations and influences which firms have to interact to, in order to gain legitimacy and improve their ability to survive and thrive (Ferreira et al. According to institutional theory, strategic and economic activity is embedded in a social context and the regulatory framework motivates the economic actors to seek the legitimacy or the approval of actors on which they depend for access to physical, human, financial, and reputation (Amburgey et al. Social legitimacy is connected to the institutional framework (government, business, groups), too. Institutions have a key role in a market economy to support the effective functioning of the market mechanism, allowing firms to engage in market transactions, without incurring undue costs or risks (Peng et al. These institutions include, for example, the legal framework, property rights, information systems, and regulatory regimes. According to Meyer (2009) institutions can be considered as "strong" if they support an effective mechanism of the market, on the contrary, the institutions can be seen as "weak" if they fail to support effective markets (McMillan, 2008). Emerging markets are described as the countries that are restructuring their economy trying to direct it to the market and offer significant investment opportunities and opportunities in terms of technology transfer (Li and Peng, 2008). In some of them however, Governments have mitigated restrictions on foreign direct investment, reformed the banking sector, reduced bureaucracy, accelerated privatization programs, and have made many other changes that have affected both the market and the operational strategies of multinational enterprises (Demirbag et al. The institutional environment has a direct influence on internationalization choices and entry modes, posing barriers or facilitating the entrance of foreign investors. The institutional theory represents consequently a solid basis for explaining the internationalization of companies in emerging economies, since the institutional differences are particularly important for companies operating in more institutional contexts. Studies show that companies decide to take cooperative entry modes, rather than competitive mode, where the institutional framework is very weak (Meyer et al. This increases costs of negotiations, so it is possible to suppose that in such a situation, firms will prefer cooperative entry mode able to overcome market transactions difficulty. The first is the resources committed in a particular market area that sometimes can be easily sold or transferred to other purposes. Market commitment is high when these resources are integrated within the firm; while it is low when integration do not occur. Johanson and Vahlne (2009) have revised their own model, by introducing market knowledge as a further influencing factor: market knowledge is the result of the experience firms get in foreign market, and the growth of market knowledge drives to a growth in market commitment, which promotes a further enhancement in market knowledge. Commitment is a wide concept including psychological, attitudinal and temporal elements (Gundlach et al. So, market commitment could involve not only resources, but also the attitude or the intention of the decision makers (Lamb and Liesch, 2002), and it may concern the inclination to build strategic alliances (Cullen et al. Market commitment influences entry choice, because different choices imply different level of costs, risks and involvement, and requests different degree of knowledge and experience. While export does not require any kind of international investment, as the goods are not produced in the country of destination, foreign direct investment require a huge amount of resources. The decision to set up a wholly owned subsidiary provides the benefits of full control of local activities (Kuo et al. At the same time, however, it implies a higher degree of risk of course (Hennart, 2000).
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Earlier studies shows that compared to erectile dysfunction drug warnings purchase viagra plus master card other industries erectile dysfunction beat generic viagra plus 400mg otc, hotel organisations are more restricted towards using social media in their marketing (Sigala et al 2012 erectile dysfunction net doctor purchase viagra plus with amex, Leung et al 2013). Although, being an industry that is sensitive to trends, has an exceptionally high competition and very flexible clients, marketing through social media has become an important part of hotels marketing strategy, which in turn effects the hotel organizational structure, strategy and management (Buhalis 2008, Nga and Basat 2011, Sigala et al 2012). Buhalis and Law (2008) point out that the technological development and tourism industry has been going hand in hand. Research shows that the hotel industry hopes that the adoption of new technological tools and software will reduce costs, increase productivity, and enhance competitiveness and improve the service to consumers (DiPietro and Wang, 2010, Singh and Munjal 2012). Wang and Qualls (2007) however, argue that the knowledge of the area is fragmented and that we only have a limited understanding of how the technology adoption behavior in hotel organizations looks like. Wang and Qualls (2007) therefore calls for a need to "develop a greater theoretically informed framework that