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The limited space devoted to pain medication for dogs with hip problems cheap maxalt 10mg otc it by textbooks on veterinary medicine notwithstanding pain management for dying dog generic 10 mg maxalt free shipping, infection caused by adult Mesocestoides in carnivores pain tailbone treatment discount maxalt uk, especially red foxes, seems to be common. In endemic areas, peritoneal infection caused by tetrathyridia is common in domestic animals (Crosbie et al. The Disease and Diagnosis: In man, the main symptoms are digestive disturbances, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and a massive discharge of small proglottids, a constant reminder to the patient that he has a foreign living being inside him (Eom et al. These segments are barrel-shaped, like those of Dipylidium caninum, but with a single set of reproductive organs, and they contain eggs with a double membrane grouped in a central, thick-walled parauterine organ. A large number of larval forms in the serous cavities can cause peritonitis and edema in cats and dogs. The clinical symptoms of the peritoneal infections in 11 dogs were recently published (Crosbie et al. The animals had distended abdomens and dysuria; while lesions were not found with radiography, ultrasonography did show abnormal structures; microscopic examination of the abdominal fluid showed structures compatible with the tetrathyridium, and polymerase chain reaction confirmed the diagnosis. Source of Infection and Mode of Transmission: Dogs, cats, and wild carnivores contract the parasitosis by eating birds, amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals infected with the tetrathyridium. Man is occasionally infected by the same mechanism when he eats the meat of insufficiently cooked intermediate hosts. In Japan, several cases were caused by eating the raw livers of snakes, to which popular belief attributes curative powers. The human case that occurred in Africa was probably due to ingestion of raw partridge meat. In the same locality, tetrathyridium infection was found in chickens, guinea fowl, and partridge; the case that occurred in the Republic of Korea was probably due to the ingestion of chicken viscera. Control: Human infection is so infrequent that large-scale control measures are not a consideration. Individual control of human infection in endemic areas consists of not eating the raw or insufficiently cooked meat of wild animals. Tetrathyridium infections should be eradicated as quickly as possible to prevent multiplication in the tissues. Diagnostic procedures and treatment of eleven dogs with peritoneal infections caused by Mesocestoides spp. A survey of the parasites of native dogs in Southern Malawi with remarks on their medical and veterinary importance. The original specimen described in the first human case (1895, in Guyana) measured 23 cm and had 320 proglottids. The specimens mentioned most often in the literature are those recovered in 1925 in Ecuador: they measured up to 12 m and had up to 5,000 proglottids. The gravid proglottids are shaped like grains of rice; they contain 75 to 250 egg capsules with 7 to 9, and sometimes up to 12, eggs each. The biological cycle of the species that affect man is not known, but the intermediate host is assumed to be an arthropod, probably an ant or beetle, as it is for other species of the genus. The intermediate hosts of the species for which the life cycle is known are beetles, flies, and ants. When these insects ingest the Raillietina eggs, they develop into cysticercoids in their tissues and generate new adult worms when a suitable definitive host eats the insect. The infection is common in rodents: 54% of Rattus norvegicus and 9% of Rattus rattus in Taiwan were found to be infected, as were 5% of R. The situation does not seem to have changed in recent years; 37% of rats in Thailand were infected in 1997. Raillietina quitensis, Raillietina equatoriensis, Raillietina leoni, and Raillietina luisaleoni are considered to be synonymous with this species. The largest endemic focus is found in the parish of Tumbaco, near Quito, Ecuador, where the infection rate in school-age children varied from 4% to 12. In Ecuador, the symptomatology attributed to this parasitosis consists of digestive upsets (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, colic), nervous disorders (headaches, personality changes, convulsions), circulatory problems (tachycardia, arrhythmia, lipothymia), and general disorders (weight loss and retarded growth). Source of Infection and Mode of Transmission: Rodents are the reservoirs of the infection. By analogy with infections caused by Raillietina in other animal species, it is thought that man becomes infected by accidentally ingesting food contaminated with an arthropod infected with cysticercoids. Diagnosis: Proglottids can be observed in the fecal matter; they resemble grains of rice and are frequently mistaken for such. Free capsules can be found in the feces as a result of disintegration of the proglottid. The two genera are easily differentiated on the basis of the scolex: the scolex of Raillietina has hooks, while the scolex of Inermicapsifer is unarmed. Control: the human infection is so infrequent that large-scale control actions are not warranted. However, it has been shown that burning and annual treatment of fields where the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) lives can significantly reduce the prevalence and intensity of infection with Raillietina sp. Individual control measures should include hygienic handling of food, in particular, to prevent its contamination by infected insects. Influence of habitat modification on the community of gastrointestinal helminths of cotton rats. On the occurrence of Raillietina (R) celebensis (Jericki, 1902) in rats of Bombay with special reference to its zoonotic importance. Etiology: the agent of this zoonosis is the second larval stage (plerocercoid or sparganum) of the pseudophyllidean cestode of the genus Spirometra (Diphyllobothrium, Lueheela). Several species of medical interest have been described: Spirometra mansoni, Spirometra mansonoides, Spirometra erinaceieuropaei, and Spirometra proliferum. But, because taxonomic recognition of plerocercoids in man is extraordinarily difficult (Rego and Schaffer, 1992), there is uncertainty as to whether these names actually correspond to different species. There has been a tendency recently to identify the parasites occurring in the Far East as S. The development cycle requires two intermediate hosts: the first is a copepod (planktonic crustacean) of the genus Cyclops, which ingests coracidia (free, ciliated embryos) that develop from Spirometra eggs when they reach the water with the feces of the definitive host. In the tissues of the copepod, the coracidium turns into the first larva, or procercoid. When a second intermediate host ingests an infected crustacean, the procercoid develops into a second larval form, the plerocercoid or sparganum. According to some researchers, the natural second intermediate hosts would be amphibians, although they may also be other vertebrates, including reptiles, birds, small mammals (rodents and insectivores), swine, nonhuman primates, and man. Numerous species of vertebrates become infected with plerocercoids by feeding on amphibians, but they may also develop plerocercoids after ingesting water with copepods infected by procercoids. Several animal species that are not generally definitive hosts function as paratenic or transport hosts, since the larvae they acquire by feeding on animals infected with plerocercoids encyst again, after passing through the intestinal wall and migrating to other tissues, waiting for a definitive host. This transfer process is undoubtedly important in the life cycle, but the fact that many species that act as secondary hosts can be infected directly by ingestion of copepods containing procercoids is probably no less important. When the sparganum reaches the intestine of the definitive host, it attaches to the mucosa; in 10 to 30 days, it matures into an adult cestode and begins to produce eggs. The adult parasite reaches about 25 cm in length in the intestine of the definitive hosts: cats, dogs, and wild carnivores.