integrates the critical factors relevant to the hospitality industry" (Wang and Qualls 2007 p. Other researchers also argue that both the research field of e-tourism and adoption of social media in hotel organizations is in its infancy and therefore rather thin (Buhalis and Law, 2008, Sigala et al, 2012, Lynn, Lipp, Akgьn, and Cortez, Gohary 2011, Munar 2012, Leung et al 2013). The knowledge of how the technology is used and managed in the hotel organizations remains unknown to researchers (Lee and Law 2011, Leung et al 2013). Lynn, Lipp, Akgьn, and Cortez, Gohary 2011, Munar 2012, and Sigala et al 2012 call for more research in e-marketing and hotel organization and believe at a greater understanding of both the problems and opportunities that exist with e-marketing, and a greater understanding of how leadership affect strategic change as hotels and tourism organizations undergo in the adoption of social media. Most studies also follow a positivist method, such as Hashim et al 2006, Wang and Qualls (2007) Fuchs, Witting, & Hцpken (2009), and Leung and Law (2012). Case studies can be appropriate in studies that intend to answer questions like "why" and "how" and are descriptive in nature (Yin, 1998). It can also contribute with exposure of crucial patterns and behaviors (Smith & Albaum, 2005). Qualitative research method can help to create insights and identify key variables in the research questions (Malhotra & Dash, 2009). In total, 22 semi-structured interviews at 14 different hotels (belonging to the same hotel chain and brand) in 7 European countries (Denmark, Finland, France, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden) has been carried out with marketing managers, sales managers and hotel managers (people responsible for social media activities)in the hotels. Each interview lasted about an hour and were recorded and then transcribed (Bryman & Bell 2008). The themes for the interviews were focused on the usage of social media marketing in the hotel organization. Follow-up questions were also asked, to follow up personal interpretations and knowledge from the different managers being interviewed. Altogether, 14 hotels, within the same hotel chain and brand, is the focus of this study. The hotel chain provides the hotel with some marketing material, guidelines and education but beyond that, the hotels are responsible for what to publish in social media. The choice of hotel chain and brand is based on the fact that the hotel organizations are in the beginning of the process of using, learning and adoption social media marketing and e-relationship marketing. The fact that the hotel chain is a large, international hotel co-operation also makes it relevant to study since there are many, both managerial and organizational levels to take into consideration. Most hotels (both independent and chain) are using websites to promote their hotel services. Denzizci Guillets study (2011) noted some companies lacked understanding and commitment of the usage of social media and explains this with the insecurity in what return on investment the implementation brings. The development of social media and the increased usage of the digital communication channels has therefore changed how organizations function. One of the main objectives for business managers is to create performance that is superior to competitors and a crucial part of achieving this is strategic formulation (Chathoth and Olsen, 2007). The development of competitive strategies is crucial in a high-competitive industry like the hotel industry. Porter (1986) defines a competitive strategy as actions that gains the organizations competitive advantages in relation to its competitors. Rigby (2001) argues that understanding the relationship between technology and globalization and the affect it has on a hotels ability to compete and create advantage is the core of strategic management today. Nezakati et al (2014) argue that researchers in the field of information system are interested in both the explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge. While the explicit knowledge is visible and easy to communicate, the tacit knowledge is hidden and therefore also difficult to spread. She argues that knowledge is created first after the information is analysed and used in strategic activities. The use of social media in business requires responsible employees who also are aware of what values and what message is relevant and desirable to spread. The personal accountability is of great importance for the organization, especially to ensure a good service but also increase the possibility of creating a relationship with the customer. The hotel-chain implemented a social media manager that create social media guidelines, marketing materials but also educate marketers at the hotels and also e-commerce manager across the world do help educate the hotels. The social media manager says that the hospitality is depending on a human approach in values, and to work with guest satisfaction. He also emphasizes the importance of not just looking at numbers but so see the person who want to experience the hotel. He also views he guests and social media followers as co-producers of the hotel brand and that user generated contend like travel bloggers can and should be used and shared as hotel marketing material in social media. The e-commerce manager thinks that social media is all about talking to customers. So I try to work with them, I set up meetings and help them to understand things that might be interesting for our customers. We see a lot of pictures of the hotel managers that are standing like this [poses like she is in front of the camera] and that is not interesting for the customers. They are all aware of the demand from the head office to use social media in the hotel organization but have different ways of handling that demand. Only one of the hotels has a person who is especially responsible for the social media adoption. As a result of this, the mangers describe that social media is sometimes omitted due to lack of time. Many of the managers describes a frustration when it comes to marketing material produced by the hotel chain. The material is described as made for traditional marketing in printed media, and they feel that the material (that they are requested to post in their social media channels) "destroy" the content. The managers express that the kind of marketing, when the customers are spreading information about the hotel, is the best kind of marketing the hotel can get and that is what will create top of mind. One of the marketing manager describes the main advantages of using social media marketing is that the hotel can measure ranking and how many people that follow and like their posts. Instead, the key is to find what the customers are interested in and not to be afraid to talk to the customers.
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Though the step towards identifying these appears to erectile dysfunction in diabetes type 1 purchase viagra plus 400 mg line be more of a leap of faith rather actual research results impotence yohimbe order viagra plus 400 mg line, they are based on international experience and do constitute a welcome input in the absence of Cyprus-focused works erectile dysfunction treatment testosterone replacement order online viagra plus. It should also be noted that the report incorporates the works required for the local network of natural gas distribution etc. It recognizes that the degree to which local shall be employed by the industry is directly related to the knowledge, competencies and experience of the local workforce. The various proposals were also placed in the timeframe of the infrastructure development and are depicted in various forms of preliminary technocratic schematics. However no quantification of the expectation is made and no justification is provided for these. These were refined and adapted to the Cyprus case through the primary part of the research, as well as by the findings on the industry analysis. The outcome is a list of expected economic areas of positive indirect impact, plus a few potential areas of negative economic impact (table 2). To maximise the value of the findings, the research has also indicated the estimated degree of the various indirect impacts to the economy, assuming a mid-range (optimistic Vs pessimistic) scenario in terms of actual resources size and nature. It is absolutely clear and absolutely natural that the degree of these effects/impacts is directly related to the size and nature of the hydrocarbons available. The reason is that there are certain thresholds, which if reached they justify significantly greater investments and positive effects on the economy than just before the threshold is reached. A small increase in resources available therefore, might result in an additional multi-billion euro investment. Another example would be the possible creation of regional technical and/or business offices in Cyprus by the international companies once Cyprus reaches a certain threshold that establishes it as large enough market for them. Moreover, it is notable that though the list itself will probably remain mostly unchanged in whichever scenario, the relative weight (degree) of these impacts might if certain thresholds are reached (or not). Still, it is estimated to be lower than the expectations created by various industry actors over the past few years. Moreover, the research identified some potentially negative economic effects of the industry, their realisation being partly dependent on proper planning and control, and partly on external and possibly uncontrollable factors (mostly geopolitical). The conclusions identified and specified the expected economic areas of positive indirect impact, plus a few potential areas of negative economic impact (table 2). The above appear to be true both in terms of business in economic terms, and in terms of employment. During maturity (operation), the benefits are expected to be significantly lower than the construction phase, though over time, and with the Cypriots becoming increasingly more experienced in the industry, these will probably increase. At no time, though, are they expected to reach the numbers flooding the media from both official and unofficial sources. This is consequent to thresholds, which if reached they justify significantly greater investments and positive effects on the economy than just before the threshold is reached. Moreover, the relative weight (degree) of the impacts will also depend on whether these certain thresholds are reached (or not). Moreover, the relative weight (degree) of the impacts will also depend on whether certain thresholds are reached (or not). These are not anticipated; they are however possible and their neglect is likely to effect their fulfilment. Kennedy School of Government Harvard University, President and Fellows of Harvard College, 2012 Mirchi, A. The findings regarding public management underline the need for transparent and synergistic collaboration between all industry actors, as the means to achieve the obvious associated advantages, but also to prevent these forces from becoming opposing, and consequently destabilising ones. Further implications were identified with regards to employment, incentives, education, funding, but also in relation to communications and perceptions. The value of the research lies in its real-time approach to data gathering and analysis; and aids in the design and decision making regarding the industry for policy makers and businesses. The research bears also global/generic importance as it provides a rare insight to the issues and complexities of a country having to first deal with the discovery of hydrocarbons in its economic zone. And it shows that it is this exact systemic understanding of the constituent elements that will support and facilitate the proper development of the industry. This purely exploratory research work constitutes the third of a three-part study of the developing Cyprus oil and gas industry; with its aforementioned three distinct foci being: (a) the real-time industry analysis, (b) its indirect business effects, and (c) its strategic implications. The implicit findings are, conversely, more indirect and relate to the more obscure aspects of the oil and gas industry. The implicit factors are more complex, more multidimensional, more open to subjective interpretation and more unpredictable. One important implicit conclusion of this theoretical research is that the subject is in fact both the focus of much controversy, but also of a surprisingly wide array of differing perspectives and predictions. All findings therefore are, consequently, and shall always remain, mere possibilities; and only time shall tell the true story. Perhaps the most important differentiating factor of the oil and gas industry is that it is not simply an economic sector, but a key element of global international policies, strategies, geopolitical developments and power struggles at all levels. Procedural Strategic Implications for Policy Makers Forces and matters directly and indirectly pertaining to strategic decisions have been essentially presented throughout the first two parts of the research (Thrassou, 2015; and Thrassou et al. The whole spectrum of macro and micro-environmental forces, including the international geopolitical ones, are, after all, the defining constituent parameters of strategy formulation. It was deemed however important to the research to present one last (third) aspect that binds everything together into a model. Specifically, while the above identify and define the factors leading to strategy formulation, what practically applies them is the strategic process itself. It must furthermore incorporate the inevitable political goals or restrictions, as the industry cannot be moving officially on techno-economic grounds, but shifting direction consequent to hidden political factors. The opposite approach is likely to lead to confusion, complexity, lack of trust with consequent loss of support, and ultimately vulnerability and susceptibility to mistakes. The complexity of these forces though, combined with their dynamic (ever-changing) nature means that unpredictability is a limiting strategic factor inhibiting the planning process. To counteract this problem, planning must be scenario-based, whereby the most likely potentialities must be identified, evaluated and planned for, so that upon their realisation immediate contingency plans shall be ready for implementation. Planning nonetheless is just one side of the strategic coin, with implementation being the other. Cyprus in fact is not unaccustomed to good plans that either remain in office drawers or are badly implemented. Within the plan, embedded must also be the very monitoring and control process to ensure its proper implementation, instant identification of problems and deviations, and swift corrective action. This implies in its turn excellent communication between all stakeholders, both functional and strategic, but also the existence of flexible and adaptable processes to ensure this competency. In prescriptive terms, these strategic imperatives indicate that the greatest responsibility for the proper industry development lies at the governmental hands of the government. Internationally, differing strategies have been successful but their all shared certain principles, such as extensive and proper planning, monitoring and control, streamlining of private and public goals, accountability and more as above described. Contextual Strategic Implications for Policy Makers the imperative for a proper strategic approach, philosophy and process does not negate, though, the need for a number of other actions. The foundation of constructive coexistence therefore must be laid and cemented by policy and decision makers the soonest. While this has indeed claimed prime attention at all levels and across institutions, the research has found that its scale and nature has not been well understood, and therefore the danger exists for all efforts already under way to maximise this effect, to be ineffective.