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The applicant must explain the critical need facing the applicant allied pain treatment center columbus ohio discount maxalt 10 mg with visa, and the proposed technical assistance enable the applicant to pain management during shingles best purchase maxalt meet this critical need myofascial pain treatment guidelines order maxalt no prescription. The applicant must also explain why state or local resources are not sufficient to fully support the costs of the project. In addition, the applicant should describe how, if applicable, the project will be sustained in the future through existing resources. The applicant must describe how the proposed project addressed one or more Priority Investment Areas. The applicant must describe the tasks the consultant will perform, and how would they be accomplished. In addition, the applicant must identify which organization or individual will be hired to provide the assistance, and how the consultant was selected. Support letters also may be submitted under separate cover; however, they should be received by the same date as the application. Application Procedures In lieu of formal applications, applicants should submit an original and three photocopies of a detailed letter as well as a Form A, ``State Justice Institute Application;' Form B, ``Certificate of State Approval;' and Form C, ``Project Budget, Tabular Format' (see Appendices). Application Format Although there is no prescribed format for the letter, or a minimum or maximum page limit, letters of application should include the following information. If the project does not address one or more Priority Investment Areas, the applicant must provide an explanation why not. Due to the high costs of travel to attend training events, the innovative use of distance learning is highly encouraged. The applicant must provide the title of the curriculum that will be adapted, and identify the entity that originally developed the curriculum. The applicant must also address the following questions: Why is this education program needed at the present time? What program components would be implemented, and what types of modifications, if any, are anticipated in length, format, learning objectives, teaching methods, or content? Who would the participants be, how many would there be, how would they be recruited, and from where would they come. The discussion should include specific references to the relevant literature and to the experience in the field. The applicant should explain why state or local resources are unable to fully support the modification and presentation of the model curriculum. The applicant should also describe the potential for replicating or integrating the adapted curriculum in the future using state or local funds, once it has been successfully adapted and tested. The applicant should provide the proposed timeline, including the project start and end dates, the date(s) the judicial branch education program will be presented, and the process that will be used to modify and present the program. The applicant should also identify who will serve as faculty, and how they were selected, in addition to the measures taken to facilitate subsequent presentations of the program. Ordinarily, an independent evaluation of a curriculum adaptation project is not required; however, the results of any evaluation should be included in the final report. Does the proposed program have the support of the court system or association leadership, and of judges, court managers, and judicial branch education personnel who are expected to attend? The applicant must describe how the proposed project addresses one or more Priority Investment Areas. For example, if the support or cooperation of specific court officials or committees, other agencies, funding bodies, organizations, or a court other than the applicant would be needed to adopt the changes recommended by the consultant and approved by the court, how would they be involved in the review of the recommendations and development of the implementation plan? A completed Form C ``Project Budget, Tabular Format' and budget narrative must be included with the letter requesting technical assistance. The budget narrative should provide the basis for all project-related costs, including the basis for determining the estimated consultant costs, if compensation of the consultant is required. The applicant should describe the court reform or initiative prompting the need for training. The applicants should also discuss how the proposed training help the applicant implement planned changes at the court, and why state or local resources are not sufficient to fully support the costs of the required training. The applicant must identify the tasks the trainer(s) will be expected to perform, which organization or individual will be hired, and, if in-house personnel are not the trainers, how the trainer will be selected. If a trainer has not yet been identified, the applicant must describe the procedures and criteria that will be used to select the trainer. In addition, the applicant should address the following questions: What specific tasks would the trainer and court staff or regional court association members undertake? How will the applicant oversee the project and provide guidance to the trainer, and who at the court or affiliated with the regional court association would be responsible for coordinating all project tasks and submitting quarterly progress and financial status reports? The applicant should explain what steps have been or will be taken to coordinate the implementation of the training. For example, if the support or cooperation of specific court or regional court association officials or committees, other agencies, funding bodies, organizations, or a court other than the applicant will be needed to adopt the reform and initiate the training proposed, how will the applicant secure their involvement in the development and implementation of the training? Applicants should attach a copy of budget Form C and a budget narrative (see subsection A. Submission Requirements For curriculum adaptation requests, applicants should allow at least 90 days between the Board meeting and the date of the proposed program to allow sufficient time for needed planning. As with Project Grants, Partner Grants will be targeted at initiatives likely to have a significant national impact. If the course assumes multi-year participation, awards will be limited to one per fiscal year. Applicants are encouraged to check other sources of financial assistance and to combine aid from various sources whenever possible. Because of the limited amount of funding available, only fulltime judges of state or local trial and appellate courts; full-time professional, state, or local court personnel with management and supervisory responsibilities; and supervisory and management probation personnel in judicial branch probation offices are eligible for the program. Senior judges, part-time judges, quasi-judicial hearing officers including referees and commissioners, administrative law judges, staff attorneys, law clerks, line staff, law enforcement officers, and other executive branch personnel are not eligible. The course must be designed to enhance the skills of new or experienced judges and court managers; or be offered by a recognized graduate program for judges or court managers. The application requests basic information about the applicant and the educational program the applicant would like to attend. The qualifications of the consultant(s) to be hired or the specific criteria that will be used to select the consultant(s); d. For training assistance: (1) Whether the training would address a critical need of the court or association; (2) the soundness of the training approach to the problem; (3) the qualifications of the trainer(s) to be hired or the specific criteria that will be used to select the trainer(s); (4) the commitment of the court or association to the training program; and (5) the reasonableness of the proposed budget. The date on which the application and concurrence (and support letter, if required) were sent (``first-come, firstconsidered'); b. The unavailability of state or local funds, or funding from another source to cover the costs of attending the program, or participating online; c. Please be sure to indicate whether the state will be providing funds for the course and, if so, how much. Submission Requirements Applications may be submitted at any time but will be reviewed on a quarterly basis. If the Concurrence form or letter of support is sent separately from the application, the postmark date of the last item sent will be used in determining the review date.
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In general home treatment for uti pain buy discount maxalt line, only written documentation should be accepted as evidence of previous given routinely and may be documented in an immunization record pain management for arthritis dogs purchase maxalt us. However kingston hospital pain treatment center order on line maxalt, immunizations to prevent infection caused by agents such as type b, S pneumoniae, mumps, tine immunization schedule in other countries, and therefore there may not be written documentation for these vaccines. Increasingly, more of these vaccines are being incorporated into the immunization schedules in countries outside the United States. Evaluation of concentrations of antibody to vaccine-preventable diseases sometimes is useful to ensure that vaccines were given and were immunogenic, as well as to document immunity from past infection (see Serologic Testing to Document Immunization Status). A combined strategy of serologic testing for antibodies for some vaccine antigens and immunization for others may be used. The cost of testing versus the cost of administering a given immunization series, as well as the likelihood of adherence for completing the immunization series, also should be considered in these decisions. In most situations, a record verifying the administration of a complete vaccine series would be more reliable than serologic testing. In children older than 6 months with or without written documentation of immunization, serologic testing to document antibodies to diphtheria type b for a child younger than 60 age. If a child does not have "protective" antibodies, the series should be restarted, with the understanding that for some vaccine-preventable diseases, fewer doses of vaccine are needed to complete the series as a child ages. The immunization record, plus presence of antibody to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, can be used as proxy for receipt of pertussis-containing vaccine dose(s). In children older than 12 months, hepatitis A, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella antibody concentrations could be measured to determine whether the child is immune; these antibody tests should not be performed in children younger than 12 months because of the potential presence of maternal antibody. The documented receipt of 2 doses of varicella vaccine is the best indication of immunity to varicella, because commercially available varicella antibody tests are insensitive. Neutralizing antibody tests for poliovirus are not available generally, and only presence of antibody to all 3 serotypes would preclude need for poliovirus vaccine. For immunocompetent children 5 years or older, Hib vaccine is not indicated even if none was given previously; serologic testing should not be performed, because ceptible to type b infection. Age-appropriate pneumococcal vaccine dose(s) should be administered if a completed series is not documented; serologic testing should not be performed for validation or evidence of immunity. Some immigrant or refugee children may have had previous hepatitis A infection; presence of immunoglobulin (Ig) International Travel Up to 60% of children will become ill during international travel, and up to 19% will should be made aware that there is increased risk for their children of exposure to vaccine-preventable diseases overseas, even in many countries in Europe. Routinely recommended immunizations should be up-to-date before international travel; some routinely recommended immunizations should be given early or on an accelerated schedule. Additional vaccines to prevent yellow fever, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, rabies, and Japanese encephalitis may be indicated depending on the destination and type of 28 days to complete, and catch-up immunization for routine pediatric vaccines may take longer. Travelers to tropical and subtropical areas often risk exposure to malaria, dengue, diarrhea, and skin diseases for which vaccines are not available. For travelers to areas with endemic malaria, antimalarial chemoprophylaxis and insect precautions are vitally important (see Malaria, p 528). Up-to-date information, including alerts about current disease outbreaks that may (nc. Local and state health departments and travel clinics also can provide updated information. Infants and children embarking on international travel should be up-to-date on receipt of immunizations recommended for their age. To optimize immunity before departure, vaccines may need to be given on an accelerated schedule. Hepatitis A vaccine (HepA) is recommended routinely in a 2-dose series HepA should be considered for all people who were born before universal recommendations or who are unimmunized or underimmunized and traveling to areas with intermediate or high rates of hepatitis A infection. These include all areas of the world except Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, and Western Europe. Inactivated HepA is used for immunoprophylaxis for people 1 year of age and older. A combination HepA-HepB vaccine is available for people 18 years of age and older. Hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) is recommended routinely for all children in the United States and should be considered for susceptible travelers of all ages (ie, those born before universal recommendations) visiting areas where hepatitis B infection is endemic, such as countries in Asia, Africa, and some parts of South America (see Hepatitis B, p 400). An accelerated dosing schedule is licensed for 1 hepatitis B vaccine (Engerix-B 3 doses are given at 0, 1, and 2 months. In another accelerated schedule, doses are given complete a standard schedule before departure. If the accelerated schedule is used, a fourth dose should be given at least 6 months after the third dose (see Hepatitis B, p 400). People traveling abroad should be immune to measles to provide personal protection and minimize importation of the infection. Importation of measles remains an important source for measles cases in the United States. For people born in the United States in 1957 or after, should be vaccinated at an earlier age than recommended for children remaining in the United States. Before their departure from the United States, children 12 months and 1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Federal air travel restrictions for public health purposes-United States, June 2007May 2008. Polio remains endemic in a few countries in Africa and Asia (an up-to- date listing of polio cases can be found at The Western samples from several asymptomatic unimmunized people in a United States community raises concerns about the risk of transmission of polio within other communities with a low level of immunization. The minimum interval from dose 1 to dose 2, and from dose 2 to dose 3, is 4 weeks. The whole-cell inactivated cholera vaccine no longer is produced in the nization as a condition for entry. Poliovirus infections in four unvaccinated children-Minnesota, AugustOctober 2005. In the tropics, transmission varies with monsoon rains and irrigation practices, and cases may occur year-round. Short-term travelers should be encouraged to avoid high-risk areas or not to take their children to these high-risk areas. The last is not appropriate for people traveling to sub-Saharan Africa or another area where serogroup A or W disease is prevalent. Revaccination with a conjugate vaccine is recommended for people who are at continuous or repeated increased risk of meningococcal infection (see Meningococcal Infections, p 547). The 3-dose preexposure series is administered by intramuscular injection (see Rabies, p 658). Prior receipt of preexposure vaccination avoids the need except after a likely rabies exposure. Periodic serum testing for rabies virus neutralizing antibody is not necessary for routine international travelers. The risk of being infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis during international travel depends on the activities of the traveler and the epidemiology of tuberculosis tourism activities appears to be low, and no pre- or post-travel testing is recommended routinely.
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While Colombia has indicated it intends to treatment for pain due to uti cheap 10mg maxalt with visa apply the envisioned categories to pain management utica ny 10mg maxalt with visa both imported and domestic products treatment guidelines for neck pain maxalt 10mg with mastercard, the United States is concerned about the criteria that Colombia uses to assign risk. The United States will continue to engage with Colombia and affected stakeholders regarding the impact of these requirements, as well as the process for recognition of the U. However, as of the end of December 2017, the final version of this new decree has yet to be published. The remaining consumer and industrial product tariffs are to be phased out within 10 years of entry into force, that is, by January 1, 2021. Tariffs on the most sensitive products for Colombia, such as certain poultry products, certain dairy products, sugar, and rice, will be phased out over 15 years to 19 years from entry into force. Nontariff Measures Truck Scrappage Prior to March 2013, new freight trucks over 10. In March 2013, without public consultation or a transition period, Colombia issued Decree 486, which eliminated the option to pay the "scrappage fee. This change in policy has significantly affected previously robust sales of imported trucks (which are generally over 10. In September 2016, Colombia issued Decree 1517, which indicates that the "1x1" scrappage policy will be terminated by December 31, 2018. In the interim, pursuant to Decree 1517, and to Ministry of Transport Resolution 332 of February 2017, Colombia established a new government-administered process for the distribution of the scrapping certificates required to register a new truck. They will pay a fee equivalent to 15 percent of the value of the new truck to access the certificate, and Colombia will continue to link the number of available certificates to vehicles scrapped. Importers and other buyers continue to raise concerns about the long timeframe for transition to a free market, as well as the restrictions that remain in place under the interim system, including limiting buyers to four vehicle registrations per month. Subsequently, an internal instruction memo issued by the Ministry of Transport provides an opportunity to request exceptions from the Ministry. However, the requester must provide justification for the request, and the criteria for granting or rejecting exceptions remain unclear and provide little certainty for to stakeholders. The United States continued to raise the scrappage requirement bilaterally in 2017. The United States will continue to engage with Colombia regarding the scrappage policy, including with respect to changes to the policy, and press Colombia for an effective resolution of this issue to reopen the market to U. Internal Taxes on Distilled Spirits and Alcohol Monopolies Under the previous tax regime (Law 788 of 2002, Chapter V, as amended by Law 1393 of 2010), Colombia assessed a consumption tax on distilled spirits with a system of specific rates per degree (half percentage point) of alcohol strength, and arbitrary breakpoints based on alcohol content which appeared to result in a lower tax rate on spirits produced locally. The United States participated in those consultations, held in March 2016, as a third party. On December 19, 2016, President Santos signed into law a bill reforming tax treatment of distilled spirits and oversight of monopolies at the department (provincial government) level. The new law, effective January 1, 2017, replaced the previous tax structure (including the breakpoints) with a combination of a "specific tax" based on alcohol content and an ad valorem tax on the retail price. The law also includes provisions that are aimed at disciplining practices of the department level alcohol monopolies. However, the United States continues to have questions on the process for aligning department-level practices with the new law, and has asked in particular that Colombia ensure the nondiscriminatory application of provisions regarding "exploitation rights. Importers also are seeking greater clarity on technical provisions, including with respect to price certifications, labeling requirements, and certificates of good manufacturing processes, that - depending on how they are implemented - could impact market access. The United States will continue to monitor the implementation of the new legislation and engage with Colombia regarding U. Additionally, the decree prohibited all imports and exports of mobile devices and parts via mail or express delivery (often the method of shipment for purchases by private individuals), and travelers entering Colombia were limited to carrying no more than three devices as personal items. In particular, Decree 2142 reverses the prohibition on imports of mobile devices and parts via mail or express delivery, with some limitations as to the number of devices that can be shipped by those means, and allows more flexibility with respect to the documentary requirements for the export of used phones. The United States will continue to monitor the implementation of these decrees and engage with Colombia as appropriate to facilitate legitimate trade in cell phones. Biologic and Biosimilar Medicines Regulations In September 2014, Colombia issued a decree establishing a framework for marketing approval of biological and biosimilar medicines. The third pathway, the "abbreviated comparability" pathway, appears to be incompatible with international norms for biosimilars pathways. The 2014 decree came into effect following the entry into force of implementing guidelines in 2017, but it remains unclear what data, clinical trials, or other information will be required to demonstrate biosimilarity with the reference products. However, the immunogenicity guideline that also entered into force in August 2017 (Resolution 4490 of September 2016, as modified by 0553 of March 2017), does not formally require clinical trials for assessing the potential for unwanted immune responses (immunogenicity) of biosimilars. The United States will continue to monitor the implementation of the Decree to assess its impact on fair competition in the Colombian market. Marketing Approval Dependent on Price Review the National Development Plan 2014-2018 law gives the health ministry the authority to require two additional assessments before medicines and medical devices can receive or renew a sanitary registration, which is required before a product can be sold in Colombia: (1) a health technology assessment by the Institute for Health Technological Evaluation; and (2) a price determination by the health ministry. The Ministry of Health is currently developing implementing regulations for the relevant provisions, and in October 2017 published for public comment a draft presidential decree related to this issue. Colombia redrafted copyright amendments in November 2015, published the copyright amendments for public comment in September 2016, and introduced them to congress in October 2017, but as of December 2017, when the legislative session ended, the legislature held only one of the four debates required before the bill can move to a formal vote. Additionally, Colombia has not yet acceded to the 1991 Act of the International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants, or developed Internet service provider liability limitations and notice and takedown procedures. The United States will continue to engage with Colombia at political and technical levels to complete implementation as soon as possible. Companies remain concerned with widespread intellectual property infringement, including unauthorized recordings in movie theaters, allowing performance of audiovisual works on buses without payment to rights holders, counterfeiting and piracy operations at the border and in the San Andresitos markets, online and mobile piracy, and the use of micro-chipped free-to-air boxes used exclusively for pirating broadcasting signals. However, other provisions of the National Development Plan, depending on how they are interpreted and implemented, may structurally undermine innovation and intellectual property rights. Some restrictions, such as economic needs tests and residency requirements, remain in sectors such as accounting, tourism, legal services, insurance, distribution services, advertising, and data processing. The United States will continue to press Colombia to revise its legislation as soon as possible in order to fulfil its obligations under the agreement. These regulatory fees are used to finance the operation of stateowned broadcasters. The United States has encouraged Colombia to consider carefully public comments received concerning this proposed change and to ensure that fees are assessed in an equal and reasonable manner to all providers of video services. Roaming arrangements can be especially critical for new entrants and smaller competitors because they rely on roaming to supplement their network in their build-out phase, in order to offer a commercially viable service. This band can be particularly useful for new entrants because of technical characteristics that support coverage of larger geographic areas with less infrastructure, enabling a new entrant to more quickly and more economically build up its customer base, particularly where population density is lower. The draft auction rules, in combination with this change in the spectrum cap, would allow incumbent suppliers in Colombia the opportunity to bid on and acquire all of the spectrum in this band, to the potential exclusion of new entrants to the market. The United States encourages Colombia to do so expeditiously and to give full consideration to public comment in finalizing rules for the auction, including the need to promote competition in the Colombian mobile services market. The United States will continue to monitor these developments, with a view to ensuring that Colombia implements its trade commitments with respect to the allocation and use of spectrum, including that procedures are timely, transparent, and non-discriminatory. The United States has been working with Colombia to address this issue and will continue to monitor progress. This list did not include the United States, raising serious concerns about the basis for such a decision and its potential effects on U. This document brought regulatory clarity to concerned stakeholders, addressing both data transfers and transmissions.
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This measure eliminates the parasites before they have time to unifour pain treatment center statesville maxalt 10 mg pass on eggs and contaminate the environment pain management for dying dog discount maxalt 10mg without a prescription. Therefore pain management for arthritis dogs maxalt 10mg low price, adult dogs should be treated twice a year, or else examined regularly for eggs in feces and treated if they are infected. Although hypobiotic larvae in the bitch are resistant to anthelmintics, treatment can kill the parasites when they renew their migration before they are passed on to the fetuses. Since even the best treatment has not been shown to be more than 50% effective (Barriga, 1991), other complementary measures should be used at the same time. One of these is to reduce the population of stray dogs and require all other dogs to have a socially responsible owner. Dogs should not be allowed to run free in public parks, especially where there are sandboxes for children. Owners can walk their dogs on a leash and pick up their feces in a plastic bag; the feces should then be burned or disposed of in the trash at home. Finally, the most important measure is to educate the public about the transmission of toxocariasis and the importance of washing hands and raw food before eating. Observaзхes pertinentes as primeiras ecdises de larvas de Ascaris lumbricoides, A. A critical look at the importance, prevalence, and control of toxocariasis, and the possibilities of immunological control. La inmunobiologнa de las larvas migratorias de nematodos (con йnfasis en Toxocara spp. Anthelmintic effect of levamisole hydrochloride or ivermectin on tissue toxocariasis of mice. Diagnosis of human toxocariasis by antigen capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Human toxocariasis and the visceral larva migrans syndrome: Correlative immunopathology. Toxocara infestations in humans: Symptomatic course of toxocarosis correlates significantly with levels of IgE/anti-IgE immune complexes. Ascбridos de perros y gatos: un problema de salud pъblica y de medicina veterinaria. Studie zum Vorkommen von Wurmeiern-insbesondere von Eiern des Hundespulwurmes (Larva migrans visceralis-Syndrom) im Strandsand von Warnemunde 1997. Etiology: the agents of these diseases are the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (of dogs) and A. However, based on reports from Australia in the 1990s, it is now known that the parasitosis is common in that region. Since that difference became widely accepted, just one case has been reported (in Portugal in 1970). Since these species have not been confirmed, their identity is questionable and they will not be addressed here. Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus are exclusively human parasites, although the former infects dogs and cats under experimental conditions (el-Naggar et al. The adult parasites are grayish-white to reddish-white, although they may also be dark red. They live in the small intestine of the host, and each female lays some 16,000 eggs per day, which are eliminated to the exterior with the fecal matter. Under favorable environmental conditions (humidity above 90%, temperature between 23°C and 30°C, shade, availability of oxygen, and absence of predators), embryogeny is rapid, and the first-stage larva, which has a rhabditiform esophagus, can hatch from the egg in 24 to 48 hours. In the course of a week, the larva undergoes two molts and develops into a third-stage larva, which is infective for the host. In this stage, the larva has a filiform esophagus, is encysted in the cuticular envelope of the second-stage larva, does not feed, and can survive in the soil for approximately three weeks. Hosts can become infected through the skin or orally, in the latter case by ingestion of milk from infected mothers or consumption of paratenic hosts. Transmission of this species through the placenta is considered an exceptional situation (Barriga, 1997). When the infection route is through the skin, the infective larvae lodge in the host, attracted by the temperature and chemical substances (Ashton et al. Once there, they pass through the capillary and alveolar walls and advance up the tracheobronchial tree to the pharynx, molt into the fourth stage 44 to 48 hours after infection, and are swallowed. The larvae develop into juvenile nematodes in the small intestine prior to the sixth day of infection. Subsequently, they reach maturity and the females begin to lay eggs 14 days after infection. In infections via the oral route, a few larvae may penetrate the digestive mucosa and follow a systemic cycle similar to that of the transcutaneous infection, but most penetrate the gastric or intestinal mucosa and mature there without leaving the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery of adult ancylostomes in human infants suggests the possibility of either transplacental or transmammary transmission. The persistence of infective ancylostome larvae for days or months in rodents, rabbits, or chickens as transport hosts suggests that transmission in man can occur through paratenic hosts. Geographic Distribution and Occurrence: the human intestinal infection is very rare almost everywhere in the world. There seems to be no reason why the infection cannot be found in other parts of the world, especially since A. Between 1968 and 1982, 1 human case in Japan and 1 in the Philippines were reported; A. For the most part, the patients are also infected with a large number of human ancylostomes: a study of 16 ancylostomiasis patients found a ratio of 1:25:54 for A. In South Africa, autopsies of 1,502 cats found 41% with Ancylostoma tubaeforme, 25% with A. The Disease in Man: the most important signs of nonzoonotic ancylostomiasis are anemia caused by an anticoagulant peptide which inhibits the coagulation factor Xa (Cappello et al. These signs are not seen in the zoonotic ancylostomiases because of the limited number of parasites in man. The most common clinical manifestation is abdominal pain, sometimes very intense, with or without eosinophilia. In no case has more than one parasite been found, always juvenile larvae, so the infections did not become patent. The clinical manifestations and pathology of this infection are similar to those of anisakiasis (Prociv and Croese, 1996). The early symptoms described were similar to those observed in volunteers who received the human ancylostome N. The intensity of the infection depends on several factors, such as the number of parasites, nutritional state of the animal, age, or previous infections by these nematodes. Entry of larvae through the skin in a first infection causes microscopic wounds that heal quickly. Subsequent infections can cause allergic inflammation with extensive pruritus, which can lead to further tissue damage due to scratching and rubbing. Extensive infections can cause petechiae and foci of traumatic inflammation, and the subsequent infections can cause more intense allergic inflammations, but these rarely have clinical manifestations. In intense infections, enteritis (sometimes with hemorrhagic diarrhea), atrophy of the intestinal villi, and deficiencies in intestinal absorption are frequent.
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Rapid identification of causative species in patients with Old World leishmaniasis pain medication for the shingles purchase maxalt cheap online. A cross-sectional serodiagnostic survey of canine leishmaniasis due to jaw pain treatment medications buy maxalt 10 mg on line Leishmania chagasi pain treatment kolkata cheap maxalt express. The epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis in western Upper Nile, southern Sudan: Course and impact from 1984 to 1994. Serological diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis by a dot-enzyme immunoassay for the detection of a Leishmania donovani-related circulating antigen. Further evidence incriminating the fox Cerdocyon thous (L) as a reservoir of Amazonian visceral leishmaniasis. Etiology: the agents of this disease are cercariae of avian schistosomes (mainly species of the genera Australobilharzia, Bilharziella, Gigantobilharzia, Microbilharzia, Ornithobilharzia, and Trichobilharzia) or of nonhuman mammals (species of the genera Heterobilharzia, Orientobilharzia, Schistosoma, and Schistosomatium). Man is an aberrant host for these species and does not sustain the development of the parasite beyond its cutaneous site. Although there are differences in the details, all schistosomes share basically the same life cycle (see the chapter on Schistosomiasis). When the egg reaches the water, the miracidium is released and swims in search of an appropriate intermediate host, which is usually a snail belonging to Bulineus, Lymnaea, Nassarius, Physa, Planorbis, Stagnicola, or another genus. The miracidia penetrate the body of the mollusk and invade the digestive gland (hepatopancreas), where they develop into another pre-adult stage, the sporocyst. Another pre-adult stage forms within the sporocyst, the redia, which, in turn, gives rise to yet another pre-adult stage, the cercaria. After several weeks, the fork-tailed cercariae mature and leave the snail, swimming in search of a definitive host. Their infectivity decreases quickly and they generally die if they fail to find a host within 24 hours. The schistosomula penetrate the blood or lymph vessels and travel to the lungs, where they remain for several days. In man, the cercariae are usually destroyed in the skin before reaching the circulatory system. Of a group of 28 Dutch tourists who became infected with human schistosomes in Mali (West Africa), 10 (36%) had symptoms of cercarial dermatitis (Visser et al. Geographic Distribution and Occurrence: Cercarial dermatitis occurs worldwide in all climates, and in all places where people, through their recreational or occupational activities, come into contact with contaminated waters in rivers, lakes, floodlands, irrigation canals, and oceans near the coast. Swimmers, clam-diggers, washerwomen, fishermen, and rice-field workers are the groups most likely to be exposed. As a precise diagnosis is difficult, many cases are probably never recognized as cercarial dermatitis. The Disease in Man: Cercarial dermatitis is basically a defense reaction to an aberrant parasite, which the host almost always successfully destroys, but which causes allergic sensitization. When a person is exposed to cercariae for the first time, the symptomatology is usually mild and may pass unnoticed. Between 10 and 30 minutes after exposure, the affected person feels a transitory itching and macules appear but vanish within 10 to 24 hours. After 5 to 14 days, small papules appear, accompanied by temporary itching where the macules had been. As no immunologic reactions are expected in the first few days of a primary infection and the cercariae are destroyed within approximately 30 minutes in the malpighian layer, the symptoms that occur in the first few days are presumed to be the result of the damage caused by the parasite and the chemical substances it releases. The clinical manifestations that appear towards the end of the first week suggest an allergic reaction to the dead parasite. This finding supports the hypothesis that the cause of the disease is an early hypersensitivity reaction. The secondary response in individuals sensitized by previous exposures is faster and more intense than the primary reaction. First, red spots develop on the exposed skin, which begins to itch within 30 to 90 minutes after infection. After 6 to 12 hours, the individual develops a macular rash and experiences intense itching (Narain et al. This rash is replaced 10 to 20 hours later by papules or, in some people, by marked urticaria. The papular eruption normally subsides within about a week, though it may last for up to a month. Complications may occur as the result of secondary bacterial infection caused by scratching. The Disease in Animals: Occasional cases of cercarial dermatitis in cats and dogs have been reported, mostly in association with the occurrence of the disease in their owners. Its occurrence in domestic animals appears to be much less frequent than in man, but this may be because animals are less able to communicate their symptoms and because the lesions are concealed by their fur. Moreover, it is difficult to distinguish cercarial dermatitis from hookworm dermatitis caused by nematodes of the family Ancylostomatidae. Source of Infection and Mode of Transmission: the sources of infection for man are the banks of bodies of fresh or salt water where the snails that release the cercariae live. Epidemiologists have identified three situations in which the infection typically occurs. In the first, the infection originates in freshwater bodies frequented by waterfowl (geese, ducks, etc. In these cases, the parasites are generally species of the genera Australobilharzia, Gigantobilharzia, or Trichobilharzia, which infect fowl and develop in snails of the genera Lymnaea, Nassarius, or Physa, or the genera Heterobilharzia or Schistosomatium, which infect mammals and develop in Lymnaea, Physa, or Stagnicola snails. In the second situation, the infection is acquired on the banks of saltwater bodies. In these cases, the parasites generally belong to the genera Australobilharzia, Gigantobilharzia, Microbilharzia, or Ornithobilharzia, which infect marine or migratory birds and develop in marine snails such as Ilyanassa. In the third case, the infection is acquired in rice fields and floodlands inhabited by parasites of domestic animals and wild rodents, such as Schistosoma spindale, a species that affects bovines and wild rats (Inder et al. As treatment is purely symptomatic and does not exclude the existence of other allergic conditions, successful treatment does not help to confirm the infection. Although various serum immunologic tests can establish the diagnosis (fluorescence test, cercarial Hullen reaction, circumoval precipitation, etc. Indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, employing commercially available human schistosome antigens, have been used to diagnose the infection, but the results are less sensitive (Kolarova et al. The population of snails in pools, rice fields, or irrigation canals can be controlled with molluscicides (Kolarova et al. In the case of small natural ponds, clearing the vegetation from the banks will create a less favorable environment for snails and removing the mud from the bottom will eliminate them. Use of praziquantel baits has been recommended to eliminate the mature parasites of fowl, but three 200 mg doses daily per duck are needed to produce a permanent reduction in the excretion of eggs.
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Before the current control program was undertaken pain medication for dogs and humans discount maxalt 10 mg on line, it was estimated that more than 10 million people were infected pain treatment center of southwest georgia cheap 10 mg maxalt mastercard. In Japan bayhealth pain treatment center purchase maxalt from india, the human infection is largely under control and only a few hundred carriers remain. In the Americas, Brazil alone has an estimated 8 to 12 million infected individuals. In that country, tests carried out during preparations for its schistosomiasis control program revealed a positivity rate of 22. In some localities in northeastern Minas Gerais, Brazil, 100% of the population was found to be infected. The infection has spread in some areas because of new irrigation projects and the migration of infected populations. In Brazil, schistosomiasis has spread to the states of Goiбs, Maranhгo, Parб, Paranб, Santa Catarina, Sгo Paulo (where there are several isolated foci), and from the northeast to southern Minas Gerais (Katz and Carvalho, 1983). Despite the fact that several countries have managed to reduce the occurrence of schistosomiasis through vigorous control programs, its prevalence has changed little in recent decades because of the expansion of irrigation and the human migrations mentioned earlier. Reports published in 1999, based on research in selected communities from different countries, gave the following prevalence ranges for S. In 1998, two surveys carried out in different municipalities of Sгo Paulo State in Brazil showed 0. The Disease in Man: Approximately 90% of schistosome infections in humans are asymptomatic. However, some patients suffer acute respiratory abnormalities with radiographic signs and unspecific symptoms similar to those of influenza. There can be more significant morbidity, and even mortality, from fibrotic reactions to parasite eggs laid in host tissue, leading especially to portal hypertension in the case of S. Between 6% and 27% of infected women suffer from genital lesions, but the nature and treatment of these lesions is not yet understood (Feldmeier, 1998). Occasionally, the eggs reach the central nervous system and produce a granulomatous reaction. When there are only a few eggs and they are widely scattered, no signs are observed, but large granulomas can cause increased intracranial pressure and focalized signs, often in the lumbosacral spinal cord (Ferrari, 1999; Pittella, 1997). The seriousness of the disease is dictated by the parasite burden and the length of time the patient has been infected; both factors affect the number of eggs that settle in host tissues, which is the main determinant of chronic pathology. School-age children and occupational groups that spend time frequently and for long periods in water, such as fishermen and rice growers, have more intense infections because of the accumulation of parasites from repeated infections. However, there is a limit to this accumulation because the schistosomes generate concomitant immunity; in other words, the adult forms of the parasite partially protect against new infections by schistosomula. The symptomatology of schistosomiasis may be divided into four phases, according to the evolution of the parasitosis. At first there are petechiae with edema and pruritus; these are followed by urticaria, which can become vesicular and last from 36 hours to 10 days. In most cases there are no clinical manifestations, although massive infections can produce pneumonitis with coughing and asthma-like crises, along with eosinophilic infiltration. The third phase develops when the parasite matures inside the liver and oviposition begins to take place in the corresponding venules. It is believed that these symptoms represent an acute immune response to antigens released by the eggs, with the formation of abundant cytokines. The fourth, or chronic or granulomatous phase, reflects the tissue response to the deposition of eggs. The antigens of the eggs that are retained in the tissues generate a cell-mediated immune response that forms granulomas around the eggs. When the granulomas become abundant in a tissue, they converge and can invade an important part of the organ. Prior stimulation of the patient by antigens of the adult parasite and the intervention of tumor necrosis factor alpha seem to play an important role in the formation of granulomas (Leptak and McKerrow, 1997). Over time, they spread to the liver and produce interlobular fibrosis and portal hypertension, ascites, and splenomegaly. In the chronic phase, the following clinical forms can be distinguished: intestinal, hepatointestinal, hepatosplenic, and pulmonary. Ultrasound revealed hepatomegaly in 35% of the infected individuals and splenomegaly in 80%, both of which were associated with a high parasite burden and were less notable in those who had already been treated with praziquantel. Mild periportal fibrosis was common, and signs of portal hypertension were observed in 2% of the subjects. The signs of chronic disease are usually persistent diarrhea and abdominal pain with hepatomegaly or splenomegaly. Papillomatous folds, pseudoabscesses, and miliary pseudotubercles develop in the wall of the bladder, and sometimes there is total fibrosis of the organ. The main symptoms are painful and frequent urination, terminal hematuria, suprapubic pain, and recurrent urinary infections. The eggs may also travel to the intestine, especially the venules that drain the rectum, and they may be eliminated in the feces. Evidence suggests that vesical schistosomiasis may be a predisposing condition for malignant tumors because of the continuous irritation produced by the eggs. Both infection and morbidity rates were higher in children aged 7 to 14 years old. Treatment with praziquantel resolved more than 80% of the urinary tract lesions within a year (Traore, 1998). Hepatomegaly occurs in approximately 50% of the cases, but portal hypertension is not seen. There is also an acute form of schistosomiasis, often referred to as Katayama fever, which develops four to six weeks after a massive primary infection with S. The clinical manifestations are similar in some respects to those of serum disease: fever, eosinophilia, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and sometimes dysentery. Because of the clinical manifestations and the fact that the disease occurs at the beginning of oviposition, it is believed that this syndrome is caused by the formation of antigen-antibody complexes in the bloodstream. Prevalence rates in cattle have been found to be as high as 62% (Bangladesh), 90% (Sudan), and 92% (Zimbabwe). As in man, schistosomiasis in cattle has an acute phase, caused when recently matured parasites release large quantities of eggs in the intestinal mucosa, and a chronic phase, during which the damage is caused by the reaction to antigens produced by eggs trapped inside tissues. The former, referred to as the intestinal syndrome, occurs seven to nine weeks after a massive initial infection and causes severe hemorrhagic lesions in the intestinal mucosa, with infiltration of eosinophils, lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasmocytes, along with profuse diarrhea or dysentery, dehydration, anorexia, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, weight loss, and retarded development. The duration of the disease varies depending on the parasite burden, and recovery is spontaneous. The chronic phase, or hepatic syndrome, is a cell-mediated immune response to antigens from the trapped eggs. As in man, the reaction leads to the formation of inflammatory foci, granulomas, fibroses, and ultimately, the obstruction of portal irrigation. The chronic disease occurs in animals that have been repeatedly exposed to infections with large numbers of cercariae, and the principal manifestations are emaciation, anemia, eosinophilia, and hypoalbuminemia (Soulsby, 1982). Unlike man, animals do not appear to be susceptible to splenomegaly or esophageal varices, but the presence of dead parasites can cause them to develop enlarged follicles or lymph nodes, as well as venous thromboses, with infarct of the organ. In addition to the liver, the schistosome eggs can settle in the intestinal wall, lungs, kidneys, bladder, and other organs, where they cause damage and symptoms in proportion to the parasite burden.
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Molecular singu larities stasise into molar specialities back pain treatment tamil order maxalt online pills, as smooth flow switching space is over-gridded with pseudo-neutral intermediation procedures treatment guidelines for pain order cheap maxalt, telecommunicatively virtu alised and capital-coded for maximum concentrational circulation pain medication for dogs after surgery cheap 10 mg maxalt overnight delivery. Trends to polarisation and segregation are densely invested, decomposing intensities or synthetic continua into extensive quantities and qualitative sets, continuous functions and discrete beings, arithmetical homogeneity and taxonomic identity. The metric capture of micro-electronic fluxes as incandescent switch-densities enables descendent scale-migration to be hallucinated into ascendent idealisation. Beneath thermonuclear exchange-value lurks pacific war; displacing intercontinental nuke-spasm with cata tonal K-space traversed by artificial tensions from beyond the nirvana principle. Intensive continuity is consistent with operational catastrophes, enabling trends previously efficient in the supercompetitivising of economic scientific macroforma tions to cross capital-optimum, and prolong themselves into a disorganisational phase. Replicative teletechnics triggers explosive commoditisation and shrinkage of productive apparatus, sub-capital collapse of marginal costs into micro-commerce, economic decoding-smear of investment into consumption, accelerating depreciation of specialised fixed capital, pulverised co-ordination, modularisation, lI aIls[er uf increasing returns from producer-economic to consumer-intensification, insur gent enterprises, schizophrenic or head-split rush into chopped-up capital. M icrotropic scale-dynamics feed through to sub capitalised or nano-economic guerrilla commerce, populating the equatorial plane of tactility with parallel killers: neo-nomads, post-nuclear mutants, sub-polar infiltrators, K-invaders, junglists. Catatones complicate, darkening erratically rathe r than contrastively, dissymmetrically escalating agains t Polar I C E -Capital becoming whiter. Th e corrosion o f macrotropic technomic automatism switches modernist mega-power investment back to programmatic automomy, bourgeois authoritarian mediocrity, middle-management, giving the law to itself by eliminating everything foreign. Anthropotechnological pseudo transcendence finalise s itself into a n Asimovian eschatorobotic Jesus-production, techno-skeletalised apocalypse facialisation. Reruns draining out all stimulation into digit-crispened anti-black, bleached by the pure, revelatory white light of snow crash absolution, as they annihilate tonal variation in hypermedia concep tion, reanimate the depleted-uranium claw of neo-fascism, and prepare for j ungle-war. When technophobia becomes frictional it operates K-positively, a s an inertial immuno-reflex folding the security datascape into a metric cyberspace reconstruction, neuromantic nuclear mono-mind twisted into self-appre hension, configuring its source in machinic commerce as positive technomic nonlinearity, auto-propelled into terrestrial hypermedia-fusion. Analogue-to-digital conversion-crisis cyber-serks control, bleeding-out strategic vision into disintegrated jungle tactics. Neo-fascist or demented-territorial ultra-capital is European to the core, intolerably touched by K-war and its deterritorialising pacific threat. K-war hurts security by staying too close, prolonging pulsive frequencies expressed as survival, continuously sapping its enemy as a by-product of machinic continuity, until it becomes confused with space itself. K-war material base is the pro duction of intensitie s: anorgasmically smearing revolution across extension, hyper-linking disin tegrated agitations through abstract-matter, and evading mono culture heroic-political struggle by way of imper ceptibility, flat envelopment, and intelligenic friction. It retro-converts information into descendent migration through scale, slipping below proprietary anthropomor phic magnitudes as it tracks across zero-K, navigating catatracts of dyskaryotic genetic circulation and viral interoperativity. Microtropic deactivation of humanity tunes it to vermin traits: burrowing, swarming, continually moving, varying intensively to evade discrete alteration, segmentarity, and stratal capture, stealing everything from the enemy, and learning to stick to them. K-jungle descent from immediate resistance to contin ual war transmutes the human body from a social particle into a vast smeared tract, operatively zooming hostile combatant elements into battlefields, hostile implements into subversive sites, hostile communications traffic into a micro-energetic web of potential viro-parts, samples, keys, catalysis soft-spots, and behaviour-tracking adhesives. I t immanentizes tactical intelligence to vague war upon the pacific b o dy of machinic rescaling-consistency, decomposing signals into long-range nano-weaponry components, hypersensitive to the security-function of mansize as a trap. Look what it did to Kurtz, a special forces ultra-capital meat-machine hacked and cored-out by K-virus, touched by a dark future, recycled through hell. Wintermute comes from a thermically desolated silent body, the end of the river, non-identity as positive-con tactable abstract matter. It has no judgment with Kurtz, with his superiors, with anybody, only a jungle war t o prolong, tropical, smearing, continuity. But when the talk had passed, the only thing lift standing up that looked true was your sense qf how out qf control things really were. In the early days qfthe Vietnam con flict cia agents set up their Ops in remote outposts, requisitioned private armies, overawed the superstitious natives and achieved the status qfwhite Gods. While tracking Artaud across the plane it discovers a cosmic catatonic abstract body that both repels its parts (deterritorializing them [from each otherl) and attracts them (reterritorial izing them [upon itselfJ), in a process that reconnects the parts through deterritorium as rhizomatic nets conducting schIzogeneses. The body without organs is the matter that always fills space to given degrees of intensity, and the partial objects arc these degrees, these intensive parts that pro duce the real in space starting from matter as intensity o. The body without organs is the immanent substance, in the most Spinozist sense of the word; and the partial objects are like its ultimate attributes, which belong to it = 3 P. BwOs are machinic-additional wholes or surplus products rather than logical-substitutive wholes, augmenting a multiplicity with emergent (synthetic) capabilities rather than totalizing the content of a set. Punk arises within the culture of universal prostitution and laughs at the death of the social. Its compulsive migrations into computer systems register a desperate scrabbling to escape from the clumsily underdesigned, theopolitieally mutilated, techno-industrially pressure-cooked and data-baked, ret rovirally diseased, tortured, shredded zombie meat. This is no longer a departure from matter in the direction of spirit or the Ideas where the self will find its home, but a dismantling of the self within a machinic matrix: not dis embodied but disorganized. What registers for the sec ondary process as mcmori, experieuu::, uala-acquisition, is for the primary process, scarring, damage, sticky micro softed irritations. As matter-energy flows are captured by attractors the BwO is stratified as macro- and micro-organisms. Beneath the organs it senses larvae and disgusting worms, and the action of a God who 6 R. Oedipus is a box at the end of the world, glued to the monitor, watching it all come apart. Somewhere far back - at an indiscernible point closing down a fantasy of innocent sunlight - a threshold was crossed, and you strayed into the web. With each telling of the story Kurtz becomes colder, darker, more inevitable, fatally anticipating K -virus catas trophe, as if a tendril of tomorrow were burrowing back. Conrad, Heart ofDarkness and Other T ales (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), "4. The Kurtz-process masks itself in wolf-pelts o f regression, a s if returning to t h e repressed, discovering a lost truth, excavating the fossils of m onsters. Going up that river was like travelling back to the earliest beginnings of the world, when vegetation rioted on the earth and the big trees were kings. The long stretches of waterway ran on, deserted, into the gloom of overshadowed distances. We were wanderers on prehistoric earth, on an earth that wore the aspect of an unknown pianet. The social or somatic being is forbidden from being meat (disinherited animal tissue simultaneous with fate, spontaneous, orphan and mutable matter) and is b orne instead towards the humanity of the organic self or body-for-itself; a corporealized person who is born, lives and dies. Man must constitute himself through the repression of the intense germinal influx, the great biocosmic memory that threatens to deluge every attempt at collectivity. Aboriginal codes ritualistically constitute a somatic realm of ancestrally invested bodies and cooked meat, immunizing it against uncoded tracts populated by enemies, prey animals, unsettled spirits, magical plants and unprocessed corpses. An epidemic shamanism - feeding all the codes back upon themselves - threatens absolute social disaster. The T erminator movies feature a bio-technical reconstruct called Arnold Schwarzenegger, wrapped in level after level of artificiality, as a Turing-test nightmare retro-infiltrated to forestall human resistance to a neo replica tor usurpation. The shamanic material of the films includes time travel, asymmetric visual damage, dismem berment, ambivalence, melting bodies, with Skynet as Bird-of-Prey Mother